The Most Important Elements Management Essay

The Most Important Elements Management Essay
INTRODUCTION
1.1 Introduction
Over the last centuries the nature of work has gone through huge changes at a rapid speed researcher have been conducted on various circumstances but the biggest issue comes is stress which is cause by every person anywhere in the organization and it is definitely true and has been accomplished by various researches too. In order to conduct research our evidence is banking industry of Pakistan.


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Employee stress and performance has got amazing attention in organization and individual has to face it in any kind of job. Work stress is the damaging physical and emotional condition. It occurs when there is a mismatch between job demands and the capabilities, resources, or needs of the employees whereas stress is the result of the assigned work task that caused harmful effect for a person. Through many researches it has been found that job stresses affect the life of employee performance and also organization performance. Stress, result a condition for which a person has to serve with an opportunity, constraints, or demand linked to and for which the output seems to be uncertain for which he or she desires. The factor that leads stress is regarding working hours, interpersonal relationships, problematic customer and coworker relation lack of administrative support, overload of work, conflict in family and work life and riskiness of job and management of bankers in banking sector.

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Employees in banking industry are under high level of stress because industry had undergone through rapid and outstanding changes i.e. due to policies are changing, increase of competition, downsizing, entrance of privatization of banks and new technology is being introduced etc. Stress, result a condition for which a person has to serve with an opportunity, constraints, or demand linked to and for which the output seems to be uncertain for which he or she desires. The factor that leads stress is regarding working hours, interpersonal relationships,

problematic customer and coworker relation lack of administrative support, overload of work, conflict in family and work life and riskiness of job and management of bankers in banking sector.

1.2 Problem Statement
Work stress is a common working problem experienced by almost every employee during the job. Which doesn’t only affect employees performance at work but also damage their mental and physical health.

1.3 Purpose of Study
The main reason is to conduct this research is to find out link between job stress and employee performance and to explore the stress related problem of banker, examine relation between employees performance over stress in banking sector.

1.4 Objectives of the Research
The objectives of this research are to explore causes of stress among bank’s employees and the effect of these stressors on employees’ performance and finally to overcome the job stress and how it help employee to his / her improve performance. For this purpose researcher have adopted the questions from the research work of Usman, Fouzia, Rashid, Raja, and Naeem about workplace environment, working opportunities, organizational culture, salary, compensation and benefits, smooth career development path, time management, and flexible work hours, counseling and mentoring, positive feedback and employee appreciation.

1.5 Variables of the Study
Usman, Fouzia, Rashid, Raja, and Naeem identified the following variables as the causes of stress in workplace which not only affect employees’ mental and physical health but also affect the employees’ performance. Following are the variables of that we have analyzed in our study:

Little authority to carry out responsibilities

Ambiguity about the scope and responsibilities of job

Intense workload

Not meeting the work expectations

Unpleasant workplace environment

Unsupportive behavior of managers or/ and colleagues

Job insecurity

Non recognition of work

Work/ family conflict

Unsatisfactory compensation

1.6 Research Methodology
Research Design
It would be qualitative and exploratory research consisting of both primary and secondary data. Primary data consists of questionnaire and secondary data consists of research papers.

Sampling
Population: we have selected 4 banks National Bank of Pakistan, Standard Chartered Bank, Habib Bank Limited, and Askari Bank Limited. Total number of employees at National Bank of Pakistan is15, 000. Total number of employees at Standard Chartered Bank is 9,000. Total number of employees at Habib Bank Limited is 22,700. Total number of employees at Askari Bank Limited is 7,279.

Sample Size: the sample size is 80. 20 employees of each of the four banks are selected.

Sampling Method
The sampling method will be probability sampling that is based on random selection of employees.

2. LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Literature Review
Competitive advantages stemming from human resources are essential for organizations’ success in dynamic; business environment. It is very crucial to manage human resources strategically when the job is stressful and the employees’ performance is very important while achieving the organizational objectives.

Work stress is the damaging physical and emotional condition. It occurs when there is a mismatch between job demands and the capabilities, resources, or needs of the employees. Stress is realizes when an individual feel huge pressure against fulfilling demands placed upon him/her. Some stresses are good and some are bad. If stress is up to a certain limit which an employee can bear it creates a positive effect upon employee performance but if it exceeds that limit it causes negative impact over performance of employees. Employee stress and performance has got amazing attention in organization and individual has to face

it in any kind of job. Stress, a condition for which a person has to serve with an opportunity, constraints, or demand linked to and for which the output seems to be uncertain for which he or she desires. Whereas stress is the result of the assigned work task that caused harmful effect for a person.

