The Relationship Between The Education Level Of Employees Management Essay

The Relationship Between The Education Level Of Employees Management Essay
LITERATURE REVIEW


A literature review is an examination of the research that has been conducted in the particular field of study. Hart (1998) defines literature review as:
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The selection of available documents (both published and unpublished) on the topic, which contain information, ideas, data and evidence. It is written from a particular standpoint to fulfill certain aims or express certain views on the nature of the topic and how it is investigated, and

The effective evaluation of theses documents in relation to the research being proposed.

The present chapter have three main sections, first encompasses review of research work relating to job satisfaction, second section incorporates review of work motivation literature and the last the last third section includes review of organizational commitment studies.

JOB SATISFACTION:

Oshagbemi (2003) studied 554 academicians from 23 universities of UK. It was revealed that males were more satisfied than their female counterparts. In terms of positions, lecturers were found least satisfied, preceded by Sr.lecturer and Professors, Readers were found most satisfied in the study. Study also highlighted that job satisfaction among academicians increased with age and experience; as teachers of age group 55 years and more were found most satisfied followed by teachers in age group 45 to 54 years and 35 to 44 tears respectively; where as teachers of age less than 35 years were least satisfied. Teachers in general were found highly satisfied with their co-workers.

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Oshagbemi (2000) studied 554 University teachers to reveal that over all job satisfaction did not differ on the basis of gender, but females were found more satisfied with present pay than their male counter parts where as males were more satisfied with the physical conditions of the job than females. Females and males were equally satisfied with promotions opportunities. Also, female Professor, Readers and Sr. Lectures were more satisfied than their male counterparts.

Tsigilis, Zachopoulou and Grammatekopoulos (2006) studied 178 educators from public and private schools. It was found that teachers were most satisfied with "job itself", "immediate supervisor" followed by "working conditions", they were found dissatisfied with compensation and other economic benefits. Teachers in public sector were found more satisfied than teachers in private sectors.

Bockerman and Ilmakunnas (2006) studied 2850 Finnish wage and salary earners to reveal that adverse working conditions have a negative effect not only on job satisfaction of the individuals but also on the perception of fairness of pay. Though adverse working conditions have a very minor role in the individual pay determination.

Yousef (1997) revealed that there exists a positive correlation between satisfaction with job security and organizational commitment, meaning that more employees are satisfied with security, the more they are committed to the organization. Also, it was found that job security increases with age tenure in present organization, income and job level. Married individuals were found more satisfied with security than the unmarried ones. Individuals in manufacturing organizations were more satisfied with job security than those in service industry.

Chileshe and Haupt (2009) studied 65 construction workers to reveal that older workers were more satisfied with their job than their younger counterparts. Both young and old workers ranked personal development and quality of life as the most important job satisfaction where as both very dissatisfied with supervisor and co-workers.

Chen and Silverthorne (2008) studied 209 public accountants in Taiwan. It was found from the study that locus of control plays an important role in predicting individual job satisfaction, stress and performance. Individual with internal locus of control has low stress level and high job satisfaction and performance.

Pelit, Ozturk and Arslanturk (2011) revealed in the study of 1859 hotel employees that relations with colleagues and physical conditions have a strong positive impact on job satisfaction of the individuals, where as employees were found least satisfied with wages and financial benefits. Also, it was found that psychological and behavioral empowerment effects the satisfaction level of individual.

In the study of "Work- family conflict and job satisfaction in stressful working environment" Hue (2011) studied 518 individuals to examine the impact of supervisor support and internal locus of control on work- family conflicts with job satisfaction. It was revealed from the study that increased work- family conflict lead to high job dissatisfaction and vise- versa. Also, supervisor support and internal locus of control have a direct effect on job satisfaction of the individuals.

Aremu and Adeyoju (2003) studied 396 males and 196 females to explore that mentored males are more committed to their job than females where as mentored female police more satisfied than their mentored male counter parts.

Chiun Lo and Ramayah (2011) examined 159 male executives to study the impact of mentoring on employee job satisfaction. It was revealed from the study that career mentoring have a positive relationship with all aspects of job satisfaction such as co-workers, job, promotion and supervisors where as no significant relationship was found between co-workers, job itself, promotion and psychological mentoring.

Healy and Mc Kay (2000) in their study of "Nursing Stress: the effect of coping" studied 129 Australian nurses to explore the impact of job stress on coping strategies and job satisfaction. It was revealed from the study that high job stress lead to high degree of job dissatisfaction.

Jain, Jabeen, Mishra and Gupta (2007) in their study of 78 managers and 80 engineers from Indian Oil Corporation revealed that managers and engineers were equally satisfied with their job, though engineers experienced higher occupational stress than managers. Study also revealed that highly paid managers and engineers were more satisfied than their lower paid counter parts. Occupational stress was found to have a negative effect on individual’s job satisfaction level.

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Samad (2011) conducted a study to examine the relationship between organizational commitment and job performance. It was revealed from the study that their exist a positive relationship between organizational commitment and job performance; i.e. higher organizational commitment lead to better job performance. It was also explored in the study that job satisfaction has a moderate effect on the relationship between organizational commitment and job performance.

