Difference between distributive negotiation and integrative negotiation - HND Assignment Help

Difference between distributive negotiation and integrative negotiation - HND Assignment Help:



Distributive negotiation vs Integrative negotiation

 Introduction
The process of negotiation can be defined as the dialogue between two parties or two persons in order to develop a common understanding, resolution of the conflict points between two parties, to get benefits for the individuals and to develop common solutions in order to satisfy interest of the various people concerned with the particular negotiation in context. Negotiation in organizational or personal context can take several forms i.e. from the trained negotiation process to the informal negotiation process adopted in the organizational context. There can be basically two ways in which negotiation can be developed and these two negotiation types are distributive negotiation and integrative negotiation (Sally and O’Connor, 2006). The two negotiation processes are considered as the different strategies and adoption of particular strategy for negotiation would depend upon the particular situation in which it is used and goals which needs to be attained through adoption of negotiation skills.  
In the present context argumentative essay would be developed which would be related with the negotiation types described above i.e. distributive negotiation and integrative negotiation (Matz, 2006). It has been stated that both distributive negotiation and integrative negotiation are opposite to each other in the approach adopted for the two negotiation types. Present essay would develop the positive or negative argument pertaining to the present context of the opposition of distributive and integrative negotiation processes. This essay would be in favor of the fact that two negotiation skills are in opposite and evidence would be developed in order to prove opposition of the two negotiation skills.
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Integrative and distributive negotiations are complete opposite
Integrative negotiation processes are completely opposite to the distributive negotiation skills adopted in the organizational context. Distributive negotiation processes as the name suggests would be such that they require agreement between two parties of interest for allocation of the resources. Distributive negotiation skills would be concerning which of the party gets what share from the overall available resources. This would develop to the zero sum game in the distributive negotiation process. In the distributive negotiation process each party would tend to attain the maximum possible share from the available resource while offering only the basic amount of total share to the other party for seeking their agreement over the allocation of the available resources. The information shared by the particular party in this context would be the one which can enhance their chance of winning in the particular negotiation deal. The two parties involved in the process of distributive negotiation would tend to collect all the information pertaining to other party such as the need, wants, position and minimum amount of resource at which other party would be agreed to the negotiation deal (Savage, 1999).
The nature of integrative negotiation process would be completely opposite as compared to the distributive negotiation process wherein the two parties would make the joint efforts in order to reach at the solution so that both the parties would be benefited from the present solution. This is completely opposite approach from the distributive negotiation process wherein aim was just to get maximize their own share and provide only the minimum agreeable share to the other party in the negotiation process. The major difference between distributive and integrative negotiation process would be that in integrative both the parties would tend to maximize total payoff which would be shared between the two parties instead of maximizing only their own share of scare resources. In integrative negotiation both the parties would be having very much consideration to the fact that what amount of scarce resource they would get from the total available share while this is the entire area of focus in distributive negotiation process. Unlike, distributive negotiation processes there would not be non-zero sum game in case of integrative negotiation process.
The norms shared between the two parties under negotiation in case of integrative negotiation would be valuing the reasonability of the solution developed, objective would be to solve problems and analytical in nature as well (Hui and Tingqin, 2009). The two parties in deal unlike distributive case would be clear that there interests are common and joint efforts made by the two parties would be beneficial in order to maximize overall assets available with them. There is vast amount of literature present on the adoption of particular negotiation process in context of different problems faced but most of literature suggests that negotiation process adopted in most of the cases would be a mix of the two approaches i.e. distributive and integrative in nature.
The two negotiation skills are opposite from each other in context that the results obtained from the distributive negotiation process are of short term nature and each party would tend to maximize their payoff without giving much consideration to the problem solving process involved in the context. Integrative negotiation against this is considered as the long term sustainable strategy wherein it is generally considered that overall payoff would be maximized and interest of both the parties would be satisfied so long term and problem solving negotiation process would be adopted in this context (Butt et al, 2005).