Naeem, says in his research paper stress is rising day to day in different organization and employees working have to face stress which often causes unpleasant effect on individual performance. Occupational stress in work environment shows harmful physical and emotional responses effect on individual health, can only be occur when the capabilities, resources, or needs of the workers unmatched the job requirement and effect health which in turn to injury. Stress has negative viewpoint but has positive significance and offers a potential gain but indeed work stress show harmful effect on employee performance. Outcome of Stress mainly effect on job explore the stress related problem of banker, examine relation between stress in banking sector, stress in turn decrease overall employee performance and organizational performance, due to more time is spent in bank which decrease quality of work, high staff turnover and absenteeism due to health problem such as depression, headache, six component of stress has been discussed in the study, lack of administrative support, overload of work, problematic customer and coworker relation, conflict in family and work life and riskiness of job linked with overall job stress and show decrease in employee performance. Stress is also causing especially when lack of social support and encouragement is not there and poor relation between employees. The individual’s performance also decreased by lack of ability of person to sustain a rational balance between family life and work life as more time is given to work life which in turn result stress and finally the employee performance decreases. The job environment in banking sector is too much risky because operational risk is involved in transactions which always place difficulty for employees to avoid wrong entries which in turn feel insecurity of job which cause stress on them. Therefore job insecurity is also major factor of job stress which reduces job performance of employees. Therefore the result shows that majority of bankers are under great stress and Work overload, risky job and poor co-worker relations were major factor of stress which show decrease on employee performance which lead to employee dissatisfaction. Analysis of data show that 47.2 % of the respondents feel depression and become aggressive.11.1% become lazy and suffered from headache. While 18.7 % feel deficit in work. So most of the majority did feel stress and decreased their performance. Under stress only 6.9 % respondents perform their best while 5.5 % become motivated in stressed situation and 3.7 % respondents better handle the situation under stress, whereas 2.7 % take pleasure in work and 4.2 % respondents Stay still and never felt stress. Naeem recommended that proper strategies should be adopted regarding working hours, interpersonal relationships and management of bankers so that stress can be reduce and to manage employee better performance in banking sector.

The most important elements in organizational study are stress, work-family conflicts and flexible scheduling. Work family conflicts appear when an employee cannot make a balance between his/her work and family which reduces work family conflicts, whereas flexible scheduling is an alternative work period which gives employee some relaxation and can fulfill their task according to their work schedule as compare to regular work i.e. from 9:00am to 4:00pm, this time period has been used for a long time. Raja in his research paper focused to understand whether stress, work-family conflicts and flexible scheduling effects on employee performance and to find out whether flexible scheduling reduces stress and work-family conflicts for the well-accomplishment of organization as well as for the employees. Stress plays a vital role in effecting the performance of the employees. Stress has negative effect on the employee performance like the work-family conflict. It also highlights that how to overcome the problem of work-

family conflict stress to improve their performance. Different type of flexible work arrangements can be adopt by an organization to get better performance of employee and also better performance of organization. Flexible work arrangement has direct effects on organization i.e. Increase in job satisfaction, organizational commitment and productivity. it means if the employee is satisfied with the job without any stress he/she will continue the job and output would be ultimately better and efficient for the organization and increase productivity. The development of first hypothesis shows that stress has significant effect on employee performance and by reducing stress, employee performance will be improve. Second hypothesis shows Work-family conflict has significant effect on employee performance; means those people who are under stress because of work-family conflicts, their performance will be better if their conflicts are resolve then they will not be in any conflicts and their performance will be better therefore flexible scheduling reduce the work-family conflicts and also proved that flexible scheduling increased the balance between work-family which finally results in

reducing the work-family conflict. Third hypothesis shows that flexible scheduling has important effect on employee performance, and it is prove that it has positive effect on employee performance. Maximum employees need flexible scheduling in their organizations and it will help in reducing stress and work-family conflicts. Descriptive statistics is used to analyze the data of different organization and the result both primary and secondary data shows that stress and work-family conflicts negatively affect employee performance where as flexible scheduling has a positive effect on employee performance which helps in reducing stress and work-family conflicts, which eventually improves the performance of the employees. Therefore this research conclude that organization should provide family friendly environment with no stress and depression to improve the performance so it is recommended to adopt flexible scheduling in every organization for the betterment of the employees and organization and has great advantage of adopting flexible scheduling for its employees and for organization too. If flexible schedule will not be adopted. High turnover will occur in organization due to work stress and family conflicts and employees will quit the job due to mental stress and tension.
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