Unit-5 Management for Financial Accountant

SAFS-School of Accounting & Finance Studies

BETEC Higher National Diploma
In Financial Accounting

Assignment


Unit-5 Management for Financial Accountant



Answer to the task no-1

In this task in the scenario there have given some information of International Olympic Committee (IOC) and Coca-cola well known beverage Company. The National Olympic Committees (NCOs), the International Sports Federation (Ifs), the athletes, the United Nations agencies and the international Olympic Committee (IOC) all are non-profit organizations and member of Olympic family shepherds success through a wide range of programmes and projects. Worldwide well-known Coca-cola Company also Olympic partners who is a business organization in USA. They have more than 500 beverage brands all over 200 countries. They maintain their financial statements with general accepted accounting principles in the United States. In this task there have given four requirements. The appropriate answers of these requirements are as follows:

Requirement-1:                          (Covered criteria 1.1 & P)
 In this requirement says to develop an overview on the Coca-Cola Company as business organization and its critical external relationship. The appropriate development on overview of this Company and external relationship are given below:

Developed overview of Coca-cola Company and external relationship:
Coca-Cola Company is a well-known beverage company all over the world. This company currently offers more than 500 brands of beverage in over 200 countries and serves over 1.6 billion servings each day. The procedure of prepare their financial statement is very standard. Their financial statements are prepared accordance follow with USA accounting principles. Coca-cola company one of the biggest companies all over the world.

Coca-Cola Company is a worldwide Olympic partner. As a partner of International Olympic Committee (IOC) their have many responsibility and rights to IOC. IOC is one of the most business environmental elements of Coca-cola company.

Not only had relationship with IOC there have also relationship with other external parties of Coca-Cola Company.


PEST analysis:
PEST analysis is the most important method to find out the external relationship of any organization. The full meaning of PEST is –
    ➢ P = Political environment
    ➢ E = Economic environment
    ➢ S = Social environment
    ➢ T = Technological environment

External relationship of Coca-Cola Company with political environment:
Since Coca-Cola Company is, a worldwide beverage company for that political environment is the most important to them. In where country they want to run their business, if these countries political policies or environment such as taxation policy, foreign trade regulations, environmental production, anti-competition legislation and government stability are not favorable for them, they cannot achieve their goal. Every part or elements of political environment are so much important for Coca-Cola Company. Unfavorable political environment hampered business stability and reputation.

External relationship of Coca-cola company with economic environment:
Economic environment is another important external relationship partner of Coca-Cola Company. On which country Coca-Cola Company wants to run his business that countries economic environment is very important for their business. Because favorable economic environment is very helpful to achieve the business goal. Economic environmental elements such as interest rate, inflation, employment etc are very important for Coca-Cola Company. If these elements are not favorable for Coca-Cola Company, then this Company cannot run his project properly.

External relationship of Coca-Cola Company with social environment:
Coca-Cola Company is a well-known reputed beverage Company all over the world. They run their project over on 200 countries. Therefore, they mixed different countries social environment and culture. There business has a direct relationship with social environment. Because their products are drinks products. If any countries culture avoid the system of drinking any beverage, then in that countries they cannot run any beverage or drinks products.



Social environment such as culture, education level, consume level etc. are directly affect on Coca-Cola Company. If these social environmental elements are not favorable for Coca-Cola Company, then they cannot reach their expected goal or target.

External relationship of Coca-Cola Company with technological environment:
Nowadays all things are depends on modern technological discovery. All business organizations follow modern technology and method for production, sales and marketing goods. Since Coca-Cola Company is a worldwide Company for that, they follow all modern technology for production and marketing their goods. Nowadays it is most effective that peoples likes to buy all modern technological products or service. New products are most attraction for the customers. Technological environment elements such as speed of information transfer, new discover or innovation etc. that’s all are very effective for Coca-Cola Company.

SWOT analysis:
SWOT analysis is the another method to find out external relationship of any organization. The full meaning of SWOT is –
    ➢ S  = Strength
    ➢ W = Weakness
    ➢ O = Opportunities
    ➢ T = Threats

Strength of Coca-Cola Company:
Coca-Cola Company is a worldwide beverage Company. Strength means generally the work ability. Coca-Cola Company runs their business over 200 countries all over the world. They show their business management and success strength. Their economic feature is very high. They sales their beverage over 1.6 billion per day. For their economic strength, they will be able to beverage partners of as a big organization Olympic Game.

Weakness of Coca-Cola Company:
London unrest is very dangerous news for Coca-Cola Company. If this unrest affects them, then they will be facing a lot of problem. Coca-Cola Company should be removing their weakness in different sectors.

Opportunities of Coca-Cola Company:
Since Coca-Cola Company is, a worldwide company and they run their business all over the world. For that, they have a great opportunity to promote their business in different sectors.
Threats of Coca-Cola Company:
The London unrest is big threats of Coca-Cola Company. It will be hamper the general movement of Coca-Cola Company. The political unrest and the international business law or new rules will be hampering the business environment of Coca-Cola Company. For that, Coca-Cola Company should be always aware the upcoming international business rules and regulations.

