Cultural and heritage tourism assignment help

Cultural and heritage tourism assignment help








 
Cultural and Heritage Tourism
Unit-19
 

 

 
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Table of Contents

Introduction. 2

Task 1 – Understanding the growth and development for cultural and heritage industry. 3

1.1 Analysis of growth and development for heritage and cultural tourism.. 3

1.2 Potential conflicts in the conservation of cultural and heritage resources. 5

Task 2. Understanding the purpose of cultural and heritage attractions for travel and tourism sector. 7

2.1 Assessment of the purpose of cultural and heritage attractions in meeting the needs of different customers  7

Task 3 – Understanding the responsibilities, the roles and the ownerships within an organizations of the heritage and cultural industry. 10

3.1 Evaluation of the impact of different types of ownerships, on management of cultural and heritage sites  10

3.2 Analysing the roles and responsibilities of organizations within cultural and heritage industries. 11

Task 4 – Understanding the role of various interpretation methods within the cultural and heritage industry. 14

4.1 Evaluation of the methods and media as used in interpretation of the cultural and heritage for tourists  14

Conclusion. 16

References. 17

 

Introduction


UK is one of the developed nations in World and has rich plethora of heritage and its culture. A lot many tourists visit UK and eventually contribute up to 30% of revenue from the culture & heritage itself. The current study focuses on the concept of Heritage and Tradition in reference to – The Giant’s Causeway and Central Jordan. Later, the work towards Science and V&A museum would be discussed so as to explore the various perspectives of culture & heritage in UK

Task 1 – Understanding the growth and development for cultural and heritage industry


The word heritage is defined as the items which are inherited from past but the meaning of heritage would differ depending upon the context it refers to. E.g. – the immaterial qualities & physical items within a group are called as cultural heritage. While, the Natural heritage, refer to legacy of flora and fauna. The heritage tourism is definable as the travelling experience at a particular place & people representing real stories and activities occurred in the past times (Beck and Cable, 2011).

1.1 Analysis of growth and development for heritage and cultural tourism


In recent time, UK has emerged as major destination among tourism wherein considerable development has been made in the field of cultural & heritage tourism with efforts from both public & private players. The factors responsible for the success of cultural & heritage tourism in UK includes desire of tourist to giving back to their society, uplifting interest of people towards cultural & heritage tourism activities, to change demographic variable for the tourists and cultural importance. The volume of cultural and heritage tourism in UK can be understood from the fact, that every year more than 10million visits are made to UK for the purpose of heritage & cultural tourism. Further, it is observed that every 2nd tourist in UK has the purpose of heritage and cultural tourism. The growth in tourism activities within UK is mainly contributed by heritage tourism; wherein 2.6% of year-on-year growth has been seen in the tourism section w.r.t. other sections of economy which are growing at up to 0.8% per year.

Unit 4 – Personal  and professional development in health and social care

In terms of economic growth, cultural & heritage tourism is a large employer where directly and indirectly approx. 0.2 million jobs have been created via cultural & heritage tourism activities. Further economic development offered from cultural & heritage tourism activities also include supporting related industries such as – construction, restaurant, hotel & transportation industries etc.

–          It is worth to highlight that Construction industry in UK contributes more than 43% of the yearly revenue in terms of maintenance, repair & development of the heritage & cultural locations (Ham, 1992). Further, tourism in heritage and cultural activities are a big hope for the construction industry because revenue from these activities is expected to increase the construction industry by 8%.

–          Further, increase in no of tourists visiting the UK’s historic monuments creates better reputation on international front. Analysis of the tourism data for year 2009, revealed that more than 33% of the tourists coming to UK have visited museum, castles, famous churches etc. In UK, visiting historic monuments is more popular w.r.t. the visit of theatre places & other famous places which accounts to more than 11%, sports activities accounts to 10% while museum accounts to 23% of total tourist visits in UK.

