Heritage and cultural tourism

Heritage and
cultural tourism

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Table of Contents
Introduction. 2
P1 Understand the growth and development of the heritage and cultural
industry within travel and tourism.. 2
P1.1 analyze the growth and development of the heritage and cultural
industry. 2
P1.2 discuss potential conflicts in the conservation of heritage and
cultural resources 4
P2 Understand the purpose of heritage and cultural attractions within the
travel and tourism sector 5
P2.1 assess the purpose of heritage and cultural attractions in meeting
the needs of different customers 7
P3 Understand roles, responsibilities and ownership of organizations in
the heritage and cultural industry. 8
P3.1 evaluate the impact of different types of ownership on the management
of heritage and cultural sites 9
P3.2 analyze roles and responsibilities of organizations in the heritage
and cultural industry 10
P4 Understand the role of methods of interpretation within the heritage
and culture industry. 11
P4.1 evaluate methods and media used for interpretation within the
heritage and cultural industry for tourists 12
Conclusion. 13
References 13
Introduction
Heritage
and cultural tourism is one of the prime focus areas for the present age
tourism industry where in it is responsible for the major part of revenue
generated through tourism activities. The present paper would help in order to
explore facts regarding cultural and heritage tourism involved into different
countries. First task for the present paper would help in order to gain
understanding regarding growth & development of heritage and cultural sites
in tourism industry (Carter, 2009). Second
task would provide information regarding purpose for which these cultural and
heritage sites are visited by the tourism in tourism industry. Based on the
segmentation and target group for the visitors in tourism industry purpose of
the heritage tourism would be assessed for the two museums in context. Third
task for the present paper would evaluate the different types of ownership in
heritage and cultural site management. Based on the ownership of the heritage
and cultural site management impact would be analysed. Two organizations having
ownership for the cultural and heritage sites would be analysed. Fourth task
for the present paper would evaluate role and method used for the presentation
of heritage & cultural sites.
TASK 1
P1 Understand the growth and development of the
heritage and cultural industry within travel and tourism
Heritage
can be defined as things which are inherited from the past and for different
things its meaning would be different. For example for physical artefacts and
intangible attributes of a group is represented by cultural heritage,
inheritance of flora and fauna can be represented by natural heritage etc. Heritage tourism can be defined as the travelling
experience to specific places which represent authentic information regarding
people and stories occurred in past. It’s a special branch of tourism industry
which emphasizes on cultural heritage of the tourist places. While cultural
heritage can be defined as the travelling to places representing people
&stories of past and present time.
P1.1 analyse the growth and development of the heritage and cultural
industry
Cultural and heritage tourism prevailing in UK is
mainstay of the tourism industry and growing at rapid pace. Success factor
behind the growth of cultural and heritage industry in UK include beauty,
cultural importance and breadth of the places visited by people in UK. Cultural
and heritage tourism industry witnesses more than 10 million trips to UK every
year. It has been revealed that every 4 out of 10 visitors in UK quote heritage
tourism as the most important factor for their visit to UK.Growth perspectives
for the heritage tourism can be estimated from the fact that it has been
established that tourism economy in UK would grow by 2.6% annually from year
2009 to 2018 in comparison to the manufacturing and other similar industries
which are expected to grow by 0.8% annually (Jones, 2009). Heritage tourism in UK is not only accountable for the revenue but it
is also responsible for more than 113,000 jobs which are directly created by
Heritage tourism segment in UK along with 157,000 jobs which have been created
indirectly in UK heritage tourism segment.
Heritage industry in UK is also one of the factors
for growth to the construction industry as construction industry is gaining
momentum due to repair & maintenance of historic attraction places in UK.
Considering data in year 2008 where in heritage industry accounted for more
than 43% of the revenue in construction industry amounting to £47.2
billion (Tilden, 2007). Further growth for the repair and maintenance is
expected to rise in coming year to the tune of 8% much higher in comparison to
the growth of housing construction.HND Assignment Help
Heritage tourism in UK also adds to the reputation
of country where in numerous tourist comes to visit attraction places
throughout the country. It has been revealed that more than 80% of the
potential visitors would visit historic monuments and buildings which are
highest ranked activities. As per data in year 2006 it was found out that more
than 30% of the tourist visits in UK resulted into visit to historic churches,
monuments and castles. Visit to historic monuments was much more in comparison
to other activities such as theatre opera which was accountable for 10% tourist
visit, sports activities accountable for 11% and museum which were accountable
for 23% of the tourist visit in UK.
Some of the major heritage sites which are centre
of attraction for the visitors in UK include Tower of London, Roman Baths, St
Paul’s Cathedral, Stonehenge, York Minster, Leeds Castle, Palace of Westminster,
Westminster Abbey, Hampton court palace, Blenheim palace, Stourhead and
Canterbury cathedral etc. Most of these attraction places are located in
London, Canterbury, Bath and York. Tower of London is most visited place in
London for its heritage tourism significance with more than 2389548 number of
visitors visited the place in year 2009 followed by St Paul’s Cathedral which
was visited by 1821321 visitors and Westminster Abbey which was visited by
1449593 visitors (Beck and Cable, 2011).
Looking at the time perspective for the cultural
and heritage tourism, Winchester Cathedral is a place of worship for more than
900 years and is famous for the hidden treasure and spectacular architecture
made in Cathedral. Winchester city museum celebrated its centenary in year 2003
and highlight the story behind museum as one of the most important Roman tower.
Wolvesely castle is famous for its historical significance of 25th
July, 1554 when Queen Marry and Philip II of Spain had their wedding in this
castle.
There are
several purposes for which heritage tourism is becoming centre of attraction in
present age not only in UK but around the world. Some of the major benefits
sought through heritage tourism in present age include education, recreation,
entertainment and research etc. In this present task these purposes for the
heritage tourism would be assessed for the two museums in UK i.e. Science Museum and V &A Museum in London (Silberman, 2006). Current task would also analyze
segmentation in the heritage tourism sector, visitor level and demographic
criteria for the visitors.