Corporate governance law:
Corporate governance law is very important for Coca-Cola Company. Corporate governance is many stakeholders influence the system of management of a firm. On the other hand, the shareholder, managers, creditors, employees, suppliers, customers, local residents and the government also affect corporate governance law. Corporate governance provides a framework of account users, stakeholders and other parties by which an organization take decisions to achieve their objectives. Coca-Cola Company maintains a fixed structure of corporate governance and should be follow the corporate governance law.

Copyright law:
Coca-Cola Company is a world wide and reputed beverage company. They should be following the international copyright law. They should be use copyright law in their products name, products cover and material. Since their reputation is very well for that is it is not better for their to use other business policies or model of products. For that coca-cola company should be follow the copyright law.

The data protection act:
Coca-Cola Company use modern technology for processing and using their data. They should be use and follow “1984 Data Protection Act”. They should be secure their data in their own security and should not use other business data without their permission.

Healthy and safety at work:
It is very important for Coca-Cola Company to make sure that their workers works as 100% safety work environment. They should be following the health and safety act 1974. The law says-
    • “Employers have to look after the health, safety and welfare of their employees by ensuring:
         ➢ Plant and equipment safe
         ➢ Safe handling, storage, maintenance and transport of articles and substances
         ➢ Provision for employees of information, instruction, training and supervisor-a safe working environment and adequate welfare facilities-safe access and egress
         ➢  A safe system of works”

Coca-Cola Company should be following the international health and safety act for their workers and environment safety. They should also make some internal regulations for their safety. If they unable to maintain their workers safety and workplaces safety, they loss their goodwill and reputation and will be faces a lot of problems.

References:
        ▪ Unit-5, Management for Financial Accounting-SAFS, Part-A, Chapter-1,2
        ▪ CAT Advanced Paper-5, ISBN NO-0-7517-1651-0




Requirement-2:                         (Covered criteria 1.1 & P)
In this requirement says to identify external regulations that could affect Coca-Cola Company’s accounting policies and business operation. The appropriate answer of this requirement is given below:

Coca-Cola is a worldwide beverage Company. Its financial statements are prepared in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles in the United States. The external regulations that’s could affect Coca-Cola Company’s accounting policies and business operation are given below:

As a franchise leader in beverage industry over 100 countries, some external regulations such as IAS (International Accounting Standard) can affect Coca Cola’s accounting policies and business operation.

Coca Cola’s financial statements are prepared in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles in the United States. They also follow some accounting policies. In addition, these accounting policies should have specific principles and standard.

“Accounting policies are the specific principles, bases, conventions, rules and practices applied by an entity in preparing and presenting financial statement”. [IAS-8.5]
For that Coca Cola’s should be follow the international recognized accounting policies and should be practice.

Coca-Cola is a worldwide beverage Company.  For that, they should be necessary to follow the international financial reporting system fro their financial reporting. International financial Reporting Standards are standards and interpretations adopted by the International Accounting Standards Board (ISAB).

“They comprise: International Financial Reporting Standard (IFRSs).”                          [IAS-8.5]

For this, rules Coca-Cola Company should be follow IFRSs rules for their financial reporting.

Since Coca-Cola Company is a worldwide beverage company, for that they should be follow the all necessary rules and regulations of IAS (International Accounting Standard), IASB (The International Accounting Standards Boards), IFRSs (International Financial Reporting Standards) and others accounting and management body rules-regulations.

If Coca-Cola Company wants to change their accounting policies, then they follow the IAS accounting policies change rules. Such as-

“An entity is permitted to change an accounting policy only if the change:
    • is required by a standard or interpretation; or
    • results in the financial statements providing reliable and more relevant information about the effects of transactions, other events or conditions on the entity’s financial position, financial performance or cash flow.” [IAS-8.14]

“Note that changes in accounting policies do not include applying an accounting policy to a kind of transaction or event that did not occur previously or were immaterial.” [IAS-8.16]

For that, rules Coca-Cola Company should be follow these rules for change accounting policies.