Major places of UK include St Paul’s cathedral, Stonehenge, Tower of London, York Minster, Science museum, Palace of Westminster and V&A museum. Among the major tourist places, highest no of places are located in London where Tower of London is considered as the most visited site. More than 2.3 million visitors visit this place every year while St Paul’s Cathedral is ranked as 2nd and Westminster Abbey is ranked at 3rd place.

Figure 1: Various scopes of heritage tourism

The cultural & heritage sites in UK are more than 900 years old. The Winchester Cathedral is a place of worship and is famous among the visitors for hidden treasure & its best quality architecture. In 2003, the Winchester city museum has completed its 100 years and is considered as one of the most popular Roman tower. Wolvesely tower has historic significance as in 1554 the marriage of king and queen took place in this tower. The purpose of heritage and cultural tourism in context to UK would include recreational activities, education, research and giving back to society by visitors, as well (Jones, 2009).

Conceptually, the scope of hertiage tourism is quite wider and the major factors would include physical atttractions, themes, destinations attached to people & traditional industries, events & festivals, holiday pacjages and routes & journey etc.

The first musuem was opened for piblic in year 1759 and named British mueusm. The first tour package was designed in year 1841 by Thomas Cook when a group of temperance campaigner were taken to a rally in Loughborough. United Nation Education, Scientific and cultural organization (UNESCO) was formed in year 1946 with the purpose of promoting peace & secuirty in international context. These historical events effected the historical profile and development of heritage tourism.

1.2 Potential conflicts in the conservation of cultural and heritage resources


The Giant’s Causeway and Central Jordan are the two case studies that have been presented in the current tasks. Accessibility vs conservativeness has gained popularity in recent past where environmentalist concern about access given to people at heritage sites. The concern of other visionaries is that by offering higher access to the heritage and cultural sites considerable revenue can be achieved along with providing better opportunities in field of education, research & inheritance towards the cultural and heritage factors (Levy et al, 2001). The debate between these two views generates an additional responsibility for the stakeholders involved in cultural and heritage tourism activities which is pertaining to proper management of the heritage site so that there are no harmful impacts on site due to access given to visitors; while economic growth should not be hampered. Some of the major impacts on heritage sites can be their erosion, impact on surrounding environment, brown field versus green field sites and dedicated usage of land etc.

Safeguarding in health and social care

With reference to the two given cases i.e. The Giant’s Causeway and Central Jordan it can be said that there is conflict going on at major tourism site which is mainly pertaining to access versus conservation of the tourism sites. The Giant’s Causeway site is located in Northern Ireland and has emerged as the most popular tourism destination in recent past. The unique geology and landscapes are major attraction centres at The Giant’s Causeway. The stakeholders within tourism industry are looking at this site with an economic angle as by developing nearby area for sports activities, visitors centre and for hotel development activities etc. huge revenue can be generated. Local community people are not in-line with this view of other stakeholders, which is predominantly due to threat to their incomes and also due to the demand of conservation against increasing the number of tourists coming in the country (Walton, 2000). Hence at one view the local people are advocating for not developing these sites for allowing local people to gain income from these activities and would harm the beauty of these places while other view of this issue relates to other stakeholders who are looking towards the economic potential of the site. The possible solution for this problem is developing these historical units with share of local people in overall revenue gained from these sites.

The other case study of Central Jordan, also, highlights conflict arising between accesses versus conservation for the tourism activities. Central Jordan contributes large amount of revenue for the country. Several local community members have high economic dependence over Central Jordan for earning their day-to-day livelihood. Further, along with this, there are several reported incidences of the decay of the historic monuments present at the site and hence the later has given rise to new debate for the access versus conservation at this site (Moscardo et al, 2007). In order to resolve the issue faced it is recommended that strict policies should be made for the conservation of the tourism destination along with gaining revenue from them.

In summary, the two case studies focuses on the debate for the access versus conservativeness wherein stakeholders of the heritage tourism are looking for the economic potential while at other side the access given rise to visitors is giving rise to problems of conservation for the stakeholders of heritage tourism.

