Satisfaction And Dissatisfaction Towards Certain Things Management Essay

Satisfaction And Dissatisfaction Towards Certain Things Management Essay
1 Introduction
People tend to show satisfaction and dissatisfaction towards certain things due to their past experiences."Organizations that have goals to achieve require satisfied and happy staff, (Oshagbemi, 2000)." "Job satisfaction (also called employee satisfaction) is most seldom studied in Organizational sciences, (Schneider and Brief, 1992)". Managers usually change their leadership behavior to complete the mission organization, and this could influence the employees' job satisfaction.
Get Assignment help for this assignment at hndassignmenthelp@gmail.com

1.1 Broader Overview
The main reason to which job satisfaction is so broadly researched is that it relates to important relations with a number of variables. Job satisfaction is defined in various ways. The most common used definition is "A pleasurable or positive emotional state resulting from the appraisal of ones job or job experiences, (Locke, 1976)". "Job satisfaction includes multidimensional psychological responses to one's job, and that such reactions have cognitive (evaluative), affective (or emotional), and behavioral components, (Hulin and Judge, 2003)". "Job satisfaction that has been recognized belongs into two groups, and individual; the latter has received the greatest attention considerably (Judge et al., 2002)".

This essay is an example of a student's work
Disclaimer

This essay has been submitted to us by a student in order to help you with your studies. This is not an example of the work written by our professional essay writers.

Essay Writing Service
Dissertation Writing Service
Who wrote this essay
Place an Order
According to Robbins (2001) factors affecting satisfaction include "interaction with co-workers and bosses, observing organizational rules and policies, meeting performance standards and living with working conditions". Organizational culture can be explained as the "interrelationship of shared beliefs, behaviors, and assumptions that are acquired over time by members of an institution, (Conner, 1992)." "Organizational values, along with beliefs, assumptions, expectations, philosophies, and norms, form the basis of organizational culture and are integral to distinct identity that every organization has, (Schein,1985)".

A positive organizational culture strengthens the fundamental beliefs and the behavior that a leader appreciate, weakening values and actions that the leader does not consider right for the company. On the contrary, "negative culture becomes toxic, poisons the life of the organization and hampers the growth potential", (Kaufman, 2002). Martin (1992) proposed three perspectives: integration, differentiation and Wallach (1983) suggested three types of organizational culture: bureaucratic, supportive and innovative. Organizational culture is formulated

influenced by different variables. The first understandable variable is the leader of the organization, those impacts with his values on organizational culture. Among determinants of job satisfaction, leadership is considered as a significant predictor and plays a important role. "Leadership is a management function, which is mostly directed towards people and social interaction, as well as the process of influencing people so that they will achieve the goals of the organization", (Skansi, 2000)".Leadership dominantly exists within people and organizations. "Leadership has the capability to affect others, (Bethel, 1990)". "Bohn and Grafton (2002) suggest that leadership means the way to create a clear vision, filling their self-confidence, created through coordination and communication to detail". "Studies have been carried out to determine how leadership behaviors can be used to influence employees for improved organizational outcomes (Kreitner, 1995)". There are various styles of leadership such as: "bureaucratic, laissez-faire, charismatic, democratic, participative, situational, transactional, and transformational leadership,(Mosadeghrad,2004)".