References:
        ▪ Unit-5, Management for Financial Accounting-SAFS, Part-A, Chapter-1,2
        ▪ CAT Advanced Paper-5, ISBN NO-0-7517-1651-0
Requirement-3:                          (Covered criteria 1.1 & P)
In this requirement says to take example from above scenario distinguish between charitable and profit making organization. The appropriate distinguish between charitable and profit making organization by follow this scenario are given below:

In the scenario, IOC (International Olympic Committee) is the supreme authority of the Olympic movement. As a non-profit organization, join with Olympic family the National Olympic Committee (NOCs), The International Sports Federations (IFs), The Athletes, The Organizing Committees for the Olympic Games (OCOGs), to top partners, broadcast partners and United Nations agencies.
Coca-Cola is a worldwide Olympic partner. All of these organizations some are charitable and some are profit making. The distinguish between them are given below by showing table:

|Charitable organizations                                            |Profit making organizations                                       |
|The International Olympic Committee (IOC), National Olympic         |The Coca-Cola Company, the top partners, broadcast partners and   |
|Committees (NOCs), The International  Sports Federations (IFs),  The|media partners etc.                                               |
|Athletes, The Organizing Committees for the Olympic Games (OCOGs),  |                                                                  |
|United Nations etc.                                                 |                                                                  |


References:
        ▪ Unit-5, Management for Financial Accounting-SAFS, Part-A, Chapter-1,2
        ▪ CAT Advanced Paper-5, ISBN NO-0-7517-1651-0











Requirement-4:                               (Covered criteria M1)
In this requirement says to identify some objectives of both IOC and Coca-Cola Company that can be affected by London unrest. The appropriate answer of this requirement is given below:

IOC (International Olympic Committee) is a charitable organization and the Coca-Cola Company is a profit making Company. London unrest affected some objectives of both IOC and Coca-Cola Company. The objectives that might be affected by London unrest are given below:

However, IOC (International Olympic Committee) is not a profit making organization but London unrest affected him strongly. The objective that’s has affected the IOC are given below:
    ❖ London unrest hamper the Olympic movement;
    ❖ Olympic loss their goodwill;
    ❖ Loss IOC arrange cost;
    ❖ De motivated the top partners;
    ❖ Spectator cannot interest to enjoy the Olympic game is London;
    ❖ All over they loss a huge goodwill; etc.

Coca-Cola is a profit making organization. The Coca-Cola Company is a worldwide Olympic partner who incorporated as a business organization in USA (1892). London unrest is very dangerous news for Coca-Coca Company. London unrest affects the Coca-Cola Company strongly. The objective that has affected the Coca-Cola Company are given below:
    ❖ London unrest affect the goodwill of Coca-Cola Company;
    ❖ It may be a reason a lot of loss of Coca-Cola Company;
    ❖ It hampers the marketing of Coca-Cola Company;
    ❖ It reduce the sales of this Company;
    ❖ It may be a good news for other beverage Company which are not partners of Olympic game;
    ❖ It hampers the general activity of these organizations whose are related with Coca-Cola Company;
    ❖ All over London, unrest hampers the general movement of Coca-Cola Company that will be affect now and next time for this Company. It will also reduce its reputation for a long time; etc.





Answer to the task no-2

In this task, Roxxon Ltd. is trading organization involved in the retail of gift items and has active operation in fourteen countries the world. In this task, there are two requirements. The appropriate answers of these requirements are given below:

Requirement-(1):                                     (Covered criteria 1.2 & P)
In this requirement says to how a move to functional departmental organizational structure/geographical departmental organizational structure would have an effect on the accounts department of the organization. The appropriate answers of this requirement are given below:

An Organizational structure is the model of relationships flanked by positions and between members in the organization. It makes it possible to apply the process of management and produce a framework of order and control through which the activities of the organization can be planned, organized, directed and prohibited. The structure defines tasks and responsibilities, work roles and relationships and channels of announcement.

Procedure of moving functional departmental organizational structure to geographical departmental structure for Roxxon Ltd:
If Roxon Ltd. wants to change his organization, structure to geographical departmental structure from functional departmental organizational structure, Roxon Ltd. needs some change of necessary rules and regulations and should be follow some specific way. Firstly, the Company should be made a specific plan for this structural change. Roxon Ltd. should be changing his organizational structure after an accounting year for better results. Generally, any Company wants to change his Company’s structure when he saw more benefits in the other organizational structure.

Roxon Ltd. is a retail trader of gifts items. He runs his business in fourteen countries around the world. Different organizational structure is more essential for different countries and business. For that all countries organizational structure are not to be same. Organizational change means change the organizational all functions communication, changes the authority and responsibility changes the control system, changes the whole management system, changes the departmental works movement, changes the accounting transactions system and records system.
Before change the organizational structure Roxon Ltd. should be, explain the nature, content and purpose to the all employees. The Company should be explaining the communication, authority and management system to the all employees and necessary parties. If the employees did not understand the new organizational structure work movement then they cannot provide their better service. Roxon Ltd. should be declaring the change news in a meeting. The Company should be explain and discuss the whole structure and the employees should be try to understood the explanation. The Company should put in proper works the all employees to the follow new organizational structure. In the meeting the Company should be explain the new information system, communication system, responsibility, authority, new working system and accounting system.