Figure 1:

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Unit 6 Research project
Showing scope and nature of heritage tourism
As shown in
the figure above that there can be several ways in which particular heritage
site can be visited by tourist. Extended the scope of heritage tourism it can
occur for several purposes such as heritage based holiday package, themes and
destinations etc.
1.2 discuss potential conflicts in the conservation of heritage and
cultural resources
There is
debate in the tourism industry for access against the conservation principle
wherein one school of thought is against the access and concerned more about
conservation of the heritage and cultural sites while other school of thoughts
consider such sites a great revenue source and advocates for allowing accessing for increasing revenue through such sites.
Looking into both views for the conservation as well as allowing resources for
revenue it can be stated that close monitoring of the cultural sites is
required so as to ensure that such sites become source of revenue without being
harming cultural heritage of these sites.
Issue of potential conflict in conservation of
heritage and cultural resources is a subject of debate from several years.
There are various stakeholders to the heritage and cultural resources such as
the local communities, government, tourists, global communities and development
agencies for the tourist spot. In order to analyse issue of conflict between
increased tourism and the conservation of heritage location two case studies
would be referred which are Central Jordan and Giant’s Causeway (Ham, 1992).
Referring
the case study of The Giant’s Causeway-Tourism conflict it can be revealed that
there is conflict among the interest of various stakeholders pertaining to the
heritage and cultural site. The Giant’s Causeway located at Northern Ireland
has been witnessed as one of the most attractive tourist destination in recent
past. The major attractions in the Giant’s Causeway include landscapes and
unique geology located in the site. Developers in the area are interested in
order to exploit economic potential of this site by developing several hotels,
golf course and visitor centre for attracting large number of tourists and
earning higher through tourism activities. Local group of people residing
nearby Giant’s Causeway are not in conformity with the developers view as their
income would vanish by developing all these facilities. Also some people have
the view that this would lead to problems related with conservation of this
site. Hence there are conflicting views pertaining to conservation versus
development of the heritage and cultural sites.
Another
example can be taken from central Jordan wherein revenue mainly comes from
tourism activities and there is a conflict for the access versus conservation.
As the local communities have economic dependency on the tourism activities
hence in order to enhance the tourism activity greater access has been given to
tourists by developing tourist spots. There is an increasing issue of decay of
the monuments and historic buildings in central Jordan due to increasing number
of tourists in the area. This is the major cause for conflict between access
& conservation of the tourism site for the two case studies referred in
present context for central Jordan and Giant’s Causeway.
TASK 2
P2 Understand the purpose of heritage and cultural
attractions within the travel and tourism sector
Heritage
tourism involves travelling to places which are associated with any kind of
heritage site in the world such as physical attractions, events and festivals,
routes & journey with heritage dimension, thematic travelling such as
gastronomic heritage, destinations which are associated with particular theme
and destinations which are associated with famous people. A pictorial view of
the heritage culture and its scope can be given as under.
P2.1 assess the purpose of heritage and cultural attractions in meeting
the needs of different customers
Two museums in London have been selected as the
heritage tourism locations for the present task in order to understand purpose
for which tourist come and visit to these locations. Science museum is one of
the prime attraction places for the tourist in London; it is situated in city
Kensington and home for more than 2 million tourists every year for the
heritage importance of the place. Science museum in London does not charge to
the tourist and considered among the public funded museums. The major purpose
for which Science museum is visited by tourist worldwide include education
& research for the people in field of heritage tourism, recreational and
entertainment activities performed through activities provided in the museum.
Science museum holds more than 300,000 antique
items which are popular in the world. Some of the major attraction items placed
in Science museum in London include first Jet engine, steam engine,
documentation of first typewriter and 3-D cinema etc. There are five floors
located in Science museum containing different place for the items in Science
museum (Tilden,