1.2 Specific overview
Telecom is one of the fastest growing economy sectors in Pakistan thus its necessary to create pace with this developing competition is to figure on the foremost important factors of employee's Job satisfaction. Satisfying the workers is that the necessary goal for the organization as a result of generally the high pay or high post isn't important for the worker to continue within the organization that is going on within the telecom industry today. The telecom sector has a strong competition with mobile operators, major fixed-line operator and small fixed-line operators. Thus there's telecommunication to search out the impact of various factors on job satisfaction in telecommunication sector. Workers are substantially connected with their corporations wherever they work, sensitive regarding their organizations that however their organizations are accomplishing their wants and expectations. To accomplish these needs and also the expectations, a company and their managers has to develop some methods and programs to encourage and encourage the workers, in order that the workers are happy with their jobs and can even be loyal for his or her organizations wherever they work; that results in increase in organization's productivity, effectiveness and potency. Presently there's shortage of proficient workers within the telecom Sector and an honest leader will facilitate in increasing the amount of skillful workers. Moreover, the leadership skills of a manager will play a vital role within the accomplishment of a company. Leadership is of growing importance within the medium Sector. "Berson & Linton said that within the research & development and administrative environments, leadership behavior of a manager is closely related to work satisfaction of the employees." Leaders play a big role in sustaining an organization's culture. This ensures constant behavior between members of the organization, reducing conflicts and making comfortable working surroundings for workers. Job satisfaction has been related to workers who understand their managers as supportive.

1.3 Importance of the study
The main purpose of this research was to see impact organizational culture and leadership on level of job satisfaction among employees and to suggest measures which can help in improving the level of the job satisfaction among employees.

1.4 Problem Statement
The problem statement was based on the fact whether it is only the reward package which has the value of employee satisfaction or it is the whole organizational culture and leadership which has a significant role making employee satisfy. The problem statement is "Factor affecting Level of Job Satisfaction in Employees".

This essay is an example of a student's work
Disclaimer

This essay has been submitted to us by a student in order to help you with your studies. This is not an example of the work written by our professional essay writers.

Essay Writing Service
Dissertation Writing Service
Who wrote this essay
Place an Order
1.5 Research Question
To accomplish this purpose, the main research question was: What are the influences of organizational culture and leadership on level of job satisfaction among the employees at Telecom Sector.

1.6 Objective
The main objective of this study is to determine the influence of organizational

culture and leadership on level of job satisfaction among the employees at Telecom Sector?

1.7 Scope of the study
The development of an organization depends upon the satisfaction level of their employees so that they perform their jobs well. This research study is conducted at Telecom Sector

Peshawar.

1.8 Limitation
The cross sectional nature of the study of is the major limitation to this research. The other limitations to this include a major problem of variations in cultural values which can be broad industry wide differences in organization.

Chapter 2: Literature Review
The previous literature review showed a few studies that have investigated the link between job satisfaction, leadership and organizational cultures.

Bellou (2010) examined how values of organizational culture influenced job satisfaction in accordance with their age and gender. Data was through questionnaire and 125 of them were valid. Measures used were organizational culture profiles and Job Descriptive index (JDI). The

methods used were descriptive statistics, step wise regression analysis and t-test. The findings showed that employee's age and gender influences organizational values in such away that it affects their job satisfaction.

Bilgardi, Dormio, Galati and Schiuma (2012) tested relationship between Job Satisfaction of knowledge workers with organizational culture. Multiple case study approach was used in this study which included semi structured interviews. The sample size of 20 employees was selected. The findings suggested that various types of organizational cultures varied in with job satisfaction.

De Menezes (2012) investigated the relationship between quality management and job satisfaction. Face to face interviews of workplaces with sample scope of 3,587 were collected. Regression analysis was performed to check the validity of the data. It was found out that

satisfaction has no relation with quality management.

Grace Davis (2004), investigated relationship of job satisfaction with job attitudes. Job descriptive Index (JDI) was used to measure job attitudes among 80 employees of four different employees filled the survey form, and structured interview was conducted. Employees demonstrated significant variation in job satisfaction before and after the structured interview. Employees showed greater work related correlation with job satisfaction and found no relation of demographic variables over job satisfaction.