Effect on accounts department for the change:
If any Company change his organizational structure then the accounts department activities must changed. The Roxon Ltd. changes his organizational structure to geographical departmental organizational structure from functional organizational structure. This changes effect on the accounts department of the organization. Since the Roxon Ltd. run his business in fourteen countries around the world for that he should be follow the IAS (International Accounting Standard). If the Company changes the organizational structure, it should be effects on accounts department of the organization. The new organizational structure may be changes the movement of accounts department. This new structure may be changes the transaction line of the accounts department. It changes the records system of accounts department. These changes affect the responsibility of accounts managers. It may change the duty pattern and responsibility of accounts managers. This change affects the information line of accounts department. The change of organization structure affect the accounting records books. It may change the pattern of records books.

References:
        ▪ Unit-5, Management for Financial Accounting-SAFS, Part-B, Chapter-3
        ▪ CAT Advanced Paper-5, ISBN NO-0-7517-1651-0







Requirement-(2):                                     (Covered criteria 1.2 & P)
This requirement says to explain the “Management Information System” and how the accounting systems can be automated by the Management information system. The appropriate answer of this requirement is given below:

Management information system:
A management information system (MIS) provides information, which is needed to run organizations efficiently and successfully. The information needs of an organizations management at every level in assembly operational, tactical and strategic decisions. (MIS) is an integrated information system, which is used to supply management with needed information on a regular basis. In a management information system, modern computerized procedure constantly gathers proper data, both from inside and outside an organization.

This data is then processed, incorporated, and stored in a centralized database where it is constantly updated and made accessible to all who have the authority to access it, in a form that suits their point. Management information systems engage three most important resources like people, technology, and information. Management information systems are separate from other information systems in that they are used to investigate operational activities in the organization.

A management information system (MIS) can be defined as a set of dignified procedures designed to provide managers at all levels with suitable information from all applicable sources to enable them to make timely and effectively decisions for planning and controlling the behavior for which they are to blame.

Accounting system is automated by Management Information System (MIS):
Management information system (MIS) provides accurate data and information to all functions and all departments. Every organization has a department for accounts. The full accounting works run this department. Accounting system can automate by the Management information system. Automation is an instrument that can used to make easy records management and archival purposes.

Management information system is most important for every business organization. Different business organization chose different management information system. Which Management information system (MIS) would be choose the organization it would be depend on the business organization nature and own purpose.
Management information system not only automates the accounting system but also automates the all systems and departments. It changes the all departments’ information line and affects the all communication system. If Management information system is implemented well, it can be increase the staff efficiency effectiveness. When it is implemented, the analyzing of data and information more than swiftly than could do normally. When Management information system is implemented, the accounting system can be automated such as-
      ❖ Modify in information format;
      ❖ Change in information records system;
      ❖ Adjust responsibility of accounts manager;
      ❖ Amend the previous record system and curriculum;
      ❖ Using the latest international accounting rules;
      ❖ Using the most recent technology in accounts system;
      ❖ Exercise the modern computerized technology in accounts system;
      ❖ Update the latest international accounting records system;
      ❖ Adjust the new management control in accounts system;
      ❖ Modify the proper timeline in accounts related works and activities; etc.

Management information system (MIS) is very important substance for every business organization. It helps to achieve the goal of any business organization. Management information system provides all necessary and important information to all users and necessary parties. MIS provides information to all necessary departments from suitable source. It helps every department to effectively planning and appropriate decision making by which they run their activities as soon as proper way. Management information system can make speedier in every works in every department. It classified the employees and their responsibility in a proper way. Management information system gives a fixed appropriate work procedure for the employees. Since Roxon Ltd. run his business in fourteen countries around the world for that, it is very significant to choose a proper Management information system for better result and make easy to achieve their goal.

References:
        ▪ Unit-5, Management for Financial Accounting-SAFS, Part-B, Chapter-7
        ▪ CAT Advanced Paper-5, ISBN NO-0-7517-1651-0





Answer to the task no-3

In this, task Ms. Afsana has recently joined Meena Bazaar Ltd. as a Finance Director. There have given more information in the scenario. In this task, there are two requirements. The appropriate answers of these requirements are given below:

Requirement-(1):                                      (Covered criteria 2.1 & P)
In this requirement says to describe methods for all kind of resource planning and coordinating work for Meena Bazaar. The appropriate methods for all kinds of resource planning and coordinating work for Meena Bazaar are given below:

Mina Bazaar is a retail shop for customers. All retail goods are found in Mina Bazzar. In Mina Bazaar, there have all retail daily necessary goods and have many part and department. There have many sections in Mina Bazaar. Such as-
     ▪ Control or monitoring department;
     ▪ Accounts department;
     ▪ Reception department;
     ▪ Food departments;
     ▪ Reserve depertment;
     ▪ Different goods depertment; etc.

Resource planning of Meena Bazaar:
Meena Bazaar is a retail goods shop. There have all necessary daily goods and products. To run the business Meena Bazaar make many resource plan to run the business properly. Since Meena Bazaar, supply the daily necessary goods to the customer for that they should collect and storage daily necessary things everyday. The different resources planning and coordinating work for Meena Bazaar Ltd. Meena Bazaar has some resource. They should be plan for these resources-
    ▪ Human resource planning;
    ▪ Asset resource planning;
    ▪ Capital resource planning;
    ▪ Technological resource planning; etc.

