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Social determinants of healthcare


Table of Contents

1.0 Introduction. 2

2.0 Social determinants of health. 2

3.0 Evidence for social determinants in healthcare. 3

4.0 Healthcare for aboriginal people. 5

Conclusion. 7

References. 7

11 

1.0 Introduction

Healthcare aspects forms a vital part of human being’s life and factors which are responsible for social determinants of health needs to be studied carefully so that social health can be taken care properly. Social determinants for healthcare would be having wide range of elements and depending upon the social environment in a particular country social determinant of healthcare would vary a great deal. Generally it has been observed that poor people in a country would befacing bigger challenges in terms of health problems as compared to the rich people having access to the various medical resources (Gail, 2012).

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With the challenges faced by poor people towards healthcare the major impact would be on their overall life expectancy which would be much lower as compared to the rich people residing into similar social environment. The aim of present essay is to explore major social determinants of healthcare which affect the health for people residing in that social environment. Further evidence regarding social determinant of health for the population would be collected so as to understand the determinants and impact of each determinant on healthcare for population. Further present essay would look into the health determinants factors for aboriginal people so that their health issues can be understood in detail.

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2.0 Social determinants of health

Traditional definition of health confirms absence of illness in a person which is no longer valid in present context where in being healthy means a person which is having appropriate level of mental, physical and social health aspects. Social determinants of health provides criteria which is taken into consideration while deciding regarding overall health status of a person and as per Canadian health institute social determinants of healthcare include 12 vital factors which are given Gender, income level, education, social environment, physical environment, child development, biological endowment, culture, health service provided, employment, working conditions and social support given to a person (Ben, 2006). All these factors with their integrated effect would determine the overall health status of a person in social context.

Role of education for health determinants factor would be to provide awareness regarding healthcare and giving access for the resources which are helpful in maintaining healthy lifestyle. Employment is an important factor which provides not only the monetary benefit for a person but also gives identity allowing a person to access economic and social resources for healthcare (Thomson and Brooks, 2007). A critical determinant of health for a person is the working condition in office and living condition in social life. Once these two factors are not properly maintained social health of a person can’t be in good position. Social support fulfils the love and self-esteem needs for a person and ensure that a person get proper care towards maintain their health aspects. Health practice adopted by a person gives broad guidelines which have been followed in order to ensure proper healthcare and by adopting appropriate health guideline a person can maintain best possible care of his/her health. Based on the gender health care needs of a person would differ from other and culture would provide the lifestyle a person lives which has impact on health related aspects (Wilkinson, 2011). Healthcare services obtained by a person would be important to ensure health related challenges and depending on economic and social criteria health services obtained would differ a lot. For example access to health would be much better for the people living in developed countries such as US as compared to the health services obtained by poor people living in developing countries. Advancement in healthcare resource helps people living in developed countries to adapt health practice which enhances their life expectancy rate as much as 30% higher as compared to the people living in developing countries without adequate access to healthcare resources.

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3.0 Evidence for social determinants in healthcare

Operational hazards are creating problems in the healthcare domain through creation of equality for healthcare services in population. With adoption of evidence based approach for the social determinant in healthcare it would be easy for the government and other stakeholders in healthcare to avoid health inequalities. Based on the evidence collected in healthcare, significant reforms can be done which would resolve inequality issue (Muramatsu et al, 2010). Inequality level is quite higher for the population especially into developed countries context as rich people living in developed countries has access and power to advanced healthcare resources due to which their health status and life expectancy would be much higher in comparison to other poor people living in developed countries which does not have access to healthcare resources.

The major reason behind such higher inequalities in healthcare domain for developed countries can be attributed to the adopted healthcare policies which are used in social context. These healthcare policies does not provide any levy for the health service offered to poor people in developed countries which would create a gap in the economic terms for the access to healthcare resources (Lauren, 2012). Further there are no systematic studies made in the healthcare domain which can highlight evidences showing impact of healthcare policies of social health of population in developed countries. Research studies relevant to evidence gathering process for social health determinants include two important aspects which are connectivity and suitability. Research carried through secondary literature should be such that it fulfils the purpose for which research is being done and connectivity of the research with research questions.

Research in the area of evidence gathering for social determinants of health lacks in terms of measurement for the health inequality, proper data for showing evidence and addressing suitable policy requirement which can resolve the issue of inequality in healthcare domain. Hence literature present in evidence gathering demands for much deeper research regarding data collection for showing evidences in healthcare domain. A major issue faced in this context is limitation faced in the policy development through evidence gathering approach as policy can’t be framed merely through research based on the evidence gathering approach (Davis & Cathy, 2007). There can be possibility that factors which are important to the policy development have not been researched well in evidence gathering approach and there is no adequate evidence present.

