Table of Contents
LO1 Understand how to formulate a research specification. 3
1.1 In the draft report that you will submit, you must formulate and record your research project outline specifications. 3
1.2 You must also identify the factors that contribute to the process of your research project selection and undertake a critical review of the literature. 4
1.3 Finally you must produce a research project specification and provide an appropriate plan and procedures between you and your supervisor about the agreed research specification. 5
LO2 Be able to implement the research project within agreed procedure and to specification. 7
2.1 In your RESEARCH PROPOSAL you must match resources efficiently to your research question or hypothesis. 7
2.2 Secondly, the line manager has asked that you discuss the proposed research investigation in accordance with the agreed specification and procedures in an Action Plan. 7
2.3 Finally in your research proposal and action plan you must also discuss how you recorded and collated relevant data in your research where it was appropriate. 8
LO3 Be able to evaluate the research outcomes. 10
3.1 You are required to produce a summary findings for you final research meeting. In this report you will discuss how you used appropriate research evaluation techniques. 10
3.2 You will also discuss how you interpreted and analysed the results in terms of the original research specifications. 11
3.3 Finally in your report you must make recommendations and justify areas for further considerations 11
LO5 Self-evaluation. 13
Research process is undertaken in a particular research context so as to examine the research topic and fulfil particular research objectives. There are series of steps which need to be undertaken so as to reach the final results for the research context. Research process would include framing research objectives and hypothesis, developing data collection plan, collecting data through primary and secondary sources and interpreting data for attaining the research results. In present context research would be conducted pertaining to the presence of dementia disease among the black Caribbean people and white British people living in London. Current research would showcase the research process adopted in order to conduct the research and obtaining research outcomes by making efficient use of the research process.
1.1 In the draft report that you will submit, you must formulate and record your research project outline specifications.
Research specification need to be developed in the research context so as to develop the various elements of research such as research objectives or questions, information required, research methodology which would be used in the research etc. In the present context research would be conducted as a comparative study for Dementia patients between black ethnic minority and white British population living in the London of Borough Tottenham. Present research would examine the probability of dementia among the black ethnic minority and white people. Further present research would test the hypothesis pertaining to the higher chances of dementia among black people in UK as compared to the white British people (A.P.A, 1994).
Objectives for the present research can be given as under:
- To impart knowledge on the dementia and comparison for dementia between black and white people in country
- To examine whether black Caribbean people living in London are having much higher chances of Dementia disease as compared to the white British people living in the Borough Tottenham
- To explore whether dementia is under recognized in primary health care for black Caribbean people as compared to the white British people
Based on the data collection plan involved in the present research above mentioned objectives would be fulfilled. Hypothesis testing would be used in current research and based on the testing of two hypothesis framed research objectives would be fulfilled. Research hypothesis for the current research study can be given as under:
- Black Caribbean people living in London are having much higher chances of dementia disease as compared to the white British population (Auchus, 1997)
- Dementia is under recognized for black Caribbean people in primary healthcare centre in as compared to the white British people
1.2 You must also identify the factors that contribute to the process of your research project selection and undertake a critical review of the literature.
Selection of present research project is contributed by below mentioned factors:
- UK incurs high economic and social cost due to dementia every year and black Caribbean people are suffering highly due to dementia and identification of such trends for dementia among black people would help in order to develop mechanism to help them
- Identification of under recognition for dementia in primary healthcare would help in developing suitable facilities in primary healthcare so as to identify dementia among black people and treat them
Dementia has been taken from the Latin word Demens which means “without mind” and it can be defined as the extinction of the judgment and imagination. Dementia can be considered as the chronic or persistent disorder for the mental processes and it is caused due to the brain disease or injury to the brain. For the research purpose, mental disease such as dementia can be treated by making use of the series of steps such as recommended by American Psychiatric Association or World Health Association. Diagnosis for dementia according to ICD-10 need to meet the four domains and these are given as under:
- There should be clear evidence for the cognitive decline
- Symptoms should be presented in absence of the clouding of the consciousness
- Decline of cognitive abilities should be from past 6 months at least (Bhugra & Ayonrinde, 2004)
- Decline in cognitive abilities should lead to the decline in social behaviour and emotional control of the patient
It has been evolved through past researches that evidence of dementia are much higher among the black Caribbean population as compared to the white British people and the difference in presence of dementia would depend upon the socioeconomic status and age factor. Further it has been observed through past studies that there is much higher rate of both treated as well as untreated dementia among the black Caribbean population as compared to the white British population in the country.