Human resource planning:
Every business organization human resource planning is very important matter. Because without work force run to business is not possible. To achieve the business goal needs perfect employees. For that, it is very significant to make a proper human resource planning.
Proper recruitment planning is very important for every business organization. Recruitment is a long process. Recruitment has many steps and each step is very significant for recruit a appropriate employee.
Recruitment is the method of attracting skilled persons to apply for the jobs that are release. It is the discovering of probable candidates for definite or anticipated organizational vacancies. Recruitment involves the progress of pool of applicants for a job.

By recruitment, the organization attempts to make out and attract candidates to get together the requirements of anticipated or definite job openings. There are two sources of applicants. In addition, these are-
   i. Internal source
  ii. External source

Meena Bazaar is retail shop for daily necessary goods. For that, they need some employees for sales, control, security and accounts. For human resource planning Meena Bazaar should be follow these items-
         ▪ Set a fixed human resource plan;
         ▪ Estimate the amounts of employees;
         ▪ Fixed a recruitment as by which method using they collect proper employees;
         ▪ Give advertise or contact manpower providers organization to get their employees;
         ▪ Give necessary requirements in the advertisement paper for the applicant;
         ▪ Set fixed procedure to recruit the applicant;
         ▪ Take verbal or written exam for the applicant;
         ▪ Properly select them for final appoint;
         ▪ Expressly describe the all duty, responsibility and liabilities of these employees and signed a agreement sheet for security;
         ▪ Helps to understand their works and duties; etc.

Asset resource planning:
Asset resource planning is very important for every business organization. Because every business organization needs different assets to continue the business properly. Such as land, building, furniture’s etc. The require and structure of assets of all business organization are not same. It would be differ by the organizational size and activity.

Every business organization expenses a huge amount of money for assets. For that, it is very significant to fix a resource planning for assets. Meena Bazaar is a retail shop of daily necessary goods. They  must need of resource planning for assets. The resource planning for assets are given below:
    ▪ Rent or buy land for building in a proper place of locality;
    ▪ Make budget for new plan;
    ▪ Use designer for design the assets;
    ▪ Fix the structure of decoration for the shop;
    ▪ Select appropriate furniture for the shop;
    ▪ Adjust the depreciation with book value of the assets;
    ▪ Maintain proper security to protect the assets; etc.

Capital/Finance resource planning:
Any business organization cannot run without capital or money. All things are hopeless without money. For that, capital is very significant to continue a business. Capital resource planning is another most resource planning for any business organization. Meena Bazaar must need of resource planning for capital. The resource planning for capital is given below:
    ▪ Prepare a proper capital structure for Meena  Bazaar;
    ▪ Classified the capital by their term;
    ▪ Fix the amount of capital;
    ▪ Make decision to chose the source of these capital;
    ▪ Take proper source for business finance;
    ▪ Collect capital using by these sources. Such as-
                           i. Own capital
                          ii. Relations and friends
                         iii. Business loan
                          iv. Agent
                           v. Bill of exchange
                          vi. Commercial bank
                         vii. N.G.O.
                        viii. Managing agent
                          ix. Shares
                           x. Debentures
                          xi. Reserve fund
                         xii. Depreciation fund
                        xiii. Assets and properties
                         xiv. Investment corporation
                          xv. Insurance organization; etc.

    ▪ Use project for using capital;
    ▪ Make sure the better use of capital;
    ▪ Make sure the proper investment for profit and return the investment capital; etc.


Technological resource planning:
Meena Bazaar is situated in a proper place in Dhaka. Everyday many customers buy their necessary things from Meena Bazaar. Nowadays all business things are modernized day by day. Modern technologies take places in every business and institutions. Meena Bazaar should be following the modern technology. The technological resources planning for Meena Bazaar are given below:
    ▪ Fix the modern technological instrument for the purpose of utilize;
    ▪ Appoint specialist for using modern technology;
    ▪ Set a circuit camera for better control;
    ▪ Use the accounting software for records all transaction and proper calculation;
    ▪ Appoint software engineer to support of technical problems of using software;
    ▪ Use modern products code for selling control;
    ▪ Update modern equipment in the change of the time and needs of customer and using purpose; etc.

Out of the resource planning each resource planning have affect the all departments of Meena Bazaar. A suitable resource planning of every business can change the overall situation of organization and helps to gain the goal. I hope above resource planning will influenced the all activities of all departments. In addition, these are given below:

Purchase department:
Since Meena Bazaar, supply the daily necessary goods to the customer for that they should collect and storage daily necessary things everyday. For that, Meena Bazaar should be following these events-
    ▪ Maintain a fixed amount of money for daily purchase;
    ▪ Collect the each product departmental information which goods is need to be purchase or which goods storage is low level;
    ▪ Fixed a suitable plan for better systematical and proper goods purchase;
    ▪ Contact the suppliers for purchase;
    ▪ Contact the better suppliers for more than best products and become cheaper cost of products;
    ▪ Purchase procedure complete in proper time;
    ▪ Properly storages the new goods;
    ▪ Give purchase information and list to the accounts department; etc.