 

 

 

Task 2 Understanding the purpose of cultural and heritage attractions for travel and tourism sector


Activities as done in heritage tourism can be defined as visiting those places which are attached to the tourism sites such as physical attractions, events, destinations etc. The present focus would assess the purpose of cultural and heritage tourism activities in order to meet the consumer requirements towards creating a best possible experience.

2.1 Assessment of the purpose of cultural and heritage attractions in meeting the needs of different customers


The present task would involve assessment of the purpose which meets the needs of different customer groups for cultural and heritage tourism. Here for assessment purpose, the help of example has been taken from two museums in London i.e. Science museum and V&A museum. Science museum is public funded and does not take fee from the visitors. The Science museum is one of the most popular sites in UK and is located at city Kensington. Every year approx. 2 million visitors come to visit this place. The major purpose of visiting Science museum is identified as education, entertainment, research and recreation (Withey, 1998).

In Science museum hold items which are related with the invention or scientific material. Total no. of items housed is more than 300,000 in Science museum. Science museum is made by public funded, so does not take fee from the visitors. The popular items of Science museum is placed include Steam engine, documentation for typewriter and 3-D cinema. Science museum is a good place for study. The most people coming to visit Science museum for study. Science museum have been made five floors and each floor have some specific items. Every floor has divided as per a specific theme (Tribe, 2005). The ground floor hold items are related with Science inventions such as energy hall and 3-D cinema. First floor hold items are related with the agriculture science, 2nd floor hold items related to mathematical calculations, 3rd floor contains items related to historic science development. These equipment were developed in 18th century. 4th floor hold items which are related to medical science history and fifth floor of the museum hold items which are pertaining to art of medicine and veterinary history etc.

V&A museum is considered as the larger museum in comparison to the Science museum, and it houses more than 4.5 million antique objects. V&A museum enjoys high historic significance, as it contains an object which dates back to over 5000 year old civilization. It has are more than 145 galleries and is a home to more than 3 million visitors in a year. Major item of attraction in V & A museum of London includes painting, drawings, art work, jewellery, architecture, furniture and ceramics etc. Through these objects the visitors of V & A museum comes to know the rich culture and heritage value of the country. Additionally, this museum is a source of educations, entertainment and recreation and while it is a well-known topic of research among many visitors, as well.

Separation in culture heritage tourism industry is important to understand the overall analysis of consumer profile in country’s tourism industry. Separation of the tourists in framework to these two museums in London can be done basis on rate of usage, income generation, visitor level and culture as a leisure activity through the tourism activities in country. There are basically three sectors based on the above mentioned parameters. All visitors can be divided in three sectors. They are individual tourists, tourist in large group with friends & family and group tourists travelling with particular reason (Likorish & Jenkins, 1995). The purpose of Individual tourist includes, travelling and visiting these places in order to carry out their research, education or entertainment. Commonly observed people among individual tourists would include people with high cultural and heritage interest.

 

Unit 4 – Personal  and professional development in health and social care

Second segment of tourists travelling are people travelling in group with common interest level. These people would be having a friend circle or family members and would be sharing common interest for which they are travelling to these places. The group tourists would be having interest in tourism activities and their usage rate would be much higher. Third segment of tourists would include the people travelling in group with or without common interest but have been grouped in order to take advantage of grouped services for tourism. There would be strategic advantage of travelling in group which may be for combining group services or for a particular research or education purpose.

The people who visit these 2 museums would be predominantly, categorised into a group whose interest lies in culture and heritage; such visitors are from both the origins i.e. domestics as well as international. Also visitors of these museums would be from high income group, would have high education levels and have time to spend leisurely (Sharpley, 1999). Such group of visitors also travel across other relevant places within different places of UK and hence contribute towards high usage rate and high frequency of travel. Such visitors are 4 million every year and contribute towards cultural and heritage aspect in UK. Unfortunately these people visits publically funded museums, which do not charge much from visitors; therefore there is not much revenue generation from people of such visits. Contrary, since there is a need of usage of accommodation, eateries, public and private transportation; therefore there is a good amount of revenue generation towards hotel industries, pubs & restaurants and transportation.





