A study shows that possibility of dementia is much higher in the black Caribbean people as compared to the white British people. Comparison was done based on the percentage scale wherein black Caribbean people were found chances of 9.6% as compared to the 6.9% chances among the white British people. Further this research also highlights that there was much higher chances of Vascular Dementia among black Caribbean people and participants meet criteria for possibility rather than probable diagnosis (Boyle, 1998). In addition to this black Caribbean people were having much higher chances of hypertension and this was related with cognitive impairment. Chances for documented dementia among black people were 42% and referred to specialist dementia was 36%. Further black people were having lesser chances for identification of dementia in primary healthcare centre and chances of referral to specialist services were also much lesser among them as compared to the white British people.
1.3 Finally you must produce a research project specification and provide an appropriate plan and procedures between you and your supervisor about the agreed research specification.
Research methodology adopted in the research context would define the research philosophy employed in order to conduct research and attain research goals. Research philosophy used in the research project would provide brief detail on the way data would be gathered in the research process. There can be two possible research methods which can be deployed in order to undertake research and these two methods are positivism and interpretivism. Positivism approach to the research bases on the fact that human behaviour in social context would be according to the social groups formed (Rampton, 1981). The key idea behind positivism approach is that social work exists outside and this can be measured objectively. The key idea supporting interpretivism states that social world exists in the external world and depends on the way people perceive it and interpret it. For example, Crime can be measured by making use of the interpretivism approach. For the present research context interpretivism approach would be used. Present research would be conducted in order to exhibit high degree of representativeness so that generalization can be done through the results obtained in the research. Reliability of the research would be of utmost importance as conducting research again should yield similar results. Present result would tend to provide the true picture of the issue for dementia disease and its comparison among the black Caribbean and white British people.
2.1 In your RESEARCH PROPOSAL you must match resources efficiently to your research question or hypothesis.
Matching the resources with research hypothesis and objectives would help in ensuring that study has been conducted with compliance to ethical standards and is legally done. Researcher need to comply with the ethical policies defined for the research area. The present research for comparison of dementia in black Caribbean and white British people comply all ethical standards and ethical form has been filled in order to gain clearance on ethical grounds.
In order to give credit to the particular authors, appropriate referencing method would be used in the study so that due credit is given to the authors and originality of the work can be ensured (Creswell, 2008). The work in present context would be original in all respects as this would include fresh research conducted on the research topic for obtaining outlined research objectives. Data collected from individuals would be after their consent and respondents would be given the right to take back their response during any phase of the study. Anonymity of data would be ensured in order to maintain confidentiality of the data gained from respondents. Further during research on the black Caribbean and white British people it would be ensured that there is no adverse impact on the individuals of both races. Present research would also consider the legal responsibilities while conducting the research. In case participant would decide to refuse for sharing their responses then present research would respect their decision (Thomas, 2003). Promises made during the start of research and as per ethical form would be properly taken care in the present research so as to ensure ethical compliance for the research.
Safeguarding in health and social care
2.2 Secondly, the line manager has asked that you discuss the proposed research investigation in accordance with the agreed specification and procedures in an Action Plan.
In order to conduct the present research as per research proposal implementation of the research plan is important and data collection plan would be used in order to collect and interpret the data. Target set of data collection sources would be followed properly within specific time plan allotted for the present research context. Time allotted for each task would be ensured for the current research so as to make valid interpretation from the data collected. Validity standards would be applied on the data collected so as to ensure that research can be completed as per the standard data collection plans. Reliability measures would be implemented in the current research context so as to ensure that data results are reliable and reliability measures are important so as to ensure consistency of the research results. Pilot testing would be done with the given set of data in order to obtain the feedback from the respondents (Kara, 2012). For example, in present research context pilot testing would be done with the questionnaire in order to know whether black Caribbean people are not provided with the primary healthcare treatment for identification of dementia as compared with the British people. This pilot testing would be done in order to ensure whether respondents are able to understand and interpret question correctly or not since correct interpretation of the question for respondents would help them in providing correct response. Reliability, validity and pilot testing efforts would be important for the researcher so as to ensure the answerability of the research results and overall objectives gained through the current research. Hence present research would be conducted as per the research plan developed.