Yousef (2002) investigated the role of job satisfaction between role stressors and organizational commitment. In his study of 361 employees from UAE it was revealed that role ambiguity negatively effect affective and normative commitment, where as job satisfaction has a direct and positive influence on affective and normative commitment but negative influence on continuance commitment. It was also found that role stressors i.e. role ambiguity and role conflict have a direct and negative impact on job satisfaction of the individual.

To study the relationship between job involvement, job satisfaction and three dimensions of organizational commitment i.e. affective commitment, normative commitment and continuance commitment. Kuruuzum, Cetin and Irmak (2009) conducted a study on 439 employees working in Turkey. It was explored from the study that job involvement, affective and normative commitment increases the job satisfaction. Also, job involvement was found to effect affective and normative commitment positively but no such relationship was found between continuance commitment and job satisfaction and job involvement.

Silverthorne (2004) studied the impact of organizational culture and person- organization fit on job satisfaction and organizational commitment; it was found in the study that organization culture have a impact job satisfaction and organizational commitment. Bureaucratic organization culture lead to lower job satisfaction and organizational commitment and innovative and supportive organization culture lead to higher level of job satisfaction and organizational commitment of the employees. P-O fit was also found to have impact on job satisfaction and organizational commitment; better P-O fit lead to higher job satisfaction and organizational commitment.

Lam and Zhang (2003) studied the relationship between unmet job expectations, job satisfaction and organizational commitment among 203 new joiners in Hong Kong fast food industry. The results revealed that the expectations of these new joiners are generally unmet and job characteristics, training and development, compensation and fairness have a relationship with job satisfaction and organizational commitment. The study also revealed that better defined job characteristic, better training and development and higher compensation and fairness lead to high job satisfaction and organizational commitment.

Feuille and Blandin (1974) studied 454 academic rank personal including not only the core teaching faculty but also administrators, consular, librarians, researchers and others with academic rank. It was revealed that faculty members were satisfied with teaching career but were dissatisfied with economic rewards, decision making procedure and personals, support facilities and services and with campus and higher administrative levels. It was also found that teachers at lower level were more in support of collective bargaining system; no significant difference was found between males and females regarding bargaining.

Ting-hong (1989) studied 275 secondary school teachers to reveal that teachers satisfied with social prestige and job nature have less intent to change the job; where as satisfaction with money was not found as a significant determinant in explaining teacher’s desire to quit job.

Abdulla, Djebari and Mellahi (2010) in the study 1017 Dubai police employees were studied, revealing that the environmental factors are key factors in determining the general job satisfaction of the employees, whereas demographic factors are not that a significant indicator of employees job satisfaction. Eleven factors were identified which highlighted the job satisfaction of the employees, most important among them proved to be salary and incentives followed by supervision and then by public perception and promotion opportunity.

Okpara (2004) in the study carried by researcher investigating job satisfaction of 360 IT sector employees in Nigeria on 5 parameters i.e. pay, promotion, co-workers, work and supervision; revealed that the employees are most satisfied with co-workers, work and supervision whereas are least satisfied with present pay and promotion. It also explained that job satisfaction could be predicted from personal variables like gender, age, education level, income and total years of experience but all variables don’t contribute in the same degree; as in the present study income turned out to be the strongest predicator of job satisfaction.

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Koustelios (2001) studied 354 Greek teachers to examine the level of job satisfaction among them also to study the extent to which demographic factors like gender, marital status, and qualifications predict job satisfaction. It was revealed that teachers find job satisfaction strongly related the with nature of job and supervision while lowest job satisfaction is connected with pay and promotion. Out of six identified job satisfaction aspects; working conditions, pay, job itself, supervision, promotion and organization as a whole; gender was found to be sig. predictor of only working condition, where women were more satisfied with working conditions then men. Level of education was significant predictor of working conditions, supervision and promotion. Where as marital status was not found to be significant predictor of job satisfaction.

Crossman and Abou- Zaki (2001) in their study of job satisfaction and performance of 202 non-managerial banking staff of Lebanese revealed that there exist no sig relationship between job satisfaction and performance. Although it was also revealed that employees were more satisfied with co-workers and supervision and less satisfied with work, promotion and pay. Female employees were found to be more satisfied with pay then their male counterparts whereas male employees were more satisfied with supervision than their female counterparts. Employees with least education were the least satisfied employees.

Stevens (2005) studied the Job Satisfaction of English Academics and their intention to quit academics for 2722 respondents from four old, five new universities and one college of higher education. The results reveal that there is no significant difference between the satisfaction level of male and female in academics. It also states that the satisfaction with non pecuniary aspects of academic job tends to decrease with seniority at early stage of career, but increases later on. The study also highlights that the Professors and Senior. Lecturers are up to great extend happy with their job, but the same does not hold good for non-permanent staff, who are happy with their earnings with not with elements of their jobs and are more intended to leave the job.

Zembylas and Papanastaiou (2004) highlighted in the study of Job Satisfaction among teachers in Cyprus that the job satisfaction of teachers increases with age as they get salary rise and promotions. Also that with the increase in cadre the satisfaction increases. The finding showed that, Cyprus teachers chose the teaching career because of salary, the hours and holidays associated with the profession.

Oshagdemi (1997) investigated to find that academics and managers are on same satisfaction level with respect of administration and management, present pay and research. Managers drive more satisfaction from teaching, co-worker’s behaviour, and head of unit’s behaviour, physical/working conditions and promotions. On overall basis managers were more satisfied than academicians.