Sales departments:
Sales departments are other most important departments of Meena Bazaar. Sales departments have many parts. Different classes of products are classified by a systematic rule. Such as food section, vegetable section, fruit section, cosmetic section and many other section. Sales department should be follow these item-
     ▪ Maintain work structure for every parts of sales departments;
     ▪ Maintain ideal sales executive for better results;
     ▪ Keep necessary goods in sales outline;
     ▪ Collect necessary goods from stocks;
     ▪ Give carry basket to every customer for their better service;
     ▪ Properly maintain the cost of products in up of every products cover;
     ▪ Provide better service to the customer; etc.

Control departments:
Control department control the over all work activities of Meena Bazaar. Control department monitor the whole movement and activities of workers and the customers. Control department should be follow these item-
    ▪ Prepare appropriate rules for easily control the overall activities;
    ▪ Divided duties and responsibility of employees;
    ▪ Control the Circuit Camera for better control;
    ▪ Divided time schedule for the employees;
    ▪ Set duty shift for the employees;
    ▪ Create and apply management rules for all departments and work activities;
    ▪ Make sure at least one sales representative in every products outline;
    ▪ Monitor the all outline sections;
    ▪ Supporting software for the accounts departments;
    ▪ Specially monitor the accounts or cash activity;
    ▪ Overall control the whole work activities; etc.

Security department:
Meena Bazaar is a retail shop for public. For that, it is very important to keep strong security for public or customers. Customer’s freely shopping movement is very important for Meena Bazaar. For proper security, Meena Bazaar should follow these events-
    ▪ Maintain Circuit Camera for better control;
    ▪ Maintain a security guard for gate control;
    ▪ Monitor the gate checking properly;
    ▪ Overall, give security to customers and their goods and cars; etc.

References:
        ▪ CAT Advanced Paper-5, ISBN NO-0-7517-1651-0
Requirement-(2):                                    (Covered criteria 2.1 & D1)
In this requirement says to construct a clear outline of Human Resource recruitment planning which Ms. Afsana can implement in Meena Bazaar Ltd. The appropriate answer of this requirement is given below:

Human Resource recruitment planning for Meena Bazaar:
Appropriate recruitment planning is very important for every business organization. Recruitment is a long process. Recruitment has many steps and each step is very significant for recruit an appropriate employee. Recruitment is the process of attracting capable persons to concern for the jobs that are release. It is discovering of likely candidates for specific or anticipated organizational vacancies.

By recruitment, organization chooses the skilled person. For that, firstly organization chooses the source of skilled employees. Mainly there are two sources of applicants. In addition, these are-
 iii. Internal source
  iv. External source

Internal source:
Internal source is very important source to choose the skilled persons for the new recruitment. These internal sources are mainly the present or previous employees of the organization. A form of organizations has strategy of promoting from inside. It has a productive collision on the organizational members and the internal working surroundings. The chance for sequence has three separate benefits. In addition, these are-
   i. It can reduce turnover;
  ii. Present inducement to be trained jobs quickly;
 iii. Assist in creation the individual a performance member of the organization prior since the person by now knows the policies and prospect of the Company.


However, there have also some negatives from the process of internal recruiting. Employees who perform not obtain the jobs may happen to dissatisfied. There is always the option that this rules, if it taken to the marvelous cans consequence in minimal being brought into the organization. It may result in imperfect new ideas and stagnation.
One of the internal sources is transfer of external exterior persons made by friends and made by relatives inside the organization. An additional technique is to a center for candidates by announcing work openings in Company information sheet and by posting rest vacancies on statement boards. This plan provides for all the employees the equivalent chance to apply.
The last policy is to performance a look for the recital records of at hand employees with the goal of identifying competent candidates, then to encourage to them for apply of this position.

External source:
A following likely basis for candidates is exterior organization. Organizations can enlarge programs by on place visits to colleges, different trade schools, professional conferences, annual trade fairs and universities. This instrument allows the Company to generate impressions, reply questions, and monitor applicants swiftly.

Another move toward is also to place advertisements in different newspapers and various job journals. It will be rest job requisitions by unions, school nationality bureaus, and confidential otherwise public service agencies. The achievement in using these resources will depend on how well the organization has described its recital requirements and specifications.

Recruitment procedure:
Recruitment is a long process. Nowadays recruitment processes are modernized day by day. The human resource planning and coordinating work for Meena Bazaar are given below:

Step-(1) Advertisement procedure:
Meena Bazaar should be advertising for new recruitment. They should be advertising in newspaper or posturing in the public place. They have another alternative excessively. Meena Bazaar should be advertising in the online jobs centre. Proper design and structure are depends on good recruiting process. Because an ideal advertise can easily get attraction of the people.