ParameterScience museumV & A museum
AudienceFriends, families and childrenAdults, elderly and friends
PurposePreservationPreservation
 ResearchResearch
 EducationEducation
 FunRelaxation
 Enjoyment 


Task 3 – Understanding the responsibilities, the roles and the ownerships within an organizations of the heritage and cultural industry


So as to manage the cultural and heritage sites in UK it is important to establish the responsibilities, the roles and the ownerships rights for the cultural & heritage sites. There are multiple clauses that can be related to ownership of the cultural and heritage sites such as the types of ownership, income generation from it, other relevant values attached & objectives, roles for providing education and also the roles and responsibility of management etc. E.g. – it is important to establish the ownership rights if the whole scenarios is seen from the aspect of income generation and employment (Lavery, 1996).

3.1 Evaluation of the impact of different types of ownerships, on management of cultural and heritage sites


Public ownership and the public private partnership (PPP) would be 2 main type of ownerships for the cultural and heritage sites. These would include adoption of a particular ownership type in the cultural and heritage site that would affect the overall management and also the future directions for that site. The public ownerships in a cultural & heritage site would mean various roles such as role of development, revenue generation, maintenance and protection. Such roles would be taken-care by the public authorities and overall management responsibilities would also be taken care by them itself. While, In PPP i.e. public private partnership, the kind of structure or model would be involvement of public as well as private parties, both, and together they work for the development of cultural & heritage site which leads to development and maintenance of these sites (Levy et al, 2001).

In relation to the present context, an example of public private partnership would include Woodland trust a trust being managed by both private party i.e. Woodland as well as public authorities. On the other hand, the examples of publically ownership sites can be taken from English heritage and Nature England. Since there will be a change in type of ownership in cultural and heritage site therefore, the roles, the responsibilities, the management and the availability of required resources would be quite different. In the management of cultural and heritage sites, one of the major impact relates to the challenges faced and resolution of issues. Various challenges in the management of cultural and heritage sites includes following as major point of consideration

–          preservation for the cultural and heritage site,

–          promotion of site towards tourism,

–          collection and allocation of the funds so as to maintain them,

–          access of the site

The issue of fund has been observed as the major issue among publicly owned sites which is aggravated due to cutting back in subsidy for the sites. On the other side, in general, it has been observed that promotional activities are well managed in a Public Private Partnership model in comparison to the public owned model of sites (Moscardo et al, 2007).

For the publicly owned site there would be different organizational structure wherein government agencies would be managing the entire work responsibilities as per the regulations. Further there would be several voluntary bodies taking part in the management of these sites. For the publicly managed sites there are several specialized conservation group established in the organizational context where in role of national government departments are significant. Visitors are losing interest in the cultural sites and PPP can help to develop effective promotion therefore arising the interest of visitors towards the development of these sites. PPP arrangement for management of sites would also help in providing training for the employees working towards development and maintenance of site. Organizational structure of PPP would be much simple and would involve faster decision making process as compared to the publicly managed sites (Regnier et al, 1994).

3.2 Analysing the roles and responsibilities of organizations within cultural and heritage industries


The Roles and responsibilities for both the models of arrangement i.e. public private partnership and the publicly managed model can be easily understood in the example of department of culture and the Woodland trust.

Talking about the Woodland trust, it is a public private partnership arrangement which is working towards the development of native habitat in England. At present, more than 1100 woods are being managed by the Woodland trust that covers a large area of 190 sq. km. Among the all sites as being managed by the Woodland trust, ancient woodland is present in more than 350 sites and a bigger challenge is that 70% of the sites managed would be under semi natural activities, thus demanding more time, resources and responsibilities from the management.

