Human resource development is the framework to develop human resource within an organization. It develops both organization and individual to gain performance improvement. Adam Smith states, “The capacities of individuals depended on their access to education”. HRD works best when top or senior managements have the power to operate, monitor and execute it. In a decentralized system its function should be situated at a senior level.
For the last 25 years the importance of human resource development is growing rapidly all over the world. Human resource development increases the performance of an organization through developing the capabilities of employees. HRD is responsible to meet quantitative and qualitative demand for human resource in a sustainable way and it is also responsible to give weight of employee’s skills and interest. It increases potential to manage changes. It saves cost by improving productivity and efficiency and increases individual and organizational performance and effective consumption of employee’s knowledge and skills.
- Understand the role of human resource development within organizations:
2.1Compare and contrast 3 pioneer definitions of the term ‘human resource development’ (HRD)
The first definition of HRD was offered by Harbison and Myers (1964) as
“…the process of increasing the knowledge, the skills and the capacities of all the people in a society. In economic terms, it could be described as the accumulation of human capital and its effective investment in the development of an economy. In political terms, HRD prepares people for adult participation in the political process, particularly as citizens in a democracy. From the social and cultural points of view, the development of human resources helps people lead fuller and richer lives, less bound to tradition. In short, the processes of HRD unlock the door to modernization”. 
Watkins (1989) mentioned that “Human Resource Development is the field of study and practice responsible for the fostering of a long-term, work-related learning capacity at the individual, group and organizational level of organizations. As such, it includes- but is not limited to- training, career development and organizational development”. He concentrated on learning capacity training and development, career development, organizational development.
According to the Smith (1989) “Human Resource Development consists of programs and activities, direct and indirect, instructional and/or individual that positively affect the development of the individual and the productivity and profit of the organization”. He give importance on training and development, organizational performance. 
2.2 Assess the need for human resource development in organizations
Human resource is very important as it helps to facilitate those things to the organization:
- Motivation by reward: it also motivates employees by providing financial and non-financial reward for suggesting new ideas, performing and behaving betters.
- Promotions and transfer: it gives transfers and promotion to the employees based on performance
- Placement: it places right man in right job on basis of training, potential appraisal, and performance appraisal. Placement increases employee’s efficiency.
- Integrated use of sub-system: it has many subsystems like training, career planning, potential appraisal, and performance appraisal.
- Continuous in nature: HRD is a continuous process and it never stop as change is continuous in the environment and organization.
- Key element for solving problems: organization faces many problems for social, technological and economic changes and those can be solved by creative effort skills and knowledge. HRD provides those supports.
- Multidisciplinary: It uses many different subjects like economics, communication, psychology, management and education to train up and develop the employees.
- Performance appraisal: it conducts potential appraisal, performance appraisals, etc. It informs employees regarding their weakness and strength and how to increase strength and how to overcome weaknesses.
- Career Development: it provides employee’s career planning and development. It informs employees about future promotional position and how to reach there.
- Organizational development: it maintains good relations throughout the organization. It solves resistance to change, low productivity, internal conflicts and problems of absenteeism.
- Training and Development: it provides development and training to managers and employees. It improves their skills, efficiency, qualifications and qualities.
2.3 Evaluate the internal and external barriers to Learning and Development
Most barriers to development are internal rather than external. Some external barriers can be a competitor putting pressure on anyone’s sales, speed of service, or quality. These things can cause a break down in development if anyone is not careful and vary from, instead or adjusting, his development progress. Another external barrier could be under/over employing a new hire from outside of the company. If this happens anyone development can slow, go to fast, or just fall apart al together. One other way some external can affect the development of a business is a price war. This can obviously mean a price war from many different angles. A strike, a retail price was a cost price war, or even a production price war. All of these are caused by things external from the source itself.
Sometimes employees feel the internal environment is very difficult to learn. These are often expressed in terms of “If only our organisation…, was structured differently…, seemed to value learning…, put enough resources into learning…, did not have a ‘blame’ culture…” and so on. There are some barriers at an organizational level and other inter-personal or even psychological level. Inter-personal conflict, organization-employee conflict has very adverse impact on organizational performance.
Individuals may experience psychological barriers to learning as a result of:
- Previous bad experience
- Need for simple solutions
- Lack of time
- Lack of motivation
- Lack of confidence
- Old habits
- Pride 
- Be able to critically analyze learning and development theory
3.1 Evaluate learning and development theories
According to the Kolb there are four distinct learning styles based on a four-stage learning cycle. Kolb’s model is especially grateful as it helps to understand individual people’s different learning style. His model is an explanation of a cycle of experiential learning that applies to all. He also included those cycle of learning to his experiential learning theory normally named as four-stage cycle of learning. This theory provides a basis for reflection and observation.