Step-(2) The Application for vacancy:
Probable employees are requested to entire an application vacant. This offers the manager through information on the edification and skill of a candidate. It as well as supplies information on the concerning the applicants preceding growth and development on the job with employment constancy. Finally it can moreover shows the simply and ability of applicants.

Step-(3) First round Interview:
This stair effort to monitor not in the clearly inexpert from the pool of candidates. The employee’s specialist may manner this interview. The authority may manner this interview or a human resources specialist, with the information abounding on the application vacant.
Step-(4) Assessment and testing the skill of candidates:
The function of employment skill testing is to conclude the candidate’s skill to execute the work. The types of investigations used by employers extremely and topic to convinced limitations. Ability tests attempt to calculate a person’s aptitude to gain knowledge of ideas and the master substantial skills. Presentation or accomplishment tests show what a human being can be done at the instance of testing. Character tests calculate human being characteristics and personality with exacting motivations. They effort to locate exacting strengths and weakness to the jobholder for victorious performance. Most experiment needs the specialist administration and understanding obtainable merely in the testing agencies otherwise through professionals.

Consequently, testing is exclusive and should use merely when it is essential. Toward shun favoritism or accuse of it, the majority companies utilize tests to have been accepted or familiar as evenhanded.

The management always should be alarmed about these testing:
    ▪ Concern about the court decisions and tested the actual predict for this job and make decision;
    ▪ All the experiment must be suitable and acceptable;
    ▪ The test should be provide information approximately;
    ▪ The test must be reliable;
    ▪ All the experiment must not be prohibit a considerably better number of alternative members; etc.


Step-(5) Comprehensively Interviews:
The comprehensively interview offers the applicant’s potential manager. The manager’s prospect to confirm information on offer and locate out different information. Such as the applicant’s aspirations, expectations and interests. It also supplies the chance to share information concerning the Company. The propose have shared announcement that is equally beneficial.

A formless interview permits a free-flowing conversation. Just largely topics are organized for conversation with the interviewer.
Despite of the category of interview arrangement adopted, the efficiency of the conference is directly connected to the skill of the candidate. The skill candidate does not use more moment in time talking than listen in.




Step-(6) Reference Checks:
Applicants usually are asked to provide individual or work mentions on the submission blank. Private references-ministers or doctors and friends are of small price toward an employer.
Because applicants usually do not catalog, group of people who will offer negative information. A telephone talk among former boss and potential boss is typically more helpful for gathering information than a written query. Because the candidate’s previous bosses can reply merely and directly with no concrete confirmation that could be used alongside them later.

Step-(7) Take Physical examination:
Before caring a job proposes, a number of organizations need possible employees to get a physical exanimation. The purposes for the examination are given below:
   i. Stop insurance argues for illnesses otherwise injuries that happen prior to employment by the Company;
  ii. Become aware of any infectious diseases;
 iii. Confirm that the human being can actually execute the work.
  iv. Riders there are bodily necessities in the occupation explanation and job stipulation and then they have to be applicable.

Step-(8) Present the ability persons for appointments:
In this point, the zenith ranking candidates is offered a job by the authority or management. This may engage a sequence of discussions on original salary depending on the organizations recompense attitude. If the skill persons are agree with the Meena Bazaar after that he or she would be appoint as an employee in Meena Bazaar.

References:
        ▪ CAT Advanced Paper-5, ISBN NO-0-7517-1651-0







Answer to the task no-4

In this task, I am a HND graduate. I have been recently appointed as a trainee accountant in Azad Products Ltd. There have given also some information of Azad Products Ltd in the scenario. In this task, there are two requirements. The appropriate answers of these requirements are given below:

Requirement-1:                                      (Covered criteria 2.2 & M3)
In this requirement says to design an appropriate structure of accounting functions for the printing industry. The appropriate answer of this requirement is given below:

Standard accounting function structure is very important for every business organization. Generally, the finance director of any business organization is the head of accounting management structure. As like in the Azad Products Ltd. fill up the board of directors by a finance director. There are many responsibility of financial controller. Some of these are given below:
    ▪ Custom accounting;
    ▪ Collect necessary information;
    ▪ Supply various important accounting reports and statement for the other necessary departments;
    ▪ Control the overall cash management;
    ▪ Properly complete the cashiers duties; etc.

Divisions in the accounts department:
Business organization has different financial accounts departments. These financial accounts segment should be divided into sections. A supervisor in charge for each sector. Such as payroll, purchase ledger, sales ledger and credit control etc.

Alike, management accounting effort is alienated up, with a figure of cost accountants as administrator of sections accountable for observance cost records of diverse item. Such as overheads, materials, labor, production, and expansion marketing etc.