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2007). Ground
floor of the museum contains energy hall, force field, 3D cinema, pattern pod
and theatre. First floor of the museum contains agriculture related items,
cosmos & culture, telecommunication equipments. Second floor of museum
contains mathematical & computing equipments. Third floor of the museum
contains motion ride stimulator and Science equipments related with 18th
century. Fourth floor of museum contains glimpses of medical history and fifth
floor contains items related with science & art of medicine and veterinary
history.

Figure 2: Showing Science museum,
London
Victoria and Albert Museum is famous as one of the
largest museum having permanent collection for more than 4.5 million objects
for art & design items. V&A Museum located in London is containing art
& design items for more than 5000 years with 145 galleries in the museum.
Some of the major attraction items consisted in V&A museum includes
architecture, British gallery, ceramics, furniture, fashion &jewelry, glass
items and paintings & drawings. Things included in museum are of high
historical importance to restore history of England and other art & design culture
for the country.

Figure
3: Showing V&A museum, London
There are three major segmentation in entire
heritage tourism can be divided for two museums and these three segmentations
include individual tourism, groups travelling together and group travelling for
particular reason. Individual people interested in travelling alone to these
museum mainly come to these places in order to accomplish their education,
research or interest in the heritage elements. Group of people having common
interest in the heritage would prefer to visit such places in a group. Third
segment of people travel together may or may not have common interest but
travel due to combine travel services (Moscardo et al, 2007).
Target group for the museum is students and people
interested in heritage art across, both domestic as well as international
tourists. The target segments of the tourist coming to such museum have leisure
time, high education and income levels. Both these tourist places are home for
more than 2 million tourists every year which makes the usage rate of such
museum very high. Considering from the perspective of number of tourist
visiting UK for the heritage culture tourism it can be stated that status for
heritage culture being a leisure activity is highest as it is the most common
reason for the leisure tourist to visit in UK. It can be estimated from the
fact that every year more than 10 million trips are made to UK just because of
heritage culture presence. Further every 4 out of 10 tourist visiting UK for
leisure tripe come for the heritage and cultural significance of the place.
Income generation is another major criterion for which heritage tourism is
considered important for UK.
TASK 3
Or P3 Understand roles, responsibilities and
ownership of organizations in the heritage and cultural industry
Establishing
ownership for the heritage and cultural sites is very important as management
of such sites properly would lead to additional revenue and employment
opportunities for the nation. A well-managed cultural and heritage site would
be better conserved by the management committee and hence would lead to more
number of visitors to the place every year. There can be two main examples of
the ownership in the heritage and cultural sites which are public ownership and
public private partnership (PPP). In public ownership main role for the
protection, maintenance and promotion would be taken care by public agencies
and entire income generation would also belong to them (Levy et al, 2001). In public private partnership kind of
arrangement both public as well as private agencies would be involved in
preserving heritage & cultural sites and income generated through these
sources would also be shared among both these parties.
P3.1 evaluate the impact of different types of ownership on the
management of heritage and cultural sites
There are majorly two ownership types which are
prevalent in the heritage and cultural sites exhibiting unique characteristics
affecting overall management and directions of these sites. The two ownership
types include PPP (public private partnership) and public ownership. Example of
PPP is Woodland trust while Nature England and English heritage are perfect
example for publicly managed heritage and cultural site. Both these ownership
types adopted in the different cultural and heritage sites would be different
in terms of the way management for these sites are handled, resource
availability and roles & responsibility for the employed people at these
sites.
Impact of difference in ownership can be understood
from the major challenges and ability of different ownership types in resolving
these issues. Major challenges faced at present by the management of cultural
and heritage site include requirement for the funding, higher level of
responsibility & understanding, creativity and lack of entrepreneurial spirit.
Public funded heritage and cultural sites are facing issues of cutback in
subsidy which leads to lack of funding in order to preserve and maintain these
cultural and heritage site. Through public and private partnership in managing
these heritage and cultural sites it would become easy to obtain funding
through such sites and income generated can also be enhanced. Another impact of
the difference in ownership would be higher level of creativity and ideas.
Through public private partnership in managing cultural and heritage sites
better usage can be done with these sites as empty space under such sites would
be maintained and given for the other commercial usage which can generate good
income and does not damage heritage & cultural importance of the place.
Further with changing demographics, shrinking
population and secularization people are taking lesser interest in the heritage
and cultural aspects due to which such sites are losing their charm. With the
help of public and private partnership there would be better promotion for such
sites so that people can be encouraged in order to visit such sites and
interest of people towards their culture and heritage can be maintained (Ward & Wilkinson,
2006). Further
public agencies are losing mutual trust with the citizen while adopting public
private partnership would help in order to gain this mutual trust by giving
better facilities to citizen at these places and mutual trust can be restored
through such partnership which would be of mutual benefit for both public
agencies as well as citizens.
Another factor which would make impact on the
cultural and heritage site is ability of the PPP to impart training and
education for the people so as to conserve and understand importance for the
heritage and cultural sites. PPP are better managed due to establishment of the
efficient hierarchical structure in the private organization which assigns
roles and responsibility into better manner leading to higher possibility for
accomplishing a task into suitable manner. Advantage of such effective
organizational structure can be enforced to the cultural and heritage site by
building this PPP model.