Kolb says that “ideally (and by inference not always) this process represents a learning cycle or spiral where the learner ‘touches all the bases’, ie., a cycle of experiencing, reflecting, thinking, and acting. Immediate or concrete experiences lead to observations and reflections. These reflections are then assimilated (absorbed and translated) into abstract concepts with implications for action, which the person can actively test and experiment with, which in turn enable the creation of new experiences”.
Dennis W. Mills discusses the work of Anthony F. Gregorc and Kathleen A. Butler in his article entitled “Applying What We Know: Student Learning Styles”. Gregorc and Butler worked to organize a model describing how the mind works. This model is based on the existence of perceptions—our evaluation of the world by means of an approach that makes sense to us. These perceptions in turn are the foundation of our specific learning strengths, or learning styles. This model has two perceptual qualities: abstract and concrete and two ordering abilities: random and sequential.
Lynham mentioned that L&D is a process of producing, validating, and cultivating rational descriptions, explanations and representation of experimental or pragmatic phenomena which results in: increasing knowledge of how something operates and outcome knowledge in the form of explanative and extrapolative knowledge. 
3.2 Evaluate the concepts of Personal and Organization Development
The book “Personal and Organization Transformations” (Fisher, Rooke, and Torbert, 2003) speaks to our profession’s passion for supporting development and transformation. Their work is being elaborated on here because of their focus on both personal and organizational shifts, within the context of organizations. Personal development deals with improving personal performance whereas organizational development deals with improving a company’s performance. Personal development is a part of organizational development. Personal development focuses on regular employee’s self-improvement, creativity, assertive confidence, setting personal goal and follow the gut, management ability and emotional intelligence.
Bill Torbert brought developmental theory into leadership and organisation development with his 1987 book “The Corporate Dream”. He calls the process Action Inquiry. He writes that Action Inquiry is “a way of simultaneously conducting action and inquiry, as a disciplined leadership practice that increases effectiveness” (2004, p1). Organizational development has some methodologies and processes like balance between life and work, diversity, coaching, leadership development, organizational design and strategic planning. For doing profitable and stable business there are no other option except skilled, strong and complete employees and managers. Organizational development has various planned interventions and techniques which are implemented on organizational structure, human resources and processes within the organization. It includes various activities to improve organizational environment and performance. It analyzes informal and formal parts of the organization. Formal parts are the compensation, human resources, policy, structure, objectives and informal parts are social relationships, attitudes, values. The main purposes of organizational development are solving problems and helping people to acquire knowledge and improve skills. 
3.3 Identify and explain factors influencing demand in the tourist destination area.
Tourist demand depends on two things like: personal ability and the facilities of the tourist destination area.
Tourism industry is flourishing day by day and every country of the world try to attract more tourists to their countries. Some factors influence tourist and those are illustrating below:
- Crisis and threats
- Demographic Change
4 major factors which influence tourism demand are describing in the following portion:
Price Variable: This is the main factor which influences tourist. Tourist mainly focus on travelling or transport cost and living cost. Tourist can visit a place by air, sea and land. If the travelling and accommodation cost is relatively high, generalize tourist are not that much eager to travel that place. Price may vary with place, time, occasion, season and so on. During the summer time, travelling is more expensive than winter. Travelling to Malaysia is more expensive than Maldives.
Socio-economic factors have an effect on tourism. If the income is high people are willing to travel or visit. If income is low people are reluctant to go for travelling. For accumulating money for travelling people must have good income. Low-income people can travel in the country but it is quite tough to travel international places. Tourism also depends on individual’s leisure time, education and occupation.
Political stability and security is another important factor which influence tourist. If there are sufficient security for tourist and politics is quite stable, tourist are very much willing to visit those countries like Switzerland, Finland and so on. On the other hand, if the politics in not stable and security is not satisfactory then tourists don’t feel interest to visit. Like Nepal tourism sector hamper very badly for last 4 years for its political instability and unsecured condition.
Culture heritages and resources attract tourist to visit their countries. Like India, China has a lot of cultural heritage and resources and people visit those countries to observe their culture. Sometimes some occasions attract tourist to some countries for a certain specific time.
3.4 Review theories and models relevant to tourist motivation.
Each tourist destination places have some speciality for various services or products. For motivating tourist, first of all it is very essential to know the tourist demand and choose and feelings. There are two kinds of motivation like push and pull motivation. According to the Yoon and Uysal, “analysis of tourist motivation attempts to extend the theoretical and empirical evidence on the causal relationship among the push and pull motivations, satisfaction, and destination loyalty”. According to Seaton (1997) “motivation is a state of arousal of a drive or need which impels people to activity in pursuit of goals. Once the goals have been achieved the need subsides and the individual returns to the equilibrium-but only briefly because new motives arise as the last one is satisfied”. Krippendorf (1987), as cited in Seaton (1997) suggests that “the motivation of the individual person to travel, to look outside for what he cannot find inside have been largely created by society and shaped by everyday life. People who live in cities, for example, are motivated to travel as tourists to wilderness areas because they need to escape from an artificial, monotonous environment”. 