Eyupoglu and Saner (2009) studied the Job Satisfaction, Intrinsic satisfaction and Extrinsic satisfaction, showing that overall satisfaction is highest in lecturer with Ph.D. followed with professors and is minimum in associate professors. Intrinsic satisfaction was maximum in professors and minimum in associate professors and extrinsic satisfaction was highest in lecturers with Ph.D. and lowest in lecturers with master degree. There was found no relation in job satisfaction and rank.

Santhapparaj and Alam (2005) investigated Job Satisfaction among academic Staff in Private Malaysian University taking a sample of 173 teachers from 3 different universities. In this research it was found that the their exists a positive relationship between the pay, promotion, working conditions, support for research and job satisfaction whereas fringe benefits and support for teaching are negatively related to the job satisfaction. It was also found that females are more satisfied than their male counterparts.

Oshagbemi (1999) explains that the Level of satisfaction in UK academics in relation to co-workers behavior is overall satisfied, as 70 percent are said to be satisfied compared to just 17 percent being dissatisfied and only 13 percent having a neutral attitude. Further it was found that gender have no relation with the job satisfaction of the employees as male and females were reported to be equally satisfied, when rank was examined in relation to co-workers behavior it was found that readers were most satisfied followed with professors, senior lectures and lectures. When age was examined than it was found that old workers were deriving more satisfaction compared to the young ones.

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Oshagbemi and Hickson (2003) studied the satisfaction of UK university academics with pay and primary responsibilities i.e. teaching and research in Some Aspects of overall Job Satisfaction. It was revealed in the study that pay satisfaction and gender have a strong positive relation as women tend to be more satisfied than their male counterparts though no such relation was found between gender and teaching and research. Also, it drew that the negative effect of job dissatisfaction increased dramatically with age and length of service.

Oshagdemi (1997) explained the Influence of Rank on the Job Satisfaction it was revealed that rank has affect on the academic’s level of job satisfaction, it also studied the inter relationship between pay, promotion, physical condition and job satisfaction. It was found that the rank have a positive relation with the job satisfaction i.e. higher job rank feels more satisfied than individuals at lower job ranks. It was also revealed that the gender by itself does not affect job satisfaction but when taken into account with rank, females tend to be more satisfied than males. Whereas pay satisfaction and satisfaction with physical condition doesn’t depend on rank, as senior. lecturer and reader are most satisfied on these bases, respectively. Though satisfaction with promotion is dependent on rank as professors are most satisfied while lecturers the least.

Eskildsen and Kristensen and Westlund (2003) revealed in the study of Work Motivation and Job Satisfaction that among Nordic Countries, Danish workers are most satisfied while Swedish are reported to be least satisfied. Females are slightly more satisfied than men. Managers are more satisfied than non managers and also that, though satisfaction decreases with higher level of education but higher education showed higher level of intrinsic work motivation.

Noordin and Jusoff (2009) studied the level of Job Satisfaction among Malaysian Public Universities and found general satisfaction of academic staff is moderate in the university. It also found that demographic factors like gender, age, marital status, salary, current position appear to present antecedent conditions of general satisfaction. Though the satisfaction increases with age and salary and also that never married and married people are more satisfied than divorced people.

Lok and Crawford (1999) found while examining The Relationship between Organizational

Commitment and Organizational Culture, Sub Culture, Leadership Style and Job Satisfaction in

Organizational Change and Development that organizational subculture are more closely related to organizational commitment then organizational culture. Also control over working environment was highly correlated with commitment.

Gaertner (1999) analyzed the determinants (pay workload, distributive justice, promotional chances, supervisory support, etc.) of job satisfaction and organizational commitment. The findings showed that job satisfaction is a cause of organizational commitment.

Aksu and Aktas (2005) investigated job satisfaction of middle and upper level managers in five-star hotels and first-class holiday villages. The findings indicate that the working conditions should be improved in order to increase general job satisfaction (working conditions, extrinsic job satisfaction, and intrinsic job satisfaction) of the managers since promotion, morale conditions, financial rewards, compensation and fringe benefits, working hours are important factors that affect the satisfaction level of the managers.

Ghiselli et al. (2001) focused on food service employees, which included managerial levels. The respondents indicated that salary; benefit packages, working hours, family, and quality of life were the reasons for satisfaction and/or dissatisfaction. The assistant managers were more likely to tell of their intent to leave than are higher level managers.

Igalens and Roussel (1999) studied two sets of employees 269 exempted and 297 non- exempted employees to access the relationship between compensation, work motivation and job satisfaction in these two sets separately. The results revealed that for exempted employees individualized compensation works as a motivator. Flexible pay was neither found to motivate nor increase job satisfaction of non- exempted employees and benefits given in the compensation package neither motivate nor satisfied the both exempted and non- exempted employees.

Lacy and Sheehan (1997) studied academicians from eight countries i.e. Australia, Germany, Hong Kong, Israel, Mexico, Sweden, UK and USA. In general, males were found more satisfied than females with most aspects of their job. Males were more satisfied than females on dimensions like job security, promotion prospects and on overall basis also males were more satisfied than females. Study also revealed that factors related to academic work environment, morale, sense of community and relationship with colleagues are most important predictors of academician’s job satisfaction.