Graham and Messener (1998) studied the relationship of size of enrollment, and years of experience, to principal ship job satisfaction. A survey was conducted for this purpose. The sample selected was from American Midwestern elementary, middle, and senior high school principals and they participated in the Principals Job Satisfaction Survey (PJSS). The PJSS was based on Herzberg's Motivation-Hygiene Theory. Eight elements of job satisfaction were compared with four principal ship descriptive variables. PJSS were mailed to 500 principals and 226 survey forms came back and useable, that resulted in a very 45. 2 percent came back. Chi-square analyses discovered the relationships and variations between the independent and dependent variables. it had been found that American western principals were usually happy with their current job, co-workers and level of responsibility They were less satisfied with their pay, opportunities for advancement, and fringe benefits.

Gonzalez and Garazo (2006) examined structural relationship between organizational services orientation, contact employee job satisfaction and citizen behavior. Questionnaires

were used and the research was conducted at 149 hotel firms. The data was measured using construct scale and structural equation model was used investigate its effects. Job satisfaction showed moderate relationship between organizational service orientations.

Gunlu, Aksarayli and Percin( 2010) identified the effects of job satisfaction on organizational commitment of managers in large scale organizations. They used two structured

questionnaires. The sample was based on managers of 4-5 stars hotels. Population was selected randomly and the sample size was of 123 data obtained was analyzed by SPSS. They found out that Job satisfaction has significant relation with organizational commitment.

Haile (2009) examined the factors of job satisfaction in Britain using nationally representative linked employer-employee data and alternative econometric techniques. Eight aspects of job satisfaction were used for the purpose. In addition to emplacing the significance of accounting for unnoticed workplace heterogeneity, the research also mentioned some new findings that related to differential effects of dependent children and other dependents, variety of employment contract and gaps between employees' skill and skills requirements of their job. Working long hours was found to be significantly related with intrinsic characteristic of jobs. Public sector employment was also significantly related with all aspects of job satisfaction except with pay.

This essay is an example of a student's work
Disclaimer

This essay has been submitted to us by a student in order to help you with your studies. This is not an example of the work written by our professional essay writers.

Essay Writing Service
Dissertation Writing Service
Who wrote this essay
Place an Order
Hunjra, Chani, Aslam, Azam and Rehman (2010) focused their study on how to observe the impact of diverse human resource management practices like job autonomy, team work environment and leadership behavior on job satisfaction. This research investigated the major factors of job satisfaction in Pakistani banking sector. It also evaluated the level of difference in job satisfaction among male and female employees. The sample of the study consisted of 450 employees working in different banks of Rawalpindi, Islamabad and Lahore. The survey was conducted through a questionnaire out of which only 295 were useable. SPSS was used to analyze the data, using independent sample T test, Correlation regression analysis. There was a significant link between job satisfaction and human recourse management practices like team work environment, job autonomy and behavior of leadership. From the results of the research, it was determined that male and female workers have significantly different level of job satisfaction.

Lok and Crawford (2004) examined the consequences of structure culture and leadership style on job satisfaction and structure commitment by taking samples of Hong Kong and Australian managers. Statistically vital variations between the two samples were found for measures of innovative and accessory structure cultures, job satisfaction and structure commitment, with the Australian sample having higher mean scores on of these variables. However, variations between the two samples for job satisfaction and commitment were removed when statistically dominant for structure culture, leadership and respondents' demographic characteristics. For the combined samples, innovative and accessory cultures, and a thought leadership vogue, had positive effects on each job satisfaction and commitment, with the consequences of Associate in Nursing innovative culture on satisfaction and commitment, and therefore the impact of a thought leadership style on commitment, being stronger within the Australian sample. Also, Associate in nursing "initiating Structure" leadership style had a negative impact on job satisfaction for the combined sample Participants' level of education was found to possess a small negative impact on satisfaction, and a small positive impact on commitment. National culture was found to moderate the impact of respondents' age on satisfaction, with the impact being a lot of positive amongst Hong Kong managers.

Lund (2003) examined a relation between organizational culture and job satisfaction. Self administered questionnaire was used to collect the data related to various issues of job satisfaction and organizational culture. They mailed 1,800 questionnaires out which 360 were usable. They analysis, a two group analysis and various other techniques were used to find the relationship between the variables. They found that there was a significant relation between both the variables.