- Understand the organizational factors that influence learning and development.
4.1 Analyze the influence of organization leadership and culture on learning and development
Schein described the momentous roles of leadership in the creation and management of organizational culture throughout organizational growth; early stage, middle and maturity stage and later terminating stage. Leaders can mold and shape the beliefs, basic assumptions, values and shared those things to the members of the organization. He maintains good relation with everyone and he provides supports to those persons who need help very badly. First of all effective leaders have good knowledge about every person of his group or team. He knows every ones demand and needs. He monitors his subordinates regularly. He prepares variety of strategies according to the employee’s present condition and their needs. Leaders inform their higher authority regarding various training programs or education courses to increase the efficiency, productivity and effectiveness of employees. He is the role model to his subordinates and majority of them try to follow him; so a leaders play a very vital role in learning and development of employees.
Organizations culture is another important factor to influence employees on learning and development. If maximum employees are motivated, new employees will be eager to learn new skills and knowledge from experience campaigners. Managers and employees can setup good discipline around learning and development practices within the organization .
4.2 Critically analyze the impact of an organization’s environment on human resource development
There are two kinds of environment like internal environment and external environment and both of them have impact on human resource development and the impact is different than each other. Internal driving forces like events, situation and other things occur inside the organization and organization has control over those. Internal driving forces are employee morale, financial management, management systems, organizational culture and organizational of equipment and machinery. The main internal environmental factors are:
- Leadership style – leaders believe on employees, the link between organization’s business goals and employee development, commitment to employee development.
- Management practices – support for work-life balance, feedback and rewards, communication, fairness, how employees participate in decisions, how employees are involved in decisions, how work are designed, directed and distributed.
- Social support – communication between supervisors and peers and interpersonal relationships
- Pervading culture – what management pays attention to and reward, how employees think, act and feel and unconscious norms, values shared by the members of the organization.
- Competitors: related industries and global context
- Customers: preference changes, demographical changes,
- Resources: skilled workers, raw materials, finance
- Laws and regulations
4.3 Critically analyze the impact of organization strategy on human resource development.
Organizational strategy has an immense impact on human resource development. Organizational strategy has impact on human resource development; similarly human resource development has impact on organizational strategy. Organizational strategy decides how human resource development will work, what they will do, when they execute the programs and with whom it will work and so on. Many organizations use various tools to train up their employees, they have different distinguish tactics. Some may offer structural training, laboratory training and classroom education and training. The development activities include identifying employees which need training and development, providing various courses and programs according to the employee’s skills and abilities, review employees performances regularly and so on. Counseling and coaching improve employee’s confidence and performance and the relation between their subordinates and superiors. Performance management is an important tool for preparing and implementing strategic plans. It helps to integrate and align the organizational objective with the KPI’s in horizontal and vertical ways in an organization.
- Know how to develop an effective performance management program.
5.1 Analyze the nature of a performance management program and assess the links with learning and development
Performance management is a systematic process where a manager does it to measure employee’s performance in accordance to the organizational goals, mission and vision. It helps to get improve and excellence organizational results. It helps employees to know their responsibilities and their contribution to fulfilment of organizational purposes. Authority will provide training according to the employee’s skills and talents. All the members should be committed to their jobs. Performance management includes performance awards, ongoing communication and learning opportunities. Sound performance management helps employees to realize their duties, responsibilities and contributions to the organization, attaining organizations goals and objectives and getting reward according to their hard work.
The development activities include identifying employees which need training and development, providing various courses and programs according to the employee’s skills and abilities, review employees performances regularly and so on. Counseling and coaching improve employee’s confidence and performance and the relation between their subordinates and superiors. Performance management is an important tool for preparing and implementing strategic plans. It helps to integrate and align the organizational objective with the KPI’s in horizontal and vertical ways in an organization.