Safeguarding in health and social care

For the Woodland trust, the fund arrangement is managed from multiple sources including such as membership, legacies, charitable trust and also the government agencies etc. The role of woodland would be to influence other people, visionaries and also the people of similar opinion, who are capable of contributing towards the objectives of Woodland trust in short or long term (Salazar, 2007). The roles and responsibilities have been clearly defined for both ‘Woodland Trust’ as well as for Government organizations so that any possible future conflicts between the two parties can be resolved without disturbing the harmony of the culture and heritage of woods.

When it comes to arrangement of funds, both the organizations would be equally responsible, wherein government agencies have been given an important role of taking up advisory and legislative activities pertaining to present trust. As and when required, further decision making towards the merchandising, the selection of new technology, and also towards the generation of sources of income are being taken by both the agencies in coordination with each other.

The above cited example is a good & successful example of public private partnership. The 2nd example of ownership type is publicly managed model. And for the purpose an organization named DCMS has been chosen so as to understand the roles and responsibilities. DCMS have responsibilities of managing the tourism activities, with a particular interest towards the culture of England along while maintaining the leisure activities for tourists & tourism. The major responsibility area of the Department of culture in England would be

–          List of tourist sites: DCMS would maintain the list of all possible tourist sites in the country and there would be detailed record for these sites in order to promote them to tourists so as to attract higher number of tourists in the country.

–          License for goods: DCMS would manage the licence for export of culture related goods so that cultural development can take place outside the country and people in other countries would be able to know about culture of UK.

–          Managing art work: Art work would be promoted through different ways such as exhibition and financial support from government.

In order to, enhance tourism activities and add to cultural significance of England; in year 2012, the Department of culture had organized Olympics and Paralympics games in UK.

Task 4 – Understanding the role of various interpretation methods within the cultural and heritage industry


Visits were made to V & A Museum and also to Science museum, for understanding various methods of interpretation within the industries as involved in cultural and heritage activities. There is an importance of interpretation of the sites as this would help visitors of cultural and heritage values, to understand the sites and their historic significances. For the stakeholders as involved in management of these sites, it is utmost important to develop suitable mean of interpretation (Silberman, 2006). Such interpretations would built-up the visitor experience towards the visited site. A usage of thematic approach towards the interpretation of these museums would be an important step. Such thematic approach works along with making usage of different print media such as published material and other media types such as dramas, role plays, interactive technology and audio-visuals.

4.1 Evaluation of the methods and media as used in interpretation of the cultural and heritage for tourists


Here Science and V&A museum of London would be used as reference material. The evaluation of interpretation as made by tourists of cultural & heritage importance, can be made by adoption of few particular methods. There can be different needs of the visitors who are coming to Science & V&A museum in terms of language needs and interpretation needs. In order to assess the consumer needs, the methods which can be used would include

 

Unit 4 – Personal  and professional development in health and social care

–          the observation technique

–          questionnaire for need assessment, and

–          tests, post the completion of visit

There are multiple methods of interpretation used in the two museums which helps the visitors in understanding the importance of objects placed. It was observed, that during the visit that the interpretation media have been selected by keeping in mind about the convenience of understanding for the visitors for both interpretation as well as language concerns. Proper arrangements were made in order to ensure that visitors were able to understand the objects placed in museum and hence correlate them with the cultural and heritage significance of the country.

The two museums watchers the different media types such as the print media in form of signage, poster and written information pertaining to particular object. All objects were documented in different languages. So visitors can understand it with high suitability. In the Science museum Audio and video presentations were in order to used provide detailed information. The information related to the Science equipment regarding their invention, history, application and future scope (Tilden, 2007). Print media in museum was done in order to develop maps, guide book, brochure and leaflet as an additional source of information. Management of these two museums also provides online information for the tourists to collect information from online sources regarding these museums.

Thematic approach used by the two museums highlights their concept. Communication have been developed for example Science museum communication have been developed around Science invention and their application in present age .Whereas regarding V&A museum the communication was developed around the historic objects which highlight the importance of culture & heritage of country.