Distributive negotiation process is also considered as the fixed pie negotiation process wherein finite amount of resources would be available with the two organizations. There would be five basics elements of the distributive negotiation process and comparison of these elements can be done with the integrative negotiation process as under:
  • Play your card close to your chest: In distributive negotiation process a party would tend to disclose information which would be of importance to them and no other information would be revealed by that party. The two parties would tend to hide information pertaining to their need, want and minimum amount of resources which they would be looking from the present deal of the negotiation and at the same time this information from the other party would be awaited by each party so that they can make negotiation which can benefit them. While in case of the integrative negotiation process the two parties in context would tend to disclose information which is available to them. Disclosure of information by the two parties can have mutual benefits as any of the party can make efforts in order to maximize total share of resources which would be available to them by getting that critical piece of information. Further information sharing would happen in case of integrative negotiation process so as to understand demand of each other and the two parties would be happy to share this information as understanding the requirement would allow them to develop most innovative solution for the problem faced by the two parties in term of the negotiation.
  • Opposite is always true: In distributive negotiation process one party would tend to gain as much as information from the other party involved in the negotiation process. In addition to this it would be tried from both the parties that no confidential information is being shared between the two parties which can be of advantageous to other party. Unlike this there would be lot of information which the two parties would tend to share in the integrative negotiation process as this would help the two parties in using their skills and maximizing overall payout which would be gained by the two organizations and these payouts would be shared between the two parties.
  • First offer from other party: In the distributive negotiation process both the parties would tend to seek first offer from the opposite party. This is a known fact that in the distributive negotiation process the entire process would revolve around the stage set by the first offer from any of the parties. Hence the two parties would try that they are not making any offer first and would look for the other party to make first offer. In opposite to this in the integrative negotiation process both the parties would work on the joint offer which is developed between the two parties so that both can get agreed on the offer developed by them in order to resolve the conflicting situation and allocate resources as per the resource maximization process (Kopelman and Rosette, 2008).
  • Motive: The major motive of distributive negotiation process would be to maximize the share of resource attained by the individual parties so that based on the available resources maximum resource can be gained by the particular party. In against to this the major motive in the integrative negotiation process would be to maximize overall resources which would be shared between the two parties under negotiation process.
Below are some of the key elements factors which prove that the two negotiation skills adopted are quite opposite to each other and these elements can be given as under:
  • Focus on position rather than interest: Under normal circumstances a person would tend to be inclined towards the distributive negotiation process as compared to the integrative negotiation process adopted by particular person. Distributive negotiation process adopted by the organization would keep higher focus on the position of a person rather than the interest. The focus on position of a person during the negotiation process can be considered as a result of the adversarial approach and competitive behavior.
  • Stressful condition would tend to make people competitive rather than compromising: Under the stress conditions a person would tend to be competitive rather than compromising. Thinking process for the distributive negotiation process would always desire to gain more and given less while in opposite to this in the integrative approach to the negotiation process consider that satisfactory negotiation would only takes place when the two parties would tries to compromise on the offer given by each other so that resolution can be given for the conflict presented for distribution of assets.
  • Raw power being dominant factor: In distributive negotiation process raw power is considered as the major element which takes the two parties towards negotiation process while raw power is considered as the relationship breaking and driving short term solutions between the two parties under negotiation process (Lewicki et al, 2001).
  • Force threat and bluff as common way adopted: Parties under distributive negotiation would tend to make use of the power, threat of bluff in order to resolve the issues faced. But according to integrative negotiation process these tools are source of the problem resolution in short term and these methods has high chances of failure in solving the problem as well (Putnam, 2006). Hence threat, bluff and power is not being use in case of the integrative negotiation process.
  • Higher focus on things that separate us: It is the general approach that people would give higher focus towards the things which would tend to separate use in distributive negotiation as comparison to the things which are binding us. Against this desire under the integrative approach the focus of the two organizations would be on the things which are binding and creating common interest for the two parties involved in the process of negotiation so that by sharing the critical information interest of both the parties can be enhanced.