5.2 Apply effective performance measures in two different practical situations from organizations
There are two practical scenarios: internal failure costs and external failure costs
Internal failure costs occur when the results of work fail to reach designed quality standards and are detected before they are transferred to the customer. They could include:
- Waste – doing unnecessary work or holding stocks as a result of errors, poor organisation or communication
- Scrap – defective product or material that cannot be repaired, used or sold
- Rework or rectification – the correction of defective material or errors
- Failure analysis – activity required to establish the causes of internal product or service failure
External failure costs occur when the products or services fail to reach design quality standards, but are not detected until after transfer to the customer. They could include:
- Repairs and servicing – of returned products or those in the field
- Warranty claims – failed product that are replaced or services re-performed under a guarantee
- Complaints – all work and costs associated with handling and servicing customers’ complaints
- Returns – handling and investigation of rejected or recalled products, including transport costs
There are four key steps in a performance measurement framework – the strategic objectives of the organisation are converted into desired standards of performance, metrics are developed to compare the desired performance with the actual achieved standards, gaps are identified, and improvement actions initiated. These steps are continuously implemented and reviewed:
5.3 Critically evaluate a range of motivation theories
According to the David McClelland, successful managers make the working environment very favorable, set attainable goals, calculate risks, reward their employees and provide proper feedback to their employees. Successful managers get good respect from their followers. According to Maslow every human beings want to fulfil the lower needs first and if those needs are met then the next level will be activated. This theory has some problem like if anyone is hungry and not having shelter, he will not go to church. According to this theory people can’t do the higher things until he has the lower things. But the actual fact is that poor people are more religious than rich people, so the prediction is not accurate enough. Alderfer agreed with Maslow’s theories but he mentioned there is no hierarchy. According to Herzberg, two kinds of factors affect motivation, and they do it in different ways:
- hygiene factors. These are factors whose absence motivates, but whose presence has no perceived effect. They are things that when you take them away, people become dissatisfied and act to get them back. Examples include decent working conditions, security, pay, benefits (like health insurance), company policies, interpersonal relationships. In general, these are extrinsic items low in the Maslow/Alderfer hierarchy.
- motivators. These are factors whose presence motivates. Their absence does not cause any particular dissatisfaction, it just fails to motivate. Examples are all the things at the top of the Maslow hierarchy, and the intrinsic motivators.
So hygiene factors determine dissatisfaction, and motivators determine satisfaction. The two scales are independent, and you can be high on both.
- Understand the importance of Human Resource Development
6.1 Evaluate the growing recognition of the importance of human resource development in enhancing organization performance.
The Human Resource Department deals with management of people within the organization. There are a number of responsibilities that come with this title. First of all, the Department is responsible for hiring members of staff; this will involve attracting employees, keeping them in their positions and ensuring that they perform to expectation. Besides, the Human Resource Department also clarifies and sets day to day goals for the organization. It is responsible for organization of people in the entire Company and plans for future ventures and objectives involving people in the Company.
The manager of HRD should possess knowledge of program planning and design, as well as knowledge of how to evaluate learners, programs, and instructors. A manager of HRD should also be able to deliver or facilitate learning programs and activities. In addition, he or she must know how to assess the pacts that HRD is having on the organization and be able to effectively communicate such results to organizational decision makers.
Finally, an HRD manager must understand the importance of career development and organizational development, how they contribute to learning and development and when it is appropriate incorporate them into the learning system.
6.2 Demonstrate an understanding of processes relating to human resource development
The Human Resource Development Process
In today’s changing environment, employees at all levels need additional training and opportunity to managers to develop their management thinking. In this respect organized are required to be engaged in continuous employees training and management development program. The following picture shows the steps in the human resource development process are:
- Identifying training and development needs
- Establishing training and development objectives
- Selecting training and development methods and media
- Implementing the actual training and development program
- Conducting evaluation and follow-up
Understand the purposes, relevance and value of specific management development initiatives and programs.
7.1 Assess the importance of management development to organization performance
Management techniques are very important for an organization as it changes with external and internal environment of an organization to improve organizational performance. Development of management is very important aspect of management. Management development means a process where it develop, train, educate workers, supervisors and managers. Management development may teach:
- structured informal learning: work-based methods aimed at structuring the informal learning which will always take place
- formal training courses of various kinds: from very specific courses on technical aspects of jobs to courses on wider management skills
Leadership which deals with emotions is an important component of management which is about rational thinking.
By producing the best management skills and showing them how to get the most out of their employees, management development can create a great place to work, with staffs who know exactly what the company is doing and where it is going. If the top of the chain know the most they can possibly know about the company, the market and how to treat their employees and customers then the rest of the staff usually follow suit, meaning a great working environment is created. A great working environment give the opportunity to the workers give their full effort and organization goal are achieved by improving personal and organizational performance.
Human resources development, in a sense, represents a broad vision of the relationship between individuals and society regarding their capabilities and capacities for sustainable economic development.The main important elements of human resources development are employers and workers. Companies provide human resources development to motivate and inspire employees to give their full effort and increase performance. Success in the HRD process depends on the quality of analysis of what is involved in organizational performance, task performance and individual performance. It depends upon a coherent and integrated performance management system as a whole. Most of the companies are too much concerned about mass production and don’t bother about human resource development. Mass production is appropriate for its time but in modern era organization has to concern about employee development and skill development. For generating new ideas and innovation, increasing efficiency and predictability, building brand loyalty there is no other option except employee development.
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