Similarly factors which are not important for policy development might create enough data which is even not useful for the policy development. So while doing research and framing policy based on the evidence gathering approach it should be clearly differentiated between different conditions such as lack of evidence, unavailability of evidence and present of poor evidence which are not suitable for the policy development. Looking into the past experience for the policy development through evidence gathering approach it can be recommended that policy development process should not be based entirely on the evidences gathering approach as this could result into formation of misguiding policies in the healthcare domain which would further enhance inequality in healthcare (Lauren, 2012).

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4.0 Healthcare for aboriginal people

Social determinants for healthcare among aboriginal people differ from other population and there are five vital factors which provide decisive while assessing social determinants for healthcare among aboriginal people. These five determinants of healthcare among the aboriginal people include education, employment, housing, empowerment and health services (Behan, 2007). These five factors for determining social healthcare among aboriginal people are subset of the broad twelve factorsexplored for the social healthcare context. The five factors mentioned above fits into the context of aboriginal people residing in Australia.

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Grading for housing requirement would be determining factors among the aboriginal people towards healthcare as housing facility would be important in healthcare practice adopted by aboriginal people in Australia (Sophie, 2012). Other factors playing vital role towards healthcare among aboriginal people are child negligence, family violence and abuse which are related to the five factors mentioned above concerning with social healthcare factors for the aboriginal people in Australia. Action taken for the development of healthcare policies among aboriginal people would demand for higher accuracy while collecting evidences in healthcare domain. With accurate data maintained for the healthcare sectors it would be suitable for policy makers to frame appropriate policies so that inequalities in healthcare domain can be avoided.

Social determinants for healthcare among aboriginal people in Australia suggest that there is wide difference between healthcare status for aboriginal people and other people living in Australia. The health status for aboriginal people is much lower as compared to other people and aboriginal people are facing higher number of healthcare challenges due to which there life expectancy is 17% lesser as compared to the life expectancy level for common people in Australia (Reece, 2013). Major cause of lower life expectancy for aboriginal people in Australia is lower awareness and lack of access to suitable healthcare services among the aboriginal people. Some of the primary healthcare needs which are not being fulfilled for the aboriginal people in Australia include arrangement for pure drinking water, facility of clean sewerage system and healthy housing facility. These primary levels of services have powerto significantly affect the healthcare issues among aboriginal people in Australia. Looking at the health statistics for aboriginal people in Australia it can be ascertained that death rate due to poor health services is double among aboriginal people for age above 65 years as compared with the non-indigenous people living in Australia.

With the help of policy development and effective healthcare practice adopted by government for the aboriginal people in Australia there is improvement in the healthcare status as death rate due to cardiovascular disease has reduced by 30% among the aboriginal people (Louise & Mary, 2011). While there is overall improvement of more than 70% in reducing death rate due to critical diseases among the aboriginal population living in Australia. One of the critical factors which determine healthcare status among aboriginal people in Australia is their annual income. Annual income range for aboriginal people in Australia ranges from $300 to $400 which is more than 60% lower as compared to the annual income data compared for the other citizen in country.

In order to effectively implement the measures for policy adoption and enhance health status for aboriginal people in Australia it is important that government should take these policies as legal bindings and implementation should be done in totality. Further periodic performance of policies in healthcare should be assessed and effective ratings for each policy should be given and ineffective policies needs to be amended on frequent basis so as to implement changes in Australian healthcare system (Davis & Cathy, 2007). The basis for healthcare policy development should not only emphasis on evidence gathering approach but a replication model should be followed considering successful healthcare system implemented in other countries of the world. While developing health policies in Australia it should be taken care that discrimination for healthcare system and inequality among the population should be avoided by adopting significant measures so that every citizen in country can take best possible advantage through policy development and health status can be improved significantly. There should be considerable initiatives started from government which would strengthen policy development process and improve status of inequality among the population for healthcare segment (Lauren, 2012).

Conclusion

Present paper has helped in order to explore critical determinants of social health among people where in twelve factors determining social health has been revealed. Further it has been explored that evidence gathering approach to policy development for healthcare can prove very beneficial as there is good scope of improvement in the healthcare services but due to lack of evidences and poor evidences policy development process is not healthy in healthcare domain. Aboriginal people in Australia are facing discrimination in terms of healthcare services provided to them due to which their health status is poor as compared to other population in Australia.

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