 

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P3.2 Analyze roles and responsibilities of organizations in the heritage
and cultural industry
In present context roles and responsibility of the
organizational working for the cultural & heritage industry would be
analyzed. Two organizations taken for the present task are Woodland Trust and
Department for Culture (Regnier et al, 1994). Woodland Trust is charity organizational
established in UK working for the conservatism of native habitats of woodland.
Funding required for the conservative actions in Woodland Trust is being
received from number of sources such as the donations, appeals, legacies,
membership and charitable trusts established across the world. Woodland Trust
makes use of their authority in order to influence other people who are in
position to contribute for the conservation action for native woodland. This
includes government agencies, like-minded organizations and landowners etc.
Woodland Trust contains more than 1100 woods and groups which are covering more
than 190 square KM. More than 350 sites for Woodland Trust contain ancient
woodland and 70% of the entire sites are semi natural.
Department of culture in England is the government
department responsible for the development of heritage and culture aspects in
the country. This department holds the responsibility for tourism and leisure
as well. This department organized 2012 Olympics and Paralympics games in
country by aiding to the tourism activities. Some of the major work
responsibilities for Department of culture in UK include developing listing for
the historic buildings in country, export license for cultural goods and
management of the art collection for government.
TASK 4
P4 Understand the role of methods of interpretation
within the heritage and culture industry.
Interpretation
of the heritage and cultural sites is very important as it provide details
regarding enriched value of such sites for the visitors. Interpretation for
such sites would help the visitors to arouse interest in such activities. With
the help of interpretation communication established by a person to visitor for
historical significance it would be possible to appreciate the historical
significance of the site in front of general public. Some of the key principle
for the heritage and cultural industry are access & understanding for the
historical sites, information sources, context & setting, authenticity,
inclusiveness and sustainability (Salazar, 2007).
Appreciation
of the historical site is universal right and it should be accomplished with
proper usage of stories regarding communities and societies for ancient times.
It should be kept in mind that interpretation of the historical site should be
based on rich information sources and evidence gathering process. For example
in present context of visit to the two museums i.e. Science museum and V&A
museum rich information regarding these sites were present due to which interpretation
of such sites become easy for the visitor without manual intervention of the
tourist guides so as to provide details regarding such sites.
P4.1 evaluate methods and media used for interpretation within the
heritage and cultural industry for tourists
It was observed during visit to the Science museum
and V&A museum that interpretation of the cultural and heritage site was
done in such a manner that tourist can easily relate these sites with the
historic stories and information which is behind such historical sites. These
sites made use of the different forms of interpretation with the help of
different media types so that there are facts containing information related to
these cultural & heritage sites, presence of information would not only
help to better illustrate these sites but also develop interest for the
visitors coming to visit these sites (Levy et al, 2001). Some of the major media types which were
observed in the Science and V&A museum in London include printed
information, signage, exhibits, narrated visual presentations, website, visual
presentation, sound & light shows, guide and videotape presentations. Printed
media presentation which was observed in museum was advertisement, books, map,
guidebooks, leaflet and brochure etc. Guides who help at heritage &
cultural site include both guides employed at these sites as well as outside
guides having wide information regarding these two sites.
Heritage
and cultural tourism represented through these museum sites also have online
presence so that users located at distant locations can gain information
through online resources which would help them to get information and promote
