HRM Essay

HRM Essay


Executive Summary

The aim of this assignment is to provide a critical analysis to the approach of issues which are contemporary in the human resource management. This essay revolves around collection and reviewing the data widely available. This research is gathered from knowledge which is multi-stranded focusing on critical issues present in HRM. From the same perspective, this essay involves the identification as well as analysis of human resource issues that are experienced by the managers. The research is followed by recommendations and suggestions which are practical in the same regard.

Table of contents

Introduction. 1

HRM Issues. 3

Workforce downsizing and retrenchment 3

Managing Diversity. 5

Equal opportunity. 6

Work life balance. 7

Conclusion and Recommendations. 7



The crisis which is evident from global and economic recession has replicated into implications for business organizations, employees as well as human resource management. The economic recession which is severe has brought a number of challenges for HR managers. In addition, the corporate world has shifted from being excess towards essential and from routine towards comfort to that of the realms of survival. The focus is to design priorities which are new along with relationships as well as strategies (Homburg 2002). Although Australia has been the country which has withstood the turbulence in the financial world in a way which is better than most countries that are developed but still there are a number of issues which are critical emerging for the HR managers and require attention which is critical. The issues needs to be discussed here are as follows:
  • Workforce downsizing and Retrenchment

  • Management of diversity

  • Equal Employment Opportunity

  • Work life balance and Imbalance

From this perspective, literature as well as data of research is required for conducting the research in depth with a focus over important issues of human resource management and the other concerned issues.

HRM Issues

There are various processes involved in human resources management. Altogether, the mentioned goals as well as processes need to be performed by departments of HR. The human resources management faces several challenges when conduction of major activities of HR takes place. In most countries Australia, it is evident that the status is better than other organizations in other countries but still there are various challenges faced by the Human resource management, the assessment as well as rectification of which are necessary. The challenges range from hiring, challenge regarding high turnover expectation, employees not giving their best, discrimination actions of employees, employees thinking that salaries are not appropriate, challenges in fresher recruitment, motivating the non financial sub ordinates as well as quality management challenges (Ballantyne 2007).

There are strategies and ways however to deal with these challenges but it requires efforts required by the management in order to make the aspects improvised for the organization and make the considerations better. Following are some of the important challenges faces by the HRM along with ways to deal with them for an improvised framework of the organizations.

Workforce downsizing and retrenchment

In the last decade a dramatic shift has been evident in the assumptions lying under the performance of organizations and their effectiveness. Because of this shift, there are various changes in the assumptions that have been brought into consideration. These changes do not exist in propositions but are components which are completely supplementary, as follows:
  • Small along with big can be taken to mean as something better. So, the organizations have resulted in understanding that size can come across to be a liability (Heskett and Sasser 1997)

  • Downsizing, growth along with decline is phases which are natural and also desirable especially when the development of organization is concerned. There is a need to reduce the inefficiency along with waste that develops in the organizations with time just like a workout is necessary for the body to lose fat.

  • The association of tight coupling, non redundancy, slack resources and loose coupling is with adaptation and flexibility. The speed of the service delivery process can be increased with efficiency, parsimonious production and also delivery process of service in order to improve the quality and also to lower the costs.

  • Organizational effectiveness can be indicated by conflict, inconsistency, congruence and consistency. The most inherent organizations are those which become effective by managing the inherent paradoxes in the best possible way (Hart 2006)

In order to downsize the organizational environment and also to bring in mandatory processes, the need for the human resource management is to trigger investigation in order to understand the best possible way for downsizing an organization because the organization’s success depends upon how laudable the downsize aspect has been. The frenzy of activity of downsizing has come from the fact that most of the organizations have a tendency to take more employees than required especially the managers. This reflects the statement that bigger is better.


Unit 4 – Personal  and professional development in health and social care

It appears however, from most aspects of downsizing done by managers as evident from surveys, that downsizing may not improve the significant of white collar productivity. In many domestic industries however, overhead rates and cost structures remain significant in the realms of global competition even though re structuring has been done. This is because most of the times, downsizing does not take place in the right manner, so the intended cost as well as the efficiencies as desired do not happen. Due to downsizing various resentment as well as resistance aspects evolve which hinders competitiveness. From this perspective, organizational downsizing refers to those activities that set undertaken by the human resource management of the organization to design an improvement of efficiency, productivity as well as competitiveness of the organization. Through a study in understanding the critical aspects of downsizing taken over by HRM, it was clear that amongst the critical factors which led to downsize successfully the management of human resource systems in the most effective ways there are several aspects which need to be considered (Gronroose 2010).