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Manger and Eikeland (1990) in their work titled Factors predicting Staff’s intentions to leave the University studied the factors that have impact on academician’s intention to leave the university. The results showed relation with colleagues to be the biggest predictor of intention of leaving. General Job satisfaction was found to be second most important predictor of academician’s intention to leave. Salary and economic aspects were not found to have any significant effect on intention of stay or leave.

Chimanikire et.al., (2007) studied 65 males and 15 female academicians from tertiary institutions in Zimbabwe. The study revealed that in general academicians were found dissatisfied with their jobs. The main causes of dissatisfaction identified were inadequate salaries and allowances, loans to facilitate purchase of houses, housing stands and cars as well as increasing volume of work. Where as, Inter-personal relationships, job security, supervision, opportunities for personal development and working experience were not found to affect job satisfaction significantly.

DeVaney and Chen (2003) in their study titled Job satisfaction of recent graduates in Financial Services concluded that demographic variables such as age, gender, race, and education have a effect on job satisfaction. Study revealed that older workers were more satisfied than younger workers and also that non-white employees were less satisfied than white employees. Work related variables such as whether the job is interesting, good relations with management, job security, higher pay, a sense of control over one's work were identified as important factors fundamental to job satisfaction.

Ahsan et.al., (2009) in their empirical study of job stress and job satisfaction among 203 academicians of Malaysian University revealed that motivation is the key factor which affects the job stress of the employees. The results also show that there is a significant negative relationship between job stress and job satisfaction i.e. increased job stress leads to decreased job satisfaction.

Humborstad and Perry (2011) studied 209 Chinese employees to test the relationship between perceived empowerment practices, job attitudes and turnover intentions. The study revealed that job attitudes i.e. job satisfaction and organizational commitment has a significant relationship with empowerment practices and turnover intentions.

Westover and Taylor (2009) studied international job satisfaction using non- panel longitudinal data from International Social Survey Program on Work Orientation I,II and III for 1989, 1997 and 2005. Findings of the analysis clearly highlighted that both extrinsic and intrinsic rewards effects respondents’ job satisfaction, but intrinsic rewards such as interesting job and job autonomy explain the most variance followed by work- relation with management. Also, both job and organizational factors were found to be good predictor of job satisfaction. In contrast, public-service motivation and work relations with co-workers were not found to play a significant role in shaping respondents job satisfaction. Age was found to be a significant antecedent of job satisfaction.

Williams and Anderson (1991) studied organizational commitment and job satisfaction as predictors of organizational citizenship and in-role behaviors. Organizational commitment was not found to be a predictor of organizational citizenship behavior but was found to significantly related with job satisfaction.

Meyer, Allen and Smith (1993) studied the relationship between performance, affective and continuance commitment and job satisfaction. They found that affective commitment was positively related with job performance where as continuance commitment was found to be negatively correlated with job performance. Job satisfaction was not found correlated with job performance.

Alderfer (1967) studied job satisfaction in the context of job complexity and seniority. The major findings were that satisfaction with respect to superiors decreased as job complexity increased and as seniority increased, and satisfaction with use of skills and abilities increased as job security. Employees holding enlarged jobs, as compared to employees holding analogous but narrowly delimited jobs, showed less satisfaction with respect from superiors and more satisfaction with opportunities to use their skills and abilities. Satisfaction with pay was found to be significantly higher in the enlarged jobs then in the regular ones. Satisfaction with respect from superiors decreased as seniority increased.

The relationship between the education level of an employees and satisfaction has also been a subject investigated in scholarly research. According to Bluedorn (1982) education levels were not significant to job satisfaction, but they did influence the decision to leave a company by an employee. Interestingly, the higher the education level, the more likely an employee indicated intent to leave the company.

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Adams, King and King (1996) studied the relationship between job and family involvement, family social support and work family conflict with job and life satisfaction. Results suggested that relationship between work and family have an important effect on job and life satisfaction and the level of involvement the worker assigns to work and family roles are associated with this relationship.

Much research has been done on Job Satisfaction and variables such as age, absenteeism and productivity. According to Spector (1997) "Research has shown that age and job satisfaction are related. The exact nature of the relation is unclear, as some studies have found a curved, where as, others have found a linear relation".

Origo and Pagani (2008) while studying the relationship between workplace flexibility and job satisfaction found a positive link between functional flexibility and job satisfaction and either no effect or a negative impact of quantitative flexibility on factors including employee involvement, multi- skilling, teamwork, work autonomy, training, temporary work, part time work and flexible working time. Also the study established that positive impact of functional flexibility is greater when considering satisfaction for intrinsic aspects of the job.

Turkeyilmaz, Akman, Ozkan and Pastuszak (2011) identified the factors which determine the level of public employee’s job satisfaction and as result help to have effective and efficient management system in the public sector, in developing countries. The results reveal that there is a strong relationship between employee satisfaction and loyalty. Training and personal development was found the most effecting factor of satisfaction. The study also finds a positive relationship between working conditions and job satisfaction.