Macintosh and Doherty (2010) discussed the relation of intention to leave the organization and job satisfaction through a survey of fitness employees. Organizational culture is often referred to as the values, beliefs and basic assumptions that facilitate guide and coordinate member behavior. The Cultural Index for Fitness Organizations (CIFO) was developed to live structure culture within the fitness industry specifically. Exploratory correlation analysis disclosed eight factors that represent cultural dimensions common to the present context: employee’s competence, atmosphere, connectedness, systematization, sales, service-equipment, service-programs, and structure presence. Path analysis was accustomed examine the link among the structure culture factors, job satisfaction and intention to depart .Results created a partially mediated model of the variance with intention to leave the organization. The findings highlight the multidimensionality of structure culture and its complexity within the fitness industry.

Nicolescu, Dima, Anghel and Paun (2009) identified and discussed factors and aspects from the roles of university educational employees that contribute to their satisfaction and dissatisfaction at the working place. Associate in nursing institutional case study lies at the premise of the discussion, influencing the measure of the work satisfaction of educational employees among a Romanian university. Among the debated aspects are: promotion opportunities, support and facilities, working conditions, climate at the work place financial gain level and others, a number of them causative to enhanced satisfaction, however others contributory to dissatisfaction at the work place. Supported the findings of the analysis, institutional issues are often known and suggestions for a replacement institutional profile and a contemporary management strategy are often developed as a key within the new competitive context, wherever a purposeful redesigning may be a necessity, on discovered a dynamic equilibrium at the crossroads between universities and economic, social and political surroundings.

This essay is an example of a student's work
Disclaimer

This essay has been submitted to us by a student in order to help you with your studies. This is not an example of the work written by our professional essay writers.

Essay Writing Service
Dissertation Writing Service
Who wrote this essay
Place an Order
Oshagbemi (2000) investigated the level of job satisfaction with the service. A questionnaire survey was conducted and 1,102 questionnaires were distributed among the 23 UK universities and 554 valid. For the level of effect of job satisfaction on the services ANOVA (Two way variance analysis) was used. Apart from that descriptive level of statistics was also used. The level of job satisfaction varied with the services.

Rad and Yarmohammadian (2006) studied the connection between managers' leadership style and employees' job satisfaction. The aim of this descriptive and cross-sectional study was to explore the relationships between managers' leadership styles and employees' job satisfaction in Isfahan University Hospitals. The information was collected through the distribution of 2 questionnaires among the 814 staff, first line, middle and senior managers of those hospitals through a sampling. Workers showed less satisfaction with salaries, benefits, work conditions, promotion and communication as agent factors and more satisfaction with factors like the character of the work, co-workers and supervising kind factors. Worker job satisfaction depends upon the leadership variety of managers

Schyns, Veldhoven, and Wood (2009) examined organizational climate, relative psychological climate and job satisfaction with help of an example of supportive leadership climate. Data was collected by conducting a large national British survey of 19,993 employees out of which 1,593 were used. Workplace supportive leadership climate quality, climate strength and individual relative leadership climate position showed significant relation with job satisfaction. So was the interaction of climate quality and climate strength.

Shah (2007) examined the organizational Culture theory and practices with stress on the effectiveness of satisfaction and psychological feature dynamics within the areas of employee's satisfaction and retention. the matter statement relies on whether or not it's solely the compensation package that has the value of retention and worker satisfaction or it's the general structure culture that includes a crucial role in retention and creating worker satisfy. So as to testify problem statement the R & D organization, was taken as sample size. The staff was asked through questionnaires regarding the culture they understand, like and satisfaction at their work. The analysis study showed that the overwhelming majority of workers are at the worth of the organizational Behavior and Cultural variables like "Organization as Result bound Place, Loyalty and Mutual Trust issue, Risk Initiation, Innovation and Development in Work Setup, difficult Work Environment".