In addition, whether it is about a new market or a desire to improve efficiency, it is required that HRM consistently reviews and adjusts the plans of their business along with their processes. While certain aspects may be economical or regarded to capital are seen, reorganization becomes important resulting majorly into job losses. This is a common process and may be caused due to several factors ranging from changes in technology to privatization and then finally towards closure which is complete in the workplace. This is termed as retrenchment and can cover a range of reversals which are wide including closure of organizations to losses in jobs due to downsizing. There lies no doubt that the process of retrenchment will bring in an impact which is substantial but there also lies no doubt that an impact which is substantial will be faced by the workers as well as the HRM in order to do the process in the right way. A retrenchment process which is executed poorly leads towards loss in productivity, morale which is low as well as the performance to decrease. The issue here is that HRM faces the difficulty to maintain morale of employees during the exercise of retrenchment. Also there are various risks involved like those of legal, reputational, misinformation as well as efficiency (Ballantyne 2007).

Managing Diversity

Figure 1: Showing the diversity management (Source:  Hart, 2005)

The main issue in managing diversity has to do with the perspectives of majority as well as minority. In general level, there are cases in the organization that there is a majority which is predominant of a race of particular kind and others are in the group which is minority. In addition, the most central issue in this area comes from diversity management which comes from women treatment from which a sense comes of the race issues as well as gender which are the drivers which are primary. In modern times, the issues have come to the forefront because awareness has spread to all about the rights and the enforcement of laws in strict way as well as regulations governing the workplace behavior.

Equal opportunity

An organization is a place where it is possible that behaviors which are unlawful may be practiced by the employees or even towards the employees and it is also evident that anyone who is held accountable for such a contribution is occurred towards an answer for such a behavior. Therefore, human resource management faces the issues of sexual harassment, discrimination, legal liabilities as well as other vicarious liabilities which need to be held in serious possible frameworks so that there do not exist any problems of inequality (Deshpande and Farely 2005).

Issues in discrimination at workplaces are regulated along with being monitored by the policy provided by Equal Employment Opportunity Commission. Employees who belong to a minority in the society whether on the basis of age, gender, ethnicity, religion or any other factors faced by the individuals have to be protected from labor practices which are unfair seen especially under hiring., firing along with employment terms. The issues confronting equal opportunities in organizations help towards developing fair as well as employment policies which are equitable at places of work.

Another area where discrimination is existing, is area of advancement ensuring that organizations are able to take up decisions of promotion in the same way as the hiring decisions or the equation decisions are taken. Again, here the priority is given to minors causing companies to overlook those candidates who are more qualified and so this becomes an act which is quiet tricky and does not balance. So, HRM has to take into account the fair means of policies and then take into consideration the qualification and minority aspects into account (Hart 2005).

In order to provide this, the best means is to provide an access which is equal. This means facilitating as well as providing tools for employees who are handicapped. This is also an essential issue faced by most human resources management. In order to incorporate practices of employment in the true way, HRM here have to take care that they install ramps of wheelchair, elevators, parking areas which are designated, tools of ergonomics and also such infrastructure which accommodates the individuals who are handicapped.

Work life balance

The factors which most influence the work life balancing practices needs especially in Australia are inclusive of changes in the workforce and changes in the workplace. According to the department of labor, evident research has shown that balancing the work life balance is an ever increasing issue for employers as well as employees. The reason for this are aspects such as jobs, workplace change, work force change and also the change including women more and parents which are single who are going to work. Also, more than 20 per cent of the population plays between more than one job and the workforce is getting old along with an increase in diversity. However, the significant work life balance problems are those people not with enough work or salaries or people who are involved with a lot of work needing to work for long hours than necessary. The findings suggest that there are several challenges. The expectations of the employees have also changed and younger skilled workers known as the generation X is expected to combine work with activities inclusive of breaks on careers as well as travel. Most organizations are in a competition which is global for labor which is skilled. The benefits have been on the lifestyle and also the expectation of the employees to have enjoyment time over benefits. There are women who remain responsible primarily for tasks of household towards families which are caring and also the involvement of these activities is required. This can make work as well as stress to follow for work as well as families in the level of men and women and the issues of remuneration along with corresponding to develop (Davidhow and Uttal 2005).