Boyer et al. (1994) conducted an international study that explored among other factors, sources of satisfaction and frustration among professors in 14 countries (Australia, Brazil, Chile, USA, UK, Germany, Israel, Hong Kong, The Netherlands, Korea, Japan, Russia, Sweden and Mexico). The results of this research showed, perhaps not surprisingly, that professors reported a high sense of satisfaction with their intellectual lives and the courses they taught as well as their relationships with colleagues. Contrary to Herzberg's theory, this finding showed that both intrinsic and extrinsic factors can contribute to job satisfaction. Most faculty members, however, felt that they were not well paid. Only in Hong Kong and the Netherlands did more than 50% of faculty rate their own salary as 'good' or 'excellent'. For instance, only 46% of surveyed professors in the USA rated their salaries favorably. In nearly half the responding countries more than 40% of the surveyed professors reported their job was a source of considerable strain with Japanese, Russian, and Korean faculty reporting the most pressure.

Opolot (1991) found that (ITEK) academic staff was dissatisfied with their pay. He concluded that if job satisfaction was to prevail in an institution, there should be fair remuneration of staff based on output, experience and level of education.

Kyamanywa (1996) investigated job satisfaction in Uganda's tertiary institutions. The results showed that four factors affected job satisfaction: Incentives, pay packages, leadership styles and the obtaining conditions at the work place. The results would seem to show again that

in an environment of scarcity where lower-order needs are not being met, hygiene factors tend to shape the job satisfaction of workers.

Mulindwa (1998) assessed job satisfaction among academic and administrative staff at Polytechnic College, Kyambogo. Analysis of qualitative evidence revealed that levels of remuneration were the greatest contributor to job satisfaction among staff, followed by government policy on higher education and institutional policy, in that order. This finding may contradict Herzberg's theory, which assumes that extrinsic rewards such as salary contribute towards reducing dissatisfaction but of themselves do not increase job satisfaction.

Some demographic factors have influence on Job satisfaction as showed in some research works.

Griffin, Patterson and West (2001) investigated link between teamwork and job satisfaction on a sample of 4708 employees from 48 manufacturing companies. Two separate research questions were addressed. First, it was proposed that supervisor support would be a weaker source of job satisfaction in companies with higher levels of team working. Second, it was proposed that the extent of teamwork would be positively related to perceptions of job autonomy but negatively related to perceptions of supervisor support. Multilevel analysis indicated that the extent of teamwork moderated the relationship between individual perceptions of supervisor support and job satisfaction. Results of the study provided evidence for a complex meditational path between teamwork and job satisfaction.

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OGANIZATIONAL COMMITMENT REVIEW: 23

Ben- Bakr.et.el (1994) studied 442 employees from Saudi Arabian organizations to highlight that organizational commitment, job satisfaction; value commitment and continuance commitment have an impact on employees turnover. It was found in the study, that among these variables, organizational commitment has a significant correlation with turnover i.e. high organizational commitment lead to low turnover and vise-versa. Continuance commitment was not found to be a significant predicator of turnover.

Goulet and Frank studied 228 employees from three sectors 117 (For profit), 66 (Non profit) and 45 (Public sector). It was revealed from the study that employees from For -profit organizations were most satisfied, followed by employees from Non-Profit organizations; where as employees from Public Sector were found least satisfied. Also, age was found inversely related to organizational commitment, i.e. younger employees were found to be more committed to organization than their aged counterparts.

Scandura and Lankau (1997) explored the relationship of flexible working hours on job satisfaction and organizational commitment on 260managers. It was found in the study that women managers were found more committed and satisfied when the organization offered them flexible working hours.

Celep explored organizational commitment of 302 teachers on four dimensions namely; commitment to school, commitment to teaching occupation, commitment to teaching work and commitment to work group. It was revealed in the study that a strong positive relationship exists between commitment to teaching work and commitment to school and commitment to teaching occupation; where as low correlation was found between commitment to work group and commitment to teaching profession and commitment to school and teaching profession. It was found in the study that teachers who are proud of teaching occupation and are proud of their work group are more committed to the organization than their other counterparts. Increase in service of teachers was found to have a positive impact on their commitment level i.e. with increase in duration of service organizational commitment of teachers tends to increase.

In their study "Employee Commitment in changing organizations: an exploration" Nijhof, Jong and Beukef (1998) explored 260 Human Resource managers to explore that commitment is strongly connected with colleagues and style of management. No significant relationship was found between Personal Characteristics of individual and organizational commitment. Job characteristics and leadership was found to be significantly related to organizational commitment; where as organization size, job int…., variety, autonomy and feedback were not found to have a strong relation with organizational commitment.

To study the impact of Human Resources practices on individual organizational commitment and intention to stay. Chew and Chan (2007) conducted a study on 457 employees of different Public and Private sector organizations to explore that P-O fit has a significant positive impact on organizational commitment and intention to stay. It was also found that remuneration, recognition and challenging assignments have a positive relationship with organizational commitment and intention to stay; where as no such relationship was found between training and development and organizational commitment and intention to stay.

In their study of 41 men and 64 women from various Litheanian organizations Labatmediene, Endriulaitiene and Gustainiene (2007) found men and women to have same level of commitment. They also found in the study that organizational commitment of individual tends to increase with age; where as it has a negative relationship with education. No relationship was found between organizational commitment and tenure of service. Personality traits were not found related to organizational commitment.