Su-Chao and Ming-Shing (2007), investigated a relation among leadership, organizational culture, the operation of learning organizations and job satisfactions. They performed a qualitative research and mailed 1,000 questionnaires and valid replies. They used ANOVA and various others tests to find the relation among the various variables. They found out that both leadership and organizational culture are certainly related to the operation of learning organizations and operation of learning organization is positively related to job satisfaction.

Tsai (2011) recommended that leadership behavior is often used to accomplish the mission of the organization, and this might influence the employees' job satisfaction. It’s so essential to know the connection between structure behavior and job satisfaction of workers. A cross-sectional study was undertaken that targeted on hospital nurses in Taiwan. Data was collected employing a structured questionnaire; 300 questionnaires were distributed and 200 valid questionnaires were come back. To check the responsibility of they were analyzed by Cranach's and confirmatory factors. Correlation analysis was used on the relationships between structure cultures leadership behavior and job satisfaction. Organizational cultures were considerably related with leadership behavior and job satisfaction while leadership was considerably correlated with job satisfaction.

Westover et al (2010) investigated that impact worker job satisfaction organizational commitment. In this research paper factor analysis, ordinary least squares (OLS) regression analysis and basic descriptive statistics were used. The relationship between job satisfaction and Organizational commitment and 17 different work domains were studied. Later it was confirmed that the work domains are valid and important for job satisfaction and organizational commitment.

Chapter 3: Methodology
3.1 Research Design
A cross-sectional survey was conducted to determine the factor affecting the level of job satisfaction among the employees of the Telecom sector. The nature of this study was completely based on both descriptive and quantitative methods which focus on primary data sources.

3.2 Data Types
There are two sources for the collection of the data: The data type used for this research was primary.

This essay is an example of a student's work
Disclaimer

This essay has been submitted to us by a student in order to help you with your studies. This is not an example of the work written by our professional essay writers.

Essay Writing Service
Dissertation Writing Service
Who wrote this essay
Place an Order
3.2.1 Primary Data
The primary data was gathered from the respondents with a structured questionnaire. The data for this study was restricted to the telecom organizations and its employees in Peshawar. The Telecom organizations selected for this research were Ptcl , Mobilink and Zong.

3.3 Data Sources
A structured questionnaire was used in this research to gather the data related to job satisfaction, organizational culture and leadership. Significant efforts were made in order to collect the data. About 150 questionnaires were distributed among the selected telecom organization. The respondents were given one week to complete the questionnaire. Out of these 150 questionnaires only 120 of them were returned 20 of which were incomplete and non useable for further research. Only 100 of these questionnaires were complete and were considered useable.

3.3.1 Data Collection tool
A questionnaire was designed for this study. The questionnaire was based on the variables discussed in introduction and literature review. The questionnaire was based of different sections. The first part contained general information regarding name, position, name of the organization, gender, age, educational qualification, job status, number of years worked for the organization and monthly income. The respondents were assured to that the data provided will be kept confidential. The second part consisted of other closed ended questions which were Yes/No questions and some multiple choice questions. The last part was based on 1-5 Likert scale and the respondents were asked to rate the statements on the basis of scale (1 Strong Disagree, 2 Disagree, 3 Neutral, 4 Agree, 5 strongly Agree) provided to them. Likert scale was used to measure job satisfaction and the variable affecting it which were leadership and organizational culture.

3.4 Variables
Independent variables: Organizational Culture.

Independent Variables: Leadership.

Dependent Variables: Job Satisfaction.

3.4.1 Major Variables
The major variables here were Job satisfaction of the employees, Leadership and organizational culture of the Telecom Sector.

3.5 Hypothesis
H1: Organizational culture positively influences job satisfaction.

H2: Organizational culture positively influences leadership.

H3: Leadership positively influences job satisfaction.

3.6 Population an Sample selection
The target population for this research was the employees of the Telecom Sector Peshawar. The Telecom organizations selected for this research were Ptcl , Mobilink and Zong.