  • Higher thinking for end point instead of starting points: It is the common interest of people to look at the end points in the distributive negotiation process because they have not taken sufficient time for the negotiation process (Lewicki et al, 1996). Opposite to this thinking integrative negotiation process considers that the two parties under negotiation should be well prepared and should give time for preparing towards the negotiation process. An opening offer should be prepared by the two organizations wherein negotiation process can be started and this offer would help the other party to understand needs and wants of the other party in the negotiation process.
  • Talk more and listen less: There is normal human tendency under the distributive negotiation process that we would talk more and would tend to maximize our part of assets by talking more. In opposite to this it is recommended that we should listen more to other party under negotiation process so that we would be able to know more about ideas and needs of other party. This would help first party to resolve conflict in better manner.
  • Fast and slow negotiation: In distributive negotiation process faster negotiation processes are considered as the effective negotiation without considering much about the short term nature of the negotiation process for the organization. There is no value given to the relationship building and trust which comes through slow negotiation process. In opposite to this integrative negotiation process consider high importance for the time factor and slow negotiation process is adopted which would value the relationship and gives higher importance to the long term nature of the negotiation process adopted between the two parties under negotiation process (Krauss and Morsella, 2006).
  • Conception of larger team as better teams: In distributive negotiation process it is considered better to have larger teams while making negotiation. Larger teams are considered good in order to reveal higher amount of information pertaining to other party under negotiation process and to think about negotiation process wherein organization can get much higher share of the overall assets present for the two parties. It is considered in the integrative negotiation process that bigger team may backfire under certain circumstances. Also smaller teams in integrative negotiation process would help in order to understand other teams and develop a long term stable resolution for the problem faced between the two parties.
Conclusion
Negotiation process can be considered in the individual as well as organizational context wherein allocation of assets would be of immense importance in order to develop a negotiation between the two parties. Negotiation basically can be done in two ways and these are distributive negotiation and integrative negotiation. The two negotiation processes considered are opposite to each other wherein thinking process for one type of negotiation is completely adverse to other negotiation process. For distributive negotiation process it is considered that the two parties under negotiation has higher interest in order to ensure that there share in the asset allocation should be highest. This type of negotiation process is called competitive negotiation process and competitive behavior is shown by the two parties. In distributive negotiation process each party would tend to maximize their assets, will not share any vital information, would want to know all information from other party, would consider faster negotiation as better and would take larger teams for negotiation process. In opposite to distributive negotiation process, integrative negotiation would tend to maximize the overall asset for the two parties, smaller teams would be formed, information would be shared and slow & long term decision making would be considered for the two parties under negotiation process.
References
Sally D.F. and O’Connor K.M. (2006). Negotiating in Teams. Schneider A and C Honeyman (ed) The Negotiator’s Fieldbook at 551.
Matz, D. (2006). Intra-Team Miscommunication. Schneider A and C Honeyman (ed). The Negotiator’s Fieldbook at 559
Krauss R.M. and Morsella, E. (2006). Communication and Conflict. Deutsch M, P.T. Coleman and E.C. Marcus (ed). The Handbook of Conflict Resolution: Theory and Practice at 150
Lewicki R, Hiam A. and Olander K.W. (1996). Think Before You Speak: A Complete Guide to Strategic Negotiation at 159
Putnam L.L. (2006). Communication and Interaction Patterns. Schneider A and C Honeyman (ed) The Negotiator’s Fieldbook at 387.
Savage, G. (1999). The Test of the Motivations Underlying Choice of Conflict Strategies in the Dual-Concern Model. The International Journal of Conflict Management.
Hui, Z. and Tingqin Z. (2009). Body Language in Business Negotiation. International Journal of Business Management 3 (2).
Butt A., Choi J. and Jaeger A. (2005). The effects of self-emotion, counterpart emotion, and counterpart behavior on negotiator behavior: a comparison of individual-level and dyad-level dynamics. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 26(6), 681 – 704
Kopelman, S. and Rosette, A.S. (2008). Cultural variation in response to strategic display of emotions in negotiations. Special Issue on Emotion and Negotiation in Group Decision and Negotiation (GDN), 17 (1) 65-77.
Lewicki, R.J.; D.M. Saunders, J.W. Minton (2001). Essentials of Negotiation. New York: McGraw-Hill Higher Education
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