2.3 Finally in your research proposal and action plan you must also discuss how you recorded and collated relevant data in your research where it was appropriate.
Data collection for the present research was related with the issue of exploring higher possibility of dementia disease among the black Caribbean people as compared to the white British people in London. Data collected in the present context was on the basis of secondary and primary research wherein primary research involved designing of questionnaire in order to collate data from the respondents (Kumar, 2005). A set of 100 respondents was selected in order to take relevant data on dementia disease and the sample set of respondents contains people of both race i.e. black Caribbean and white British people and the medical practitioners in the field of primary health care in London. Convenience sampling method allowed filling questionnaire from the people of both race as per the convenience of availability for the respondents. Responses were collected through filling physical questionnaire by contacting to the primary healthcare in London and by mailing the questionnaire to the people who were admitted in any of the primary healthcare for dementia disease. Data for the patients can be gained from the various primary healthcare centres. Pilot testing was done by taking a set of 10 respondents and checking their understanding for the questionnaire and it was found that respondents can understand the questionnaire without any manual intervention from the researcher. In addition to the primary data present research would collate secondary data through journals and existing researches in the field of dementia among the black Caribbean people and white British people. Multiple sources for the secondary data would be used so as to get the relevant data pertaining to the current research. Secondary data would be related to the comparison of dementia among the white and black people living in London. There would be lot of existing research which can be referred in order to explore the data on difference in possibility of dementia between black Caribbean and white British people
3.1 You are required to produce a summary findings for you final research meeting. In this report you will discuss how you used appropriate research evaluation techniques.
Final research meeting for the summary finding concludes that there are strong evidences for higher chances of dementia among the black Caribbean people as compared to the white British race. Chances for dementia among black people are higher by significant margin even after excluding variability for the age and socioeconomic factors in the results given. In addition to this, chances for identification of dementia among black Caribbean people were lower as compared to the white British people in primary healthcare centre which was a cause of concern. This also leads to lower rate of referring to specialist services for dementia for the black Caribbean people (Shuttleworth, 2008). So, comparative analysis shows that there are sufficient evidence for the disparity in regard to possibility of dementia between black Caribbean and white British people.
Research evaluation for the present context would allow tracking of objectives and research questions framed in the present research so as to ensure that research objectives are met by accomplishing present research. In order to monitor the accuracy of outcomes for the result it is important that validity and reliability are tested again and accuracy of data is not compromised at any stage. This wouldalso help to identify the possible error done during the research process. Accurate results would showcase that researcher is able to follow the developed research plan and understand ethical boundaries while conducting the research. Research objectives have been clearly stated in the present research and timely results would be tracked for these objectives. Hypothesis have been developed in the present research and testing would be done for the hypothesis framed in order to ensure that research provide adequate results for the developed hypothesis. Reliability for the data can also be ensured through collection of data through multiple sources and comparing the data.
3.2 You will also discuss how you interpreted and analysed the results in terms of the original research specifications.
Present research has included collection, analysis and interpretation of the data in multiple ways e.g. secondary qualitative data collected through literature review has been evaluated through content analysis method while primary quantitative data has been evaluated through statistical analysis. Interpretation and comparison of the results gained through the two research techniques would help in evaluating the research objectives and testing acceptance or rejection for the research hypothesis.
Unit 4 – Personal and professional development in health and social care
A comparison can also be done with the data collected through primary and secondary data sources as data from the journals and books would help in understanding the significance of the results which has been obtained through data collection from primary sources. Similar studies can be referred in order to check whether the particular hypothesis has been approved or rejected by other researchers (Cozby, 2001). Data gathered through multiple sources would be checked for the biases and misjudgement so that such errors do not impact upon the results obtained in the present research context.
3.3 Finally in your report you must make recommendations and justify areas for further considerations
For the present research context recommendations can be made in terms of the research result pertaining to comparison of dementia among black Caribbean people & white British people and for conducting the research. Recommendations for improvement upon the dementia disease among black Caribbean people include developing facilities for black Caribbean people in primary healthcare centre, identifying factors leading higher chances of dementia among the black Caribbean people and providing suitable treatment ways by offering specialist services for the black Caribbean dementia patients. Factors responsible for higher dementia possibility among black Caribbean people should be explored and these factors would help in order to reduce dementia disease among black Caribbean population. Primary health care centre should be developed with all facilities so that quick identification for dementia disease can be done and specialist services should be provided to them in order to treat those (Moskal & Leydens, 2000).