Chen, Silverthorne and Hung (2005) studied 87 Taiwan and 57 USA accounting Professionals and Managers to asses the impact and relationship between organizational commitment, job stress, organization communication and job performance among these professionals. No significant difference was found in stress and communication levels on the basis of nationality but organizational commitment and job performance was found higher in the USA. A positive relationship was found between organizational commitment, organization communication and job performance, where as, no relationship was found between job stress and organization communication they appeared to be independent variables.

Singh and Vinnicombe (2000a) suggested in their study that in the workplace women are perceived as having lower levels of organizational commitment than men, a view that they do not support. Their study shows that women's commitment involves different emotional considerations to those of the men in their study. Their approach draws on the shared and different meanings of commitment between male and female engineers, utilizing a qualitative case-study approach. However, their analysis focuses on trends and themes rather than utilizing an interpretive approach (Singh and Vinnicombe, 2000b), suggesting that in-depth qualitative research is required into how emotions influence, or are linked to, work commitment as a whole.

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Stallworth (2003) suggested that while organizational commitment in the public accounting environment can be conceptualized in terms of affective, moral and economic attachment to the firm, affective commitment is the most descriptive of these constructs. While mentoring relationships have a positive impact on each of the dimensions of commitment, affective commitment is most influenced. Affective commitment in the public accounting workplace develops as a result of distinct antecedent experiences and has direct implications for the consequence of interest and intentions to leave.

Lu, Kong, Hussin and Jusoff (2008) studied 161 hotel employees in Malaysia revealing that both mandatory and fringe benefits influence the organizational commitment of the employees, though giving more fringe benefits increases the organizational commitment more than giving mandatory benefits.

The examination of relationship between commitment and organizational culture, subculture, leadership style and job satisfaction in organizational change and development, revealed that organizational sub culture were better predicator of organizational commitment than organizational culture; ( ) it was also found that the consideration leadership style is relatively better related to organizational commitment. Higher order needs or intrinsic factors are most important to job satisfaction and thus to organizational commitment than extrinsic factors. Age was found to be positively related to organizational commitment whereas no such relationship was found between level of education, years in position and years of clinical experience.

Joolideh and Yeshodhara (2008) studied 721 teachers from India and Iran to study the overall commitment level of teachers in these countries and to explore the impact of age and subject taught on commitment level of teachers. The results reveled that, Indian and Iranian teachers did not differ significantly in their total organizational commitment. Indian teachers demonstrated better organizational commitment in affective and normative aspects, Iranian teachers displayed better on continuance commitment component. No relationship was found between age and organizational commitment and between subjects taught and organizational commitment.

To study the impact of socio-demographic factors (age, gender, marital status, educational qualification, job tenure), job satisfaction, locus of control as determinant of organizational commitment Popoola (2009) studied 220 record management personal from 24 Private Universities in Nigeria. It was explored in the study that gander and marital status has a significant correlation with organizational commitment; single (unmarried) record management personal exhibited higher organizational commitment than married personal. Age and job tenure also had a positive correlation with organizational commitment. i.e. increase in age and job tenure leads to higher organizational commitment. Educational qualification had negative relationship with organizational commitment. Study also revealed that job satisfaction and locus of control have a significant correlation with organizational commitment. It was also highlighted in the study that socio-demographic factors, job satisfaction and locus of control are significant determinant of organizational commitment of record management personal.

To study the relationship between charismatic leadership behaviors and organizational commitment Rowden (1999) studied 245 respondents from six organizations of South- Eastern USA. The study revealed that leaders who are sensitive to members and have clear vision and articulation have a impact on the organizational commitment of the members. In the study older people were found more committed to the organization.

Sezgin (2008) studied 405 primary school teachers to study the relationship between their organizational commitment and psychological hardiness. The results highlighted that psychological hardiness is positively and significantly related to both identification and internalization components of teacher commitment, whereas it is negatively and significantly correlated to the commitment predicated on compliance. Teacher compliance commitment is negatively associated with both identification and internalization. Although gender and years of experience are significant predictors of identification and internalization, the variables of subject specialization and age did not significantly predict teacher commitment.

Elizur and Koslowsky (2000) studied 204 students to examine the relationship between work values, gender and organizational commitment. A moderated regression analysis showed that work values, especially cognitive ones, are positively related with commitment and the interaction of values with gender was also found to be a significant predictor of commitment.

Investigated 251 respondents to study the relationship between commitment and organization culture, sub- culture, leadership style and job satisfaction in the organization change and development. It was explored in the study that organizational subculture was more strongly related to commitment than was organizational culture. Satisfaction with the level of control over working environment had the highest correlation with the level of commitment. The leadership style variable, consideration, was also relatively strongly related to commitment when compared with other variables. There was a small positive association between age and commitment. Where as, level of education, years in position and years of experience failed to show any relationship with commitment.

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Keller (1997) established a significant positive correlation between job tenure and organizational commitment of scientists and engineers from four industrial research and development organizations in the USA. This study also found that there was a significant correlation between organizational commitment and monthly salary of the respondents, i.e. higher the monthly salary of the respondents, the more they exhibit high organizational commitment.