A number of companies that use huge amounts on assets projects might for the part assigned completely to capital scheme assessment for instance sensitivity investigation, the capital budget and payback assessment etc.



Accounting measures of Azad Products Ltd:
Business information is formed by the accounting system. These procedures are given below:
    ▪ Collected information;
    ▪ Recorded the information;

    ▪ Analyzed and processed the necessary information;

    ▪ Converse the necessary parties; etc.

Accounting system of Azad Products Limited:
In each wide term, accounting job can be seen as a combination of two kinds of work. These are given below:

1) Handling the financial operation of an organization:
    ▪ Conduct proceeds and payments-managing the all cash flows;
    ▪ Performing as a compilation and reporting group for government;
    ▪ Getting and inspection statement from suppliers;
    ▪ Distribution away invoices to praise customers;
    ▪ Pursue up behind payers;
    ▪ Observance evidence of debts payable for the organization;
    ▪ Use money and pay back loans;
    ▪ Maintenance the financial site of the organization-cash runs; etc.

2) Providing necessary information:
Providing necessary information to the manager of additional departments to assist them perform their work enhanced. The accounts section has no communicate among other departments constantly. Performance information facilitates managers and others to moderator how fine the business is doing.

Financial accounting actions for Azad Products Ltd.:
Azad products Ltd. should be maintain a fix financial accounting procedure for better result. The financial accounting procedures for Azad Products Ltd. are given below:
   i. Collect all transaction;
  ii. Select the proper financial transaction
 iii. Record these financial transaction in primary day book with real date. These books are-
    ▪ Cash book

    ▪ Sales day book

    ▪ Sales returns day book

    ▪ Purchase day book

    ▪ Purchase returns day book

    ▪ Journal for other exception transactions etc.

  iv. Maintain individual customer accounts
   v. Check the all payments and cash transactions
  vi. Record all bad debts
 vii. Maintain a payroll account
viii. Maintain a nominal ledger
  ix. Maintain a petty cash book
   x. Prepare the bank reconciliation
  xi. Maintain an asset register etc.

References:
        ▪ CAT Advanced Paper-5, ISBN NO-0-7517-1651-0, Chapter-4, Page-(57-62)




Requirement-2:                                         (Covered criteria 2.2 & P)
In this requirement says to present the purpose of accounting functions and its relationship with other organizational functions to the staffs. The appropriate answer of this requirement is as follows:

Purpose of accounting function:
Standard accounting function is very important for every business organization. In present most of the business operations or non-business operations are accepting out from side to side organizations, societies or charitable business organization, otherwise maintain by people working as single. Every organization has a common goal. For fill up their objectives, the organization used resources, labor, material and different kinds of services. For that reason, all people of organization needs necessary information about these resources and about the results acquired that using them. The arrangement that supplies this information is called accounting function system. Generally, the finance director of any business organization is the head of accounting management function. Accounting function helps to controls the overall accounting and cash management system. The purposes of accounting function are as follows:
         ➢ Collect necessary information from different departments;
         ➢ Supply various important accounting reports and statement for the other necessary departments;
         ➢ Supply various important accounting reports and statement for necessary parties such as investors, creditors, government, tax authorities and others;
    ➢ Recorded the information;

    ➢ Analyzed and processed the necessary information;

    ➢ Show cash flow;

    ➢ Set a fixed accounting period in where the company show the income statement, balance sheet or financial statement;

    ➢ Converse the necessary parties;

    ➢ Make sure to prepare standard financial statements and reports;

    ➢ Combination different accounts departments;

    ➢ Maintain standard accounting function works movement for the organization;

    ➢ Measurement the company performance;

    ➢ Prepare necessary accounts;

    ➢ Maintain necessary accounts books;

    ➢ Works truly of all accounts;

    ➢ Overview all accounts transaction;

    ➢ Classify accounts by the structure;

    ➢ Maintain secure code system in accounts related departments;

    ➢ Properly run the accounts system;

    ➢ Easily to know the present situation or liquidity position of the company;

    ➢ Follows a fix structure of accounts related works;

    ➢ Make clear information system in all accounts related departments;

    ➢ Make sure in information transaction;

    ➢ Overall control the accounting works movement by follows accounting structure; etc.



Relationship with other organizational functions to the staff of accounting function:

A standard accounting function is very important for the organization and its staff. Different organization has different accounting function. Organizational functions are differing for their purposes and control system. Financial controller controls the overall accounting system. Accounting systems and practices, financial policies or movement, relationship with bank and- insurance institutions, financial community, shareholders and accounting procedures are- runs by a team of accounting specialists, experts or analysts or manager. Financial controller develops the statistical information for the functional manager and lenders in every functional region.



They also make necessary decisions for business profitability and gather necessary requirements. The financial and management accounting is very related and effective in this section. As a example: if the Azad Products Ltd. make a decision to enlarge their business by investing