Conclusion and Recommendations

The aim of this essay has been evidently accomplished by focusing and analyzing the critical issues faced by HRM in terms of certain aspects which are considered. When the issues in these aspects are considered effectively with the help of certain recommendations, the impact of HRM issues and problems faced can be reduced (Berry 2008). These recommendations are as follows:

Safeguarding in health and social care
  • In order to be successful in downsizing the organization in an effective way, the human resource system should consider the aspects such as involvement of employee, team work, communicate, sharing of information, reward, appraise, train, articulate the vision and then administer downsizing in a manner which is trustworthy and fair lying within the responsibility which is normal for all the professionals of human resource

  • In order to manage the issues of retrenchment the companies can extend the criteria of eligibility for training in skills and development of opportunities of entrepreneurships, extending the eligibility of counseling which is financial, converting the facilities of companies and the uses of social and economical framework towards the society, avoiding and limiting dependency as well as working with local as well as governments which are regional

  • For dealing with issues of diversity, the HRM should reach towards all the people associated with the organization and offer them the correct way out which would lead the individuals towards the correct framework. The trend in the years which are recent is towards a disapproval which is vocal towards these practices from leaders in industries and the consultants of management repeatedly emphasizing on the importance of work places which are non-discriminatory. Hence, it is on the management that the norms which are required are followed. Those people in the HR such as the middle management who have a direct interaction with the people in the teams have a role which is greater to play as they exist as sandwich existing between the lower class and the upper management and therefore are in the position which allows then not only to follow the policies but also to enforce them (Ballantyne 2006)

  • From one organization to another, reasonable precautions needs to take place depending on the resource size present at the disposal and the organization size or nature along with a capacity implementing the effective programs for preventing as a part which is important of the considered reasonable aspects. The prospects which are inclusive here are establishing opportunity which is equal along with such policies in the system which ensures that the responsibilities are taken up

  • The challenges of work life practices and balance can be dealt with, by a strong influence of labour relations of the industry as well as contractual impacts which are formalized and employment based on the leave of employees along with the packages of benefits. There also exists various penalty pay legislations such as employers requiring to pay an incentive of 15 per cent for all holidays. The realms have been proactive and there are various strategies which have been taken up in order to manage the expectations of work life issue balancing meeting the objectives of business. Implications of the human resource practices in order to bring into consideration the required balance need to be considered for improving the aspects of individual management from all evident perspectives (Andreassen and Olsen 2008).

  • Andreassen, TW. & Olsen, LL., 2008, The impact of customers’ perception of varying degrees of customer service on commitment and perceived relative attractiveness, Managing Service Quality, vol. 18, no. 4

  • Ballantyne, D., 2006, Guest editorial: Getting your way in business, Asia-Australia Marketing Journal, vol. 4, no. 1

  • Berry, LL., 2008, Guiding and inspiring performance through a service strategy, Customer Service Management Magazine, no. 12

  • Davidow, WH. & Uttal, B., 2005, Total Customer Service: The Ultimate Weapon, Harper and Row Publishers, New York.

  • Deshpande, R., Farely, JU. & Webster J., 2007, Corporate culture, customer orientation, and innovativeness in Japanese firms: A quadrad analysis, Journal of Marketing, vol. 57

  • Grönroos, C., 2010, Service Management and Marketing: A Customer Relationship Management Approach, John Wiley & Sons, Manchester.

  • Hart, CW. & Johnson, MD. 2007, Growing the trust relationship, Marketing Management, Spring, pp. 9–19.

  • Heskett, JL., Sasser, WE., & Schlesinger, LA., 1997, The Service Profit Chain, The Free Press, New York.

  • Homburg, C., Hoyer, WD., & Fassnacht, M., 2002, Service orientation of a retailer’s business strategy: Dimensions, antecedents, and performance outcomes, Journal of Marketing, vol. 66

  • Howarth, B., 2004, Customer care pays, Business Review Weekly, vol. 22.

  • Lefrancois, G.R. (1972). Psychological Theories and Human Learning: Kongor’s Report. Monterey CA: Brooks/Cole Publishing Company

  • Lefton, L. A. (1997). Psychology: Annotated Instructor’s Edition, 6th Edition. Needham Heights MA: Allyn & Bacon.

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