Rashid, Sambasivan and Johari (2003) studied 202 managers from public listed companies, the results show that there is a significant correlation between corporate culture and organizational commitment. Both corporate culture type and organizational commitment have an influence on the financial performance of these companies.

Maignan and Ferrell (1999) did exploratory research on the nature of corporate citizenship and its relevance for marketing practitioners and academic researchers. The empirical investigation was conducted in two independent samples to examine whether components of an organizational culture affect the level of commitment to corporate citizenship and whether corporate citizenship was conducive to business benefits. The results showed that the a market-oriented culture as well as humanistic culture has led to proactive corporate citizenship, which in turn was associated with improved levels of employees' commitment.

Jernigan et al.(2002) examined the role that specific aspects of work satisfaction play as predictors of organizational commitment type. The researcher found out that affective commitment varied with one's satisfaction with aspects of the work context.

Maxwell and Steele (2003) conducted their research among hotel managers and identified some key issues like high levels of equal pay; employer's interest in them; co-operation and trust between the employees as well as between the other managers in the hotel; and opportunities to engage in social activities that would increase the commitment level of the managers.

Kim et al. (2005) examined the relationship between employee service orientation (customer focus, organizational support, and service under pressure) and employees' job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and employees' intention of leaving. The sample consisted of restaurant employees and the findings revealed that customer focus of service providers are negatively associated with job satisfaction but positively related with organizational commitment; organizational support is positively associated with job satisfaction; and organizational commitment is negatively associated with intention of leaving the organization.

To study the effect of work- family conflict, emotional exhaustion and intrinsic motivation on job performance, job satisfaction and affective organizational commitment Karatepe and Tekinkus (2006) studied 363 front line employees in retail banks of Turkey. The results of the study revealed that work-family conflict increase emotional exhaustion and decrease

job satisfaction. Intrinsic motivation was found to exert a significant negative impact on emotional exhaustion. Results also demonstrated that high levels of intrinsic motivation result in high levels of job performance, job satisfaction, and affective commitment. The empirical results also indicate that emotional exhaustion exerts a significant negative effect on job satisfaction. Study also highlighted that high level of job performance led to increased job satisfaction. Work-family conflict and emotional exhaustion were not found to significantly effect job performance and affective organizational commitment. The study also explored the positive effect of job performance and job satisfaction on affective organizational commitment.

Warsi, Fatima and Sahibzada (2009) conducted a study on 191 respondents to explore the relationship between organizational commitment, work motivation and job satisfaction. The findings revealed that their exist a positive and significant relationship exists between work motivation, overall job satisfaction and organizational commitment. Both independent variables were found strongly related with organizational commitment, the impact of job satisfaction on organizational commitment is relatively stronger than that of the work motivation on organizational commitment.

Tella, Ayeni and Popoola (2007) found in study of Work Motivation, Job Satisfaction and Organizational Commitment of 200 academic and research library members that there exists a co-relation between work motivation, job satisfaction and commitment although motivation was negatively related with organization commitment.

Lok and Crawford (2001) studied 251 nurses to investigate the relationship between employees perception of organizational culture, sub culture and job satisfaction and organizational commitment. The findings of the study revealed that subculture has a greater influence on commitment than organizational culture. Innovative subculture had a strong and positive effect on commitment where as bureaucratic subculture was found to effect commitment negatively. Job satisfaction and organizational commitment were found to have appositive relationship. Also, age was found to have a positive effect on organizational commitment i.e. older nurses were found more committed than their younger counterparts.

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To study the effect of Islamic work ethic on job satisfaction and organizational commitment Yousef (1999) undertook a study of 425 Muslim employees several organizations of the UAE. The results revealed that Islamic work ethic directly affects both organizational commitment and job satisfaction, and that it moderates the relationship between these two constructs. Results also highlighted that national culture does not moderate the relationship between the Islamic work ethic and organizational commitment and job satisfaction. Furthermore, empirical results also recommend that there is a positive and significant relationship between job satisfaction and organizational commitment.

To study the role of organizational commitment and job satisfaction in predicting attitude towards organizational change Yousef (1999) under took an investigation of 474 employees from 30 organizations of UAE. The outcomes revealed that employees' affective and behavioral attitudes toward organizational change increase with the increase in affective commitment, and that continuance commitment directly and negatively influences cognitive attitudes toward change. Results further show that affective commitment influences the satisfaction with working conditions, pay, supervision and security on both affective and behavioral attitudes toward change. Study also highlighted that satisfaction with various facets of the job directly and positively influences different dimensions of organizational commitment.

Carrier and Bourque (2008) studied 91 respondents to analyze the effect of internal communication practices on communication satisfaction, job satisfaction and organization commitment. The results revealed that communication satisfaction was maximum 49.8 percent by internal communication practices, followed by job satisfaction which was explained 23.4 percent and organizational commitment which was explained around 17.5 percent.

Yousef (1998) examines the role of satisfaction with job security in predicting organizational commitment and job performance in a multicultural non- Western environment and also analyzed the factors which contribute to the variations in satisfaction with job security among employees. The empirical results indicate that there is a significant positive correlation, although not a very strong, between satisfaction with job security and performance. The results further reveal that employee’s age, educational level, monthly income, tenure in present organization, tenure in present job, job level, marital status and an organizational activity do contribute to the variations in satisfaction with job security among the employees.