There can be two media types for interpretation such as, are personal and non-personal media types. Among Personal media types there is requirement of make use of human intervention for interpreting information by a human to the visitors coming to these museums. Whilst, Non personal media types for interpretation provides by making utilisation of the audio and video presentation on these inventions and historical objects.

Understanding specific need in health and social care

Unit 6 Research project

Conclusion


It has been recognised in the present framework that the cultural and heritage tourism are the major part of the overall tourism activities within UK. Such tourism attracts 4 out of 10 tourists visiting England for these sites. The above presented task has explored the growth and development for the cultural and heritage tourism in context to UK. Purpose of heritage and cultural tourism in special context to two case studies i.e. Central Jordan and The Giant’s causeway has been understood. Since such values needs to well maintained and managed hence, various ownership types for the management of cultural and heritage sites have been reviewed (Ward & Wilkinson, 2006). For such review and also to understand the roles and responsibilities of stakeholders involved in their management, examples of Woodland trust and Department of culture has been examined. Finally in context to visit to Science and V&A museum in London, methods and media for the interpretation of these sites have been understood which provides usage for different media types such as print media, audio-video presentations, human intervention and online information sources etc.

References


Beck, L and Cable. T, 2011, Interpretation for the 21st Century: Fifteen Guiding Principles for Interpreting Nature and Culture. Champaign, Ill.: Sagamore Publishing

Ham, S. (1992). Environmental Interpretation: A Practical Guide for People with Big Ideas and Small Budgets. Fulcrum Publishing

Jones, S. 2009, Sharing Our Stories. The National Trust of Australia (WA) and Museums Australia (WA)

Levy, B; Lloyd, S; Schreiber, S (2001). Great Tours! Thematic Tours and Guide Training for Historic Sites. Walnut Creek, CA: AltaMira Press. ISBN 0-7591-0099-3.

Moscardo, G; Ballantyne, R; Hughes, K (2007). Designing Interpretive Signs: Principles in Practice. Golden, CO: Fulcrum Publishing. ISBN 978-1-55591-550-6.

Walton, J. 2000. The British Seaside: Holidays and Resorts in the Twentieth Century. Manchester University Press.

Withey, L. 1998. Grand Tours and Cook’s Tours: A history of Leisure Travel 1750-1915. Aurums Press.8

Tribe, J. 2005. The Economics of Leisure and Tourism: Environments, Markets and impacts 3rd edition, Butterworth- Heinemann

Likorish, L.; Jenkins, C. 1995. An Introduction to Tourism, Butterworth- Heinemann

Sharpley, 1999. The Tourism Business: An introduction. Sunderland Business Education Publishers

Lavery, P 1996 Travel and Tourism 3rd edition ELM Publication

Levy, B; Lloyd, S; Schreiber, S (2001). Great Tours! Thematic Tours and Guide Training for Historic Sites. Walnut Creek, CA: AltaMira Press. ISBN 0-7591-0099-3.

Moscardo, G; Ballantyne, R; Hughes, K (2007). Designing Interpretive Signs: Principles in Practice. Golden, CO: Fulcrum Publishing. ISBN 978-1-55591-550-6.

Regnier, K; Gross, M; Zimmerman, R (1994). The Interpreter’s Guidebook: Techniques for Programs and Presentations (3rd Ed.). Stevens Point, WI: UW-SP Foundation Press. ISBN 0-932310-17-6.

Salazar, N. (2007). Towards a global culture of heritage interpretation? Evidence from Indonesia and Tanzania. Tourism Recreation Research, 32(3), 23-30.

Silberman, N. (2006). “The ICOMOS Ename Charter Initiative: Rethinking the Role of Heritage Interpretation in the 21st Century. “George Wright Forum

Tilden, F. (2007) Interpreting our Heritage. University of North Carolina Press, North Carolina ISBN 0-8078-4016-5

Ward, C; Wilkinson, A (2006). Conducting Meaningful Interpretation: A Field Guide for Success. Golden, CO: Fulcrum Publishing. ISBN 978-1-55591-530-8.

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