3.7 Sampling and sample size
The sample size selected was of 100 employees. 88 were male and 12 were female. The sample was grouped on the basis of various demographic characteristics ( Age, educational qualification, Job status, monthly income and number of years worked in the organization). In this research stratified random sampling was used as it can represent the smallest sample of a population and it has high statistical precision. The relationship between the sub groups was being observed by this sampling method.

3.8 Procedure Technique
The main focus in this research is on the hypothesis apart from it the structured questionnaire data was used for statistical analysis and examination. The following procedures were adopted in this research ANOVA (one way analysis of variance) with post hoc test and factor analysis. These method were performed using IMB Statistical package for social sciences ( IBM SPSS 19).

3.8.1 ANOVA (One way analysis of variance)
ANOVA was conducted to examine that whether there is any statistically significant difference among the satisfaction level of employees (Ptcl, Mobilink and Zong). The results showed that there were statistically significant difference among the satisfaction level of employees.

3.8.2 Factor Analysis
Factor analysis was used to determine the factor affecting job satisfaction and the item that loaded on to each factor. It was used to check the contextual validity of the questionnaire. The main purpose of factor analysis was to reduce the key factor of a large number of variables for the further research analysis. Principal component factor analysis and varimax rotation method was used to extract the factor with Eigenvalue greater than 1. Correlation matrix, Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy (KMO) and Bartlett's Test of Sphericity was first performed to determine whether the data was suitable for factor analysis.

Chapter 4: Analysis
Discussion of the results
The results of the statistical analysis were discussed in the following parts:

4.1 Descriptive Statistics
Table 1: Demographic Characteristics of the respondents
Frequency*

Percent*

Gender Male

Female

88

12

87.1

11.9

Age Group 24-34 years

35-44 years

45-54 years

Other

35

46

19

0

34.7

45.5

18.8

0

Educational Intermediate

Qualification Undergraduate

Graduate

Other

15

40

33

12

14.9

39.6

32.7

11.9

Monthly Less than20,000

Income 20,000-40,000

40,000-60,000

Above 60,000

31

25

20

4

30.7

44.6

19.8

4.0

No. of years Less than 1 year

Worked 1-5 years

6-10 years

11-15 years

This essay is an example of a student's work
Disclaimer

This essay has been submitted to us by a student in order to help you with your studies. This is not an example of the work written by our professional essay writers.

Essay Writing Service
Dissertation Writing Service
Who wrote this essay
Place an Order
6

41

31

22

5.9

40.6

30.7

21.8

Job Permanent

Status Contract

Part time

Other

87

11

1

1

86.1

10.9

1.0

1.0

Organization Ptcl

Name Mobilink

Zong

50

30

20

49.5

29.7

19.8

( *Note n=100)

A total of 100 respondents participated in this research study. Its was indicated from the research that majority of the respondents were male (87.1 %). The minimum respondents were from age group 45-54 years (18.8%) and maximum from age group 25-34 years (45.7%). Majority of the respondents had undergraduate (39.6%) educational qualification and minority of them had other (11.9%) qualification. Majority of them work for 1-5 years (40.6%) in the organization and the minimum years worked was less than 1 year (5.9%). More of the respondents showed permanent status (86.1%) and respondents with part time and other showed 1%. The majority of employees participated in the research were from Ptcl (49.5%) and minimum were from Zong (19.8%).

Table 2: Overall Job satisfaction level
Frequency*

Percent*

Strongly disagree

Disagree

Neutral

Agree

Strongly agree

27

34

21

15

3

26.7

33.7

20.8

14.9

3.0

( *Note n=100)

Majority of the respondents were not satisfied with the overall job satisfaction level. 33.7% of the respondents disagreed with the statement. 26.7% strongly disagreed with the statement. 20.8% were neutral. 14.9% of them agreed with the statement and 3% strongly agreed.