In order to improve upon the research process in present context it is important that an exclusive data collection plan is framed and this plan would include several resources to collect through the data at primary and secondary sources. This data collection plan would include step by step process for the data collection plan and timetable for collection of data along with data interpretation tools. Statistical analysis tools would be used to understand the important trends in the quantitative data set (Cronbach, 1971). Also pilot testing should be done with small sample size and validity & reliability of the data should be ensured as it is collected in the research process. There is also possibility for a researcher to conduct the follow up research in case research results are not as per expectation but since present research fulfils all objectives so there is no need for the follow up researc
Self-evaluation for the present research would reflect on the research process used in the research, data collection plan, hypothesis development, objective identification and research result interpretation so as to fulfil the research objectives through present research. Research process used in the current research makes use of the multiple research processes i.e. qualitative and quantitative research process. This research gains access to the qualitative data in order to explore the identification of dementia among the black Caribbean people as compared to the white British people and offering specialist services in order to treat them for dementia disease. Research process adopted in the present research is appropriate and allows gaining significant results.
Research process is such to develop accuracy and reliability for the data so that these results can be generalized. Research process also consider different data sources so that there are no biases in the research process and result obtained are accepted by all researchers in the field of present research. Data collection plan adopted for the present research makes use of both primary and secondary data so that current research takes advantage of the existing researches in this field and fresh data is also collected pertaining to current research without missing out on an opportunity for attaining accurate results for the research. Data collection process develops key tool such as reliability measure, validity measure and pilot testing so that research results are non-biased and reliable. Further sampling plan developed in the current research and sampling process has key role in order to ensure that data collection process is non-biased and produce efficient results.
Current research also complieswith the ethical standards which are important for a research to consider in order having efficient research outcomes. Legal implications related with the research have also been understood and helps in order to avoid any adverse impact on the overall research conducted pertaining to the research context. There are no adverse impacts observed in the current research on the individuals under research. Hence present research can be considered as per the developed research plan and specification so as to attain research objectives framed.
Understanding specific need in health and social care
Present research has been conducted in context to exploring dementia disease among black Caribbean people and white British people and it has been revealed that chances of dementia are much higher in black Caribbean people. Further chances of identification and referral for specialist service are low for the black Caribbean people as well. Present research has been conducted by following research specification so as to attain desired results for the research and ethical standards have been complied in the present research context.
A.P.A (1994) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders DSM-IV Fourth Edition, Washington DC, American Psychiatric Association
Auchus, A. P. (1997) Dementia in urban black outpatients: initial experience at the Emory satellite clinics. Gerontologist, 37, 25-9
Bhugra, D. & Ayonrinde, O. (2004) Depression in migrants and ethnic minorities. Advances in Psychiatric Treatment, 10, 13-17.
Boyle, M. (1998) Guidelines for evaluating prevalence studies. Evidence- Based Mental Health, 1, 27-39.
Cozby, P.C. (2001). Measurement Concepts. Methods in Behavioural Research (7th Ed.). California: Mayfield Publishing Company.
Creswell, J. W. (2008). Educational Research: Planning, Conducting, and Evaluating Quantitative and Qualitative Research. Upper Saddle River, NJ. Pearson Education, Inc.
Cronbach, L. J. (1971). Test validation. In R. L. Thorndike (Ed.). EducationalMeasurement (2nd Ed.). Washington, D. C.: American Council on Education.
Kara H (2012) Research and Evaluation for Busy Practitioners: A Time-Saving Guide, p.102. Bristol: The Policy Press
Kumar, R. (2005). Research Methodologies: A step by step guide for beginners. 1st Edition, UK. SAGE publications Ltd.
Rampton, A. (1981) West Indian children in our schools: Interim report of the Committee of Inquiry into the education of children from ethnic minority groups. London.
Shuttleworth, M. (2008). “Definition of Research”. Experiment Resources. Experiment-Research.com
Thomas, M. (2003). Blending Qualitative and Quantitative Research Methods. 1st edition. USA. Cornwin Press, Inc.
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