Tuzum (2009) studied 578 bank employees to examine the relationship between employee’s perceptions of organizational identification, job satisfaction and organizational commitment. The correlations results of the study revealed that organizational commitment and organizational identification were inversely related to job satisfaction. The study also found that the effect of commitment on job satisfaction was stronger than the effect of identification on job satisfaction.

WORK MOTIVATION REVIEW: 10

Dysvik and Kuvaas (2000) explored the influence of mastery- approach goals and intrinsic work motivation on employee’s turnover intentions; when assessed jointly intrinsic motivation was the strongest predictor of turnover intentions. When assessed jointly, intrinsic motivation was the strongest predictor of turnover intention. Mastery approach goals were positively related to turnover intention, but this relationship was moderated by intrinsic motivation. The relationship between mastery-approach goals and turnover intention was only positive for employees low in intrinsic motivation.

Stringer and Didham and Theivananthamipillai (2011) examined 91 employees from a single retail store to analyze the relationship between intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, pay satisfaction and job satisfaction. It was found in the study that intrinsic motivation was positively related to pay and job satisfaction where as extrinsic motivation was negatively related with job satisfaction. Study also revealed that employees who perceived their pay to be fair made fewer comparisons with others and were satisfied with their pay on respect of the efforts they put in job.

To study the relationship between job satisfaction, interpersonal trust, intrinsic motivation and job related tension in Egypt Leat and El-Kot (2009) studies 140 employees from different organizations. The findings revealed that employees were satisfied, intrinsically motivated, they had trust on their peers and managers and had low work related tension. Intrinsic motivation, confidence in the competence of management and lack of work related tension were determined as significant predictor of job satisfaction.

Hadi and Adil (2010) investigated job characteristics as predictors of work motivation and job satisfaction of 150 male bank managers. The study revealed that job characteristics were significant predictors of intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation and job satisfaction. Task identity was highlighted as most important and positive predictor of job satisfaction and intrinsic motivation; where as extrinsic motivation was only predicted by feedback.

Lu (1999) interviewed 300 working adults to investigate the relationship between occupational stressors and strain and the impact of two moderating variables: work motivation and social support from family, colleagues and supervisors. The results revealed that Intrinsic work motivation was positively related to overall job satisfaction, whereas extrinsic motivation was positively related to depression; both supervisor's support and family support were negatively related to depression, anxiety, and somatic symptoms; the interaction between work demand and extrinsic motivation, and that between work discretion and intrinsic motivation were predictive of somatic symptoms and anxiety, respectively.

Jehn, Rupert and Nauta (2006) surveyed and interviewed 30 conflict parties to seek the effect of conflict asymmetry on mediation outcomes like work motivation, satisfaction and absenteeism. Researchers by using qualitative and quantitative data found perceived asymmetries were negatively associated with work motivation and satisfaction and were positively associated with absenteeism.

Moon (2000) conducted a study on 192 top managers and 174 middle managers from Public and Private Organizations. The results revealed that intrinsic motivation factors contribute to the enhancement of perceived organizational commitment, whereas only pay expectancy seems to be a significant determinant of organizational commitment. Comparison between Public and Private Organization managers explored that public managers is more affected by the perceived intrinsic motivation factors than extrinsic motivation factors, whereas in private organizations the perceived level of organizational commitment is affected by the level of pay expectancy and intrinsic motivation factors. Study also revealed that middle managers have a relatively lower level of organizational commitment than top managers, though the gap of organizational commitment is less pronounced in the public sector than in the private sector.

To study the impact of employees benefits on work motivation and productivity, Hong et.al (1995) studied 5481 employees from 89 corporations. The results of the study revealed that employee benefit programs have greater impact on work motivation than on productivity; monetary benefit programs are most highly valued by both executives and workers; there is a cognitive gap between management and worker on the importance of employee benefit programs; different genders have different benefit demands; unmarried employees, more than married employees, perceive that employee benefits have a greater impact on job performance. Employees with different education levels and positions perceive different employee benefit impacts; and employee benefit programs have greater influence on younger employees' job performance.

Darolia, Kumari and Darolia (2010) studied 231 male skilled workers in the age group of 28 to 45 years from National fertilizers Ltd. India to explore the impact of perceived organizational support, work motivation and organizational commitment as determinants of Job Performance. The study revealed that their exists a modest positive correlation between perceived organizational support, organizational commitment, and work motivation and their significant contribution in determining job performance. Among the three predictor variables, perceived organizational support showed highest correlation with job performance followed by work motivation measure monetary gains, and affective commitment. Continuance commitment, need for goal achievement and competition, and non financial rewards have shown modest level association with performance. Two components of work motivation, i.e., need for monetary gains and goal achievement and competition were found contributing significantly to the prediction of job performance. Among three components of organizational commitment, affective and continuance commitments were the better predictors of job performance.

Orpen (1997) studied 39 mentors and 39 mentees to analyze the effect of formal mentoring on employees work motivation, organizational commitment and job performance. The findings of the study demonstrated significant relationship between interaction opportunities and work motivation and organizational commitment. Similarly, relationship was found between another mentoring variable i.e. relationship closeness and work motivation and organizational commitment. The results also revealed that formal mentoring can improve employees attitudes without necessarily raising mentees performance.
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