4.2 ANOVA (One way analysis of variance)
ANOVA was performed to determine the statistically significant difference of the satisfaction level among the employees of different organizations. The test result of ANOVA were discussed as follows:

Table 3: Descriptives of ANOVA test
Satisfaction Level

N

Mean

Std. Deviation

Std. Error

95% Confidence Interval for Mean

Minimum

Maximum

Lower Bound

Upper Bound

Ptcl

Mobilink

Zong

Total

50

30

20

100

2.3800

1.9000

2.6000

2.2800

1.04764

.88474

1.14248

1.04524

.14816

.16153

.25547

.10452

2.0823

1.5696

2.0653

2.0726

2.6777

2.2304

3.1347

2.4874

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

5.00

4.00

5.00

5.00

The mean for Zong was 2.6 while the mean for Ptcl it was 2.38 and for Mobilink it was 1.9. It was not easy to determine which organization was more satisfied than the other with the mean values. The significance of the t-statics was used to check the satisfaction level.

Table 4: Test of Homogeneity of Variances
Satisfaction Level

Levene Statistic

df1

df2

Sig.

1.355

2

97

.263

Levene test was used to check the assumptions of equal variances. The P-value of Levene test was 0.263 which was above 0.05. this showed that the assumptions of equal variances was satisfied.

Table 5:ANOVA Table
Satisfaction Level

Sum of Squares

df

Mean Square

F

Sig.

Between Groups

6.880

2

3.440

6.295

.004

Within Groups

101.280

97

1.044

Total

108.160

99

ANOVA table showed that the anova output analysis and the statistically significant difference between the group means. The significance level, P-value was .0.004 which was less than 0.005 and thus statistically significant difference was reported in the satisfaction level among employees of different organizations.

Table 6:Multiple Comparisons
Satisfaction Level

Bonferroni

(I) Name of the organization

(J) Name of the organization

Mean Difference (I-J)

Std. Error

Sig.

95% Confidence Interval

Lower Bound

Upper Bound

Ptcl

Mobilink

.48000*

.23598

.001

-.0949

1.0549

Zong

-.22000*

.27035

1.000

-.8786

.4386

Mobilink

Ptcl

-.48000*

.23598

.001

-1.0549

.0949

Zong

-.70000

.29498

.059

-1.4186

.0186

Zong

Ptcl

.22000*

.27035

.000

-.4386

.8786

Mobilink

.70000

.29498

.059

-.0186

1.4186

*. The mean difference is significant at the 0.05 level.

Post hoc-test was used to check the point of difference. In this case Bonferroni test was conducted to find the significant difference among the groups. The satisfaction level with Ptcl and Mobilink was significant (P-value=0.01) while that of Ptcl and Zong was not proved to be significant (P-value=1.000). In the second case the satisfaction level with Mobilink and Ptcl was significant (P-value=0.01) while that of Mobilink and Zong was not proved to be significant (P-value=0.059). In the third case the satisfaction level with Zong and Ptcl was significant (P-value=0.00) while that of Zong and Mobilink was not proved to be significant (P-value=0.059).

4.3 Factor Analysis
Factor analysis was performed by using the responses of 100 employees. The purpose of this analysis was to reduce 25 statements into smaller number of factors that would represent the statements. The result of factor analysis was discussed as follows:

Table 7:KMO and Bartlett's Test
Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy.

.554

Bartlett's Test of Sphericity

Approx. Chi-Square

123.920

df

78

Sig.

.001

The statements were first analyzed by Correlation matrix, KMO and Bartlett’s test to make should that the data was fit for factor analysis. Correlation matrix result showed that which variable was strongly associated with the other variable. At least two correlation values should be greater or equal than 0.3. Thus more than two correlation values were greater or equal to 0.3. For factor analysis the KMO value should be equal to or greater than 0.5, here the value of KMO was 0.554 and for Bartlett’s test the value should be significant which was equal to or less than 0.005 here the value was 0.001. Thus all the three conditions were satisfied to run factor analysis.

Comments