Personality measurement - HND Assignment Help

Personality measurement - HND Assignment Help:



Personality measurement

Abstract
Personality measurement is an important exercise and demand high level of accuracy in order to adopt processes and instruments used for the assessment. In the present context there are two major issues which are whether standard personality test should be used for all individual and secondly how cultural factors for a particular group of people would affect the overall assessment pattern adopted. Present paper shows that instead of standard test particular ways should be adopted to measure personality behaviour and these instruments should make effective use of the universal as well as local factor. Development of CPAI tool for personality measurement is an ideal example for the present context. Further it has been revealed through literature that cultural factors have high importance on the way to measure personality and behaviour of individual. Depending upon the cultural factors instrument, processes and interpretations should be changed.
Table of Contents
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1.0 Introduction
Assessment of human behaviour and personality would be an area of wide importance for psychologist and depending upon the indigenous people living in the world it is important to use appropriate measures which can suit these people. Further culture has high impact on the overall assessment methods used for personality of an individual. In the present paper the major focus would be to explore whether standard personality test are appropriate to be used in case of all indigenous people with special context to Australian aboriginals. Further impact of the cultural factors would be determined on methodology used for the evaluation of personality in case of individuals. 
2.0 Literature review
2.1 Usage of standard personality test
Standard personality tests are considered as one of the simplest and effective tool for measuring personality trait for people. But it has been revealed that there are three major personality dimensions as observed especially in context to Australian aboriginal which are Extraversion (E), Psychotieism (P) and Neuriticism (N). There are differences in the three personality dimensions based on the genetic and biological factors. Hence it is important to first examine the cultural and racial personality traits of the aboriginal people living in Australia. Some of the major personality tests which are standard in order to measure the personality traits include MMPI, EPQ, STAI and NEO-PI etc (Robert et al, 2011). Below are the most popular six issues which are faced while applying the standard personality test across different group of people with special context to Australian aboriginal population:
  • There are issues pertaining to the translation, appropriateness and adoption of the standard test across culture. Further understanding of the standard test would be an important issue which needs to be tackled as confusions in understanding measurement scale can give incorrect results for the personality measurement.
  • Another major issue would be in terms of the equivalence in the translated and originally used instrument for personality measurement (Dana, 1986)
  • Standard personality measuring test may not hold good while considering the local validity and reliability of the psychometric instruments
  • Standardizing the used instrument among the targeted cultural group would be an issue as depending upon the culture standardization factor would also vary
  • There can be adverse implications for using the local or original norms
  • Interpretation of the difference in score would be difficult to reflect due to standardization of test
It is advisable to develop the particular personality assessment instruments which can cater to the need of indigenous group of people such as aboriginal Australian. A personality test catering to the need of local people would be such that it is as per cultural standards of these people while retaining the psychometric needs for measurement of personality traits in a person. An example can be taken in order to understand the process to develop such a personality measurement scale which can cater to the local needs while maintaining standardization of universal tests as well.
Chinese Personality Assessment inventory (CPAI) is such a scale which has been designed by considering emic-etic approach where local needs along with standardization process have been kept in mind while designing the tool. CPAI test design make use of the universal personality constructs such as the western management theories along with implementation of the local construct so that the designed personality test can suit to the need of local area people. In order to incorporate the local personality characteristics CPAI make use of the existing literature on personality traits and conducted surveys so that vital elements of the psychological testing can be incorporate in the personality test used for the indigenous people.
Another research conducted by Barabas (1973) suggeststhat standard personality test is most inappropriate method to be used with aboriginal and people living in remote areas. Standard inventory and questionnaires such as MMPI-II, Eysenck personality questionnaire, clinical analysis questionnaire and sixteen personality assessment questionnaire would be completely and it is strongly recommended that these standard instruments should be avoided to be applied in every case as far as possible. Projective techniques and drawings can be the solution in order to bring out the difference in cultural through direct ways so that once cultural differences among people are identified so accordingly we can make use of the personality test in particular situation. These two tools would be of great importance in order to explore the social factors which are affecting the individual personality.
Hence from the present example of the personality measurement instrument designed by Chinese psychologist it can be clearly determined that particular instruments can only fulfil the need for local people and accordingly instrument should be designed and used. Standard test would provide inaccurate results if used for the culturally diverse people and there validity would also be quite low in such conditions.
2.2 Impact of culture
Culture has strong impact on the measurement methods and processes used for the personality traits. Across the culture there would be an important issue whether same constructs are reflected and whether culture impact the factor that what is being measured in the personality assessment test. Second major issue for the measurement of personality traits across culture would be in case same constructs are reflected whether or not score provided are similar in range or quite difference depending upon the cultural factors for the individuals under measurement practice.
Cultural factors would impact the measurement process as validity of the test adopted across the culture would not be same hence there would be unique instruments requirement in order to measure the personality traits (Abraham, 2006). These unique instruments used for the measurement of personality among the aboriginal people would be as per their cultural factors. Hence it is one of the biggest issues to consider both cultural factors and universal factors in measurement of personality trait for the indigenous people. Another major issue created through cultural factors on the measurement of the personality traits of individual consumer group would be alignment of the universal factors with the local cultural factors hence giving a proper mix of the local and universal factors (Dennis, 1966).
Another issue created through cross culture factors on the measurement of personality traits would be the training requirement for the people involved into assessment work (Fanny,2004). A cross cultural training would be required for the employees so that they understand the behaviour and reactions of the aboriginal people in particular circumstances so that accordingly action can be taken while collecting data, making interpretations and deriving results for the personality assessment into the aboriginal people. So it is highly recommended that cross cultural training should be incorporated as an important part of the overall psychology and personality traits assessment for the individual groups. Specific training modules providing detail for the cross cultural factors and way out to measure the behavioural aspect throughout these cultural differences.
Conclusion
From the present paper which focuses its attention on two major factors which are suitability of usage of standard personality test for the different individual groups such as aboriginal Australian and secondly the impact of cultural factors for the assessment of personality traits in individuals, it has been revealed that standard personality tests are not suitable for measurement and instrument should be designed by considering the various factors such as cultural differences in mind. Development of personality measurement tool such as CPAI shows the process to design a personality measurement tool by considering both universal factors and theories along with the local factors. Secondly it has been highlighted that culture is one of the vital factor which has impact over the personality assessment test adopted for particular individual. Cultural differences among the group of individual would demand adoption of unique processes and instrument for measuring the personality traits of individuals.
References
Robert B. Williams, Laurence A. French, Nancy Picthall-French and Joan B. Flagg-Williams, (2011), In Pursuit of the Aboriginal Child's Perspective via a CulturefreeTask and Clinical interview
Fanny M, (2004), Use of Western and Indigenously DevelopedPersonality Tests in Asia
Abraham, P. (2006). The teacher's block: Personality constructs and social psychologyconceptualscaffolding. SPA Exchange, 18(1), 4, 13.
Barabas, J. (1973). The assessment of minority groups: An annotated bibliography. (ERICDocument Reproduction Service No. 083 325)
Dana, R. (1986). Personality assessment and Native Americans. Journal of PersonalityAssessment, 50, 480-500.
Dennis, W. (1966).Goodenough scores, art experience, and modernization. The Journal of Social Psychology, 68, 211-228.
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