interest among the potential tourist so that such visitors can visit the
museum.Technologies also have helped in better presentation of the information
pertaining to the heritage and cultural sites and in museum with the help of
video visuals information was displayed in interested manner.Every method of
interpretation has specific role in order to provide information about heritage
site and to arouse visitor interest in the site. Printed text has the role to
offer wide source of information including historic development and visuals of
the site. Basic computer has the role to search enhanced information regarding
site which is desired by visitor. Modern technology devices such as display
system and audio system can be used so as to enhance visitor interest in the
site.
In
thematic interpretation approach adopted by a heritage site the major relying
factor would be the central theme around with communication would be developed.
This will build a way which would be relevant and appropriate for the targeted
audience. In the present context of Science museum central theme is the
advancement of Science from the early ages to present time. Communication has
been developed in museum by highlighting the progress which Science has done in
this time period.
Among
the media type used in Science museum personal and non personal media can be
named wherein personal media type and non personal media type were implemented.
Personal media types involve providing description of the particular historic
things with the human intervention and audio or print was not the major media
type in this interpretation medium. While non personal media type includes
mainly audio and video presentation and this was depicted in Science and
V&A museum for the highly technical goods where there was high amount of
information attached with them.
Conclusion
From
the present paper it was established that heritage and cultural sites are of
wide importance for people living in the country. There is more than just
economical significance for the heritage site as such sites also involve
interest for the common citizens in heritage of the country so that heritage
sites can be preserved. Heritage and cultural tourism is growing at rapid pace
which is much faster in comparison to the other industries prevailing in the
country. Purpose for the visit of heritage and cultural sites include
education, research and recreational activities. Roles and responsibility for
the different ownership such as public and PPP include new ideas, funding requirement
and ability to promote the sites. Among the major methods for interpretation of
heritage site include printed information, signage, exhibits, videotapes,
websites and guides etc.
References
§ Carter, J. 2009, A Sense of Place: An Interpretive Planning
Handbook. Inverness: Tourism and Environment Initiative, accessed 24 February
2014 http://www.scotinterpnet.org.uk/pdfs/sofp.pdf.
§ Jones, S. 2009, Sharing Our Stories. The National Trust of
Australia (WA) and Museums Australia (WA)
§ Tilden, F., 2007, Interpreting Our Heritage. 3rd. Ed. Chapel Hill,
NC: The University of North, Carolina Press
§ Beck, L and Cable. T, 2011, Interpretation for the 21st Century:
Fifteen Guiding Principles for Interpreting Nature and Culture. Champaign,
Ill.: Sagamore Publishing
§ Ham, S. (1992). Environmental
Interpretation: A Practical Guide for People with Big Ideas and Small Budgets.
Fulcrum Publishing,ISBN 1-55591-902-2
Salazar, N. (2007). Towards a global culture of
heritage interpretation? Evidence from Indonesia and Tanzania. Tourism Recreation Research, 32(3), 23-30.
Silberman, N. (2006). “The ICOMOS Ename
Charter Initiative: Rethinking the Role of Heritage Interpretation in the
21st Century.”George Wright
Forum
Tilden, F. (2007) Interpreting our Heritage. University of North Carolina
Press, North Carolina ISBN 0-8078-4016-5
Moscardo, G; Ballantyne, R;
Hughes, K (2007). Designing Interpretive Signs:
Principles in Practice. Golden, CO: Fulcrum Publishing. ISBN 978-1-55591-550-6.
Levy, B; Lloyd, S; Schreiber,
S (2001). Great Tours! Thematic Tours and Guide
Training for Historic Sites. Walnut Creek, CA: AltaMira Press. ISBN 0-7591-0099-3.
Ward, C; Wilkinson, A (2006). Conducting Meaningful Interpretation: A Field Guide for Success.
Golden, CO: Fulcrum Publishing. ISBN 978-1-55591-530-8.
Regnier, K; Gross, M;
Zimmerman, R (1994). The Interpreter’s Guidebook: Techniques
for Programs and Presentations (3rd Ed.). Stevens Point, WI: UW-SP
Foundation Press. ISBN 0-932310-17-6.

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