How to write research project assignment - HND Assignment Help

How to write research project assignment - HND Assignment Help:



Research Project help with HND Assignment Help

Table of Contents

Introduction. 2

LO1 Understand how to formulate a research specification. 3

1.1 In the draft report that you will submit, you must formulate and record your research project outline specifications. 3

1.2
You must also identify the factors that contribute to the process of
your research project selection and undertake a critical review of the
literature. 4


1.3
Finally you must produce a research project specification and provide
an appropriate plan and procedures between you and your supervisor about
the agreed research specification. 5


LO2 Be able to implement the research project within agreed procedure and to specification. 7

2.1 In your RESEARCH PROPOSAL you must match resources efficiently to your research question or hypothesis. 7

2.2
Secondly, the line manager has asked that you discuss the proposed
research investigation in accordance with the agreed specification and
procedures in an Action Plan. 7


2.3
Finally in your research proposal and action plan you must also discuss
how you recorded and collated relevant data in your research where it
was appropriate. 8


LO3 Be able to evaluate the research outcomes. 10

3.1
You are required to produce a summary findings for you final research
meeting. In this report you will discuss how you used appropriate
research evaluation techniques. 10


3.2 You will also discuss how you interpreted and analysed the results in terms of the original research specifications. 11

3.3 Finally in your report you must make recommendations and justify areas for further considerations  11

LO5 Self-evaluation. 13

Conclusion. 14

References. 15

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Introduction

Research
process is undertaken in a particular research context so as to examine
the research topic and fulfil particular research objectives. There are
series of steps which need to be undertaken so as to reach the final
results for the research context. Research process would include framing
research objectives and hypothesis, developing data collection plan,
collecting data through primary and secondary sources and interpreting
data for attaining the research results. In present context research
would be conducted pertaining to the presence of dementia disease among
the black Caribbean people and white British people living in London.
Current research would showcase the research process adopted in order to
conduct the research and obtaining research outcomes by making
efficient use of the research process.

LO1 Understand how to formulate a research specification

1.1 In the draft report that you will submit, you must formulate and record your research project outline specifications.

Research
specification need to be developed in the research context so as to
develop the various elements of research such as research objectives or
questions, information required, research methodology which would be
used in the research etc. In the present context research would be
conducted as a comparative study for Dementia patients between black
ethnic minority and white British population living in the London of
Borough Tottenham. Present research would examine the probability of
dementia among the black ethnic minority and white people. Further
present research would test the hypothesis pertaining to the higher
chances of dementia among black people in UK as compared to the white
British people (A.P.A, 1994).

Objectives for the present research can be given as under:

  • To impart knowledge on the dementia and comparison for dementia between black and white people in country
  • To
    examine whether black Caribbean people living in London are having much
    higher chances of Dementia disease as compared to the white British
    people living in the Borough Tottenham
  • To explore whether
    dementia is under recognized in primary health care for black Caribbean
    people as compared to the white British people
Based on the
data collection plan involved in the present research above mentioned
objectives would be fulfilled. Hypothesis testing would be used in
current research and based on the testing of two hypothesis framed
research objectives would be fulfilled. Research hypothesis for the
current research study can be given as under:

  • Black Caribbean
    people living in London are having much higher chances of dementia
    disease as compared to the white British population (Auchus, 1997)
  • Dementia is under recognized for black Caribbean people in primary healthcare centre in as compared to the white British people

1.2
You must also identify the factors that contribute to the process of
your research project selection and undertake a critical review of the
literature.

Selection of present research project is contributed by below mentioned factors:

  • UK
    incurs high economic and social cost due to dementia every year and
    black Caribbean people are suffering highly due to dementia and
    identification of such trends for dementia among black people would help
    in order to develop mechanism to help them
  • Identification of
    under recognition for dementia in primary healthcare would help in
    developing suitable facilities in primary healthcare so as to identify
    dementia among black people and treat them
Dementia has been
taken from the Latin word Demens which means “without mind” and it can
be defined as the extinction of the judgment and imagination. Dementia
can be considered as the chronic or persistent disorder for the mental
processes and it is caused due to the brain disease or injury to the
brain. For the research purpose, mental disease such as dementia can be
treated by making use of the series of steps such as recommended by
American Psychiatric Association or World Health Association. Diagnosis
for dementia according to ICD-10 need to meet the four domains and these
are given as under:

  • There should be clear evidence for the cognitive decline
  • Symptoms should be presented in absence of the clouding of the consciousness
  • Decline of cognitive abilities should be from past 6 months at least (Bhugra & Ayonrinde, 2004)
  • Decline in cognitive abilities should lead to the decline in social behaviour and emotional control of the patient
It
has been evolved through past researches that evidence of dementia are
much higher among the black Caribbean population as compared to the
white British people and the difference in presence of dementia would
depend upon the socioeconomic status and age factor. Further it has been
observed through past studies that there is much higher rate of both
treated as well as untreated dementia among the black Caribbean
population as compared to the white British population in the country.

A
study shows that possibility of dementia is much higher in the black
Caribbean people as compared to the white British people. Comparison was
done based on the percentage scale wherein black Caribbean people were
found chances of 9.6% as compared to the 6.9% chances among the white
British people. Further this research also highlights that there was
much higher chances of Vascular Dementia among black Caribbean people
and participants meet criteria for possibility rather than probable
diagnosis (Boyle, 1998). In addition to this black Caribbean people were
having much higher chances of hypertension and this was related with
cognitive impairment. Chances for documented dementia among black people
were 42% and referred to specialist dementia was 36%. Further black
people were having lesser chances for identification of dementia in
primary healthcare centre and chances of referral to specialist services
were also much lesser among them as compared to the white British
people.

1.3
Finally you must produce a research project specification and provide an
appropriate plan and procedures between you and your supervisor about
the agreed research specification.

Research methodology adopted
in the research context would define the research philosophy employed in
order to conduct research and attain research goals. Research
philosophy used in the research project would provide brief detail on
the way data would be gathered in the research process. There can be two
possible research methods which can be deployed in order to undertake
research and these two methods are positivism and interpretivism.
Positivism approach to the research bases on the fact that human
behaviour in social context would be according to the social groups
formed (Rampton, 1981). The key idea behind positivism approach is that
social work exists outside and this can be measured objectively. The key
idea supporting interpretivism states that social world exists in the
external world and depends on the way people perceive it and interpret
it. For example, Crime can be measured by making use of the
interpretivism approach. For the present research context interpretivism
approach would be used. Present research would be conducted in order to
exhibit high degree of representativeness so that generalization can be
done through the results obtained in the research. Reliability of the
research would be of utmost importance as conducting research again
should yield similar results. Present result would tend to provide the
true picture of the issue for dementia disease and its comparison among
the black Caribbean and white British people.















LO2 Be able to implement the research project within agreed procedure and to specification

2.1 In your RESEARCH PROPOSAL you must match resources efficiently to your research question or hypothesis.

Matching
the resources with research hypothesis and objectives would help in
ensuring that study has been conducted with compliance to ethical
standards and is legally done. Researcher need to comply with the
ethical policies defined for the research area. The present research for
comparison of dementia in black Caribbean and white British people
comply all ethical standards and ethical form has been filled in order
to gain clearance on ethical grounds.

In order to give credit to
the particular authors, appropriate referencing method would be used in
the study so that due credit is given to the authors and originality of
the work can be ensured (Creswell, 2008). The work in present context
would be original in all respects as this would include fresh research
conducted on the research topic for obtaining outlined research
objectives. Data collected from individuals would be after their consent
and respondents would be given the right to take back their response
during any phase of the study. Anonymity of data would be ensured in
order to maintain confidentiality of the data gained from respondents.
Further during research on the black Caribbean and white British people
it would be ensured that there is no adverse impact on the individuals
of both races. Present research would also consider the legal
responsibilities while conducting the research. In case participant
would decide to refuse for sharing their responses then present research
would respect their decision (Thomas, 2003). Promises made during the
start of research and as per ethical form would be properly taken care
in the present research so as to ensure ethical compliance for the
research.

2.2
Secondly, the line manager has asked that you discuss the proposed
research investigation in accordance with the agreed specification and
procedures in an Action Plan.

In order to conduct the present
research as per research proposal implementation of the research plan is
important and data collection plan would be used in order to collect
and interpret the data. Target set of data collection sources would be
followed properly within specific time plan allotted for the present
research context. Time allotted for each task would be ensured for the
current research so as to make valid interpretation from the data
collected. Validity standards would be applied on the data collected so
as to ensure that research can be completed as per the standard data
collection plans. Reliability measures would be implemented in the
current research context so as to ensure that data results are reliable
and reliability measures are important so as to ensure consistency of
the research results. Pilot testing would be done with the given set of
data in order to obtain the feedback from the respondents (Kara, 2012).
For example, in present research context pilot testing would be done
with the questionnaire in order to know whether black Caribbean people
are not provided with the primary healthcare treatment for
identification of dementia as compared with the British people. This
pilot testing would be done in order to ensure whether respondents are
able to understand and interpret question correctly or not since correct
interpretation of the question for respondents would help them in
providing correct response. Reliability, validity and pilot testing
efforts would be important for the researcher so as to ensure the
answerability of the research results and overall objectives gained
through the current research. Hence present research would be conducted
as per the research plan developed.

2.3
Finally in your research proposal and action plan you must also discuss
how you recorded and collated relevant data in your research where it
was appropriate.

Data collection for the present research was
related with the issue of exploring higher possibility of dementia
disease among the black Caribbean people as compared to the white
British people in London. Data collected in the present context was on
the basis of secondary and primary research wherein primary research
involved designing of questionnaire in order to collate data from the
respondents (Kumar, 2005). A set of 100 respondents was selected in
order to take relevant data on dementia disease and the sample set of
respondents contains people of both race i.e. black Caribbean and white
British people and the medical practitioners in the field of primary
health care in London. Convenience sampling method allowed filling
questionnaire from the people of both race as per the convenience of
availability for the respondents. Responses were collected through
filling physical questionnaire by contacting to the primary healthcare
in London and by mailing the questionnaire to the people who were
admitted in any of the primary healthcare for dementia disease. Data for
the patients can be gained from the various primary healthcare centres.
Pilot testing was done by taking a set of 10 respondents and checking
their understanding for the questionnaire and it was found that
respondents can understand the questionnaire without any manual
intervention from the researcher. In addition to the primary data
present research would collate secondary data through journals and
existing researches in the field of dementia among the black Caribbean
people and white British people. Multiple sources for the secondary data
would be used so as to get the relevant data pertaining to the current
research. Secondary data would be related to the comparison of dementia
among the white and black people living in London. There would be lot of
existing research which can be referred in order to explore the data on
difference in possibility of dementia between black Caribbean and white
British people.

LO3 Be able to evaluate the research outcomes

3.1
You are required to produce a summary findings for you final research
meeting. In this report you will discuss how you used appropriate
research evaluation techniques.

Final research meeting for the
summary finding concludes that there are strong evidences for higher
chances of dementia among the black Caribbean people as compared to the
white British race. Chances for dementia among black people are higher
by significant margin even after excluding variability for the age and
socioeconomic factors in the results given. In addition to this, chances
for identification of dementia among black Caribbean people were lower
as compared to the white British people in primary healthcare centre
which was a cause of concern. This also leads to lower rate of referring
to specialist services for dementia for the black Caribbean people
(Shuttleworth, 2008). So, comparative analysis shows that there are
sufficient evidence for the disparity in regard to possibility of
dementia between black Caribbean and white British people.

Research
evaluation for the present context would allow tracking of objectives
and research questions framed in the present research so as to ensure
that research objectives are met by accomplishing present research. In
order to monitor the accuracy of outcomes for the result it is important
that validity and reliability are tested again and accuracy of data is
not compromised at any stage. This wouldalso help to identify the
possible error done during the research process. Accurate results would
showcase that researcher is able to follow the developed research plan
and understand ethical boundaries while conducting the research.
Research objectives have been clearly stated in the present research and
timely results would be tracked for these objectives. Hypothesis have
been developed in the present research and testing would be done for the
hypothesis framed in order to ensure that research provide adequate
results for the developed hypothesis. Reliability for the data can also
be ensured through collection of data through multiple sources and
comparing the data.

3.2 You will also discuss how you interpreted and analysed the results in terms of the original research specifications.

Present
research has included collection, analysis and interpretation of the
data in multiple ways e.g. secondary qualitative data collected through
literature review has been evaluated through content analysis method
while primary quantitative data has been evaluated through statistical
analysis. Interpretation and comparison of the results gained through
the two research techniques would help in evaluating the research
objectives and testing acceptance or rejection for the research
hypothesis.

A comparison can also be done with the data collected
through primary and secondary data sources as data from the journals and
books would help in understanding the significance of the results which
has been obtained through data collection from primary sources. Similar
studies can be referred in order to check whether the particular
hypothesis has been approved or rejected by other researchers (Cozby,
2001). Data gathered through multiple sources would be checked for the
biases and misjudgement so that such errors do not impact upon the
results obtained in the present research context.

3.3 Finally in your report you must make recommendations and justify areas for further considerations

For
the present research context recommendations can be made in terms of
the research result pertaining to comparison of dementia among black
Caribbean people & white British people and for conducting the
research. Recommendations for improvement upon the dementia disease
among black Caribbean people include developing facilities for black
Caribbean people in primary healthcare centre, identifying factors
leading higher chances of dementia among the black Caribbean people and
providing suitable treatment ways by offering specialist services for
the black Caribbean dementia patients. Factors responsible for higher
dementia possibility among black Caribbean people should be explored and
these factors would help in order to reduce dementia disease among
black Caribbean population. Primary health care centre should be
developed with all facilities so that quick identification for dementia
disease can be done and specialist services should be provided to them
in order to treat those (Moskal & Leydens, 2000).

In order to
improve upon the research process in present context it is important
that an exclusive data collection plan is framed and this plan would
include several resources to collect through the data at primary and
secondary sources. This data collection plan would include step by step
process for the data collection plan and timetable for collection of
data along with data interpretation tools. Statistical analysis tools
would be used to understand the important trends in the quantitative
data set (Cronbach, 1971). Also pilot testing should be done with small
sample size and validity & reliability of the data should be ensured
as it is collected in the research process. There is also possibility
for a researcher to conduct the follow up research in case research
results are not as per expectation but since present research fulfils
all objectives so there is no need for the follow up research.

LO5 Self-evaluation

Self-evaluation
for the present research would reflect on the research process used in
the research, data collection plan, hypothesis development, objective
identification and research result interpretation so as to fulfil the
research objectives through present research. Research process used in
the current research makes use of the multiple research processes i.e.
qualitative and quantitative research process. This research gains
access to the qualitative data in order to explore the identification of
dementia among the black Caribbean people as compared to the white
British people and offering specialist services in order to treat them
for dementia disease. Research process adopted in the present research
is appropriate and allows gaining significant results.

Research
process is such to develop accuracy and reliability for the data so that
these results can be generalized. Research process also consider
different data sources so that there are no biases in the research
process and result obtained are accepted by all researchers in the field
of present research. Data collection plan adopted for the present
research makes use of both primary and secondary data so that current
research takes advantage of the existing researches in this field and
fresh data is also collected pertaining to current research without
missing out on an opportunity for attaining accurate results for the
research. Data collection process develops key tool such as reliability
measure, validity measure and pilot testing so that research results are
non-biased and reliable. Further sampling plan developed in the current
research and sampling process has key role in order to ensure that data
collection process is non-biased and produce efficient results.

Current
research also complieswith the ethical standards which are important
for a research to consider in order having efficient research outcomes.
Legal implications related with the research have also been understood
and helps in order to avoid any adverse impact on the overall research
conducted pertaining to the research context. There are no adverse
impacts observed in the current research on the individuals under
research. Hence present research can be considered as per the developed
research plan and specification so as to attain research objectives
framed.

Conclusion

Present
research has been conducted in context to exploring dementia disease
among black Caribbean people and white British people and it has been
revealed that chances of dementia are much higher in black Caribbean
people. Further chances of identification and referral for specialist
service are low for the black Caribbean people as well. Present research
has been conducted by following research specification so as to attain
desired results for the research and ethical standards have been
complied in the present research context.

References

A.P.A (1994) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders DSM-IV Fourth Edition, Washington DC, American Psychiatric Association

Auchus, A. P. (1997) Dementia in urban black outpatients: initial experience at the Emory satellite clinics. Gerontologist, 3725-9

Bhugra, D. & Ayonrinde, O. (2004) Depression in migrants and ethnic minorities. Advances in Psychiatric Treatment, 1013-17.

Boyle, M. (1998) Guidelines for evaluating prevalence studies. Evidence- Based Mental Health, 127-39.

Cozby, P.C. (2001). Measurement Concepts. Methods in Behavioural Research (7th Ed.). California: Mayfield Publishing Company.

Creswell,
J. W. (2008). Educational Research: Planning, Conducting, and
Evaluating Quantitative and Qualitative Research. Upper Saddle River,
NJ. Pearson Education, Inc.

Cronbach, L. J. (1971). Test validation. In R. L. Thorndike (Ed.). EducationalMeasurement (2nd Ed.). Washington, D. C.: American Council on Education.

Kara H (2012) Research and Evaluation for Busy Practitioners: A Time-Saving Guide, p.102. Bristol: The Policy Press

Kumar, R. (2005). Research Methodologies: A step by step guide for beginners. 1st Edition, UK. SAGE publications Ltd.

Rampton,
A. (1981) West Indian children in our schools: Interim report of the
Committee of Inquiry into the education of children from ethnic minority
groups. London.

Shuttleworth, M. (2008). "Definition of Research". Experiment Resources. Experiment-Research.com

Thomas, M. (2003). Blending Qualitative and Quantitative Research Methods. 1st edition. USA. Cornwin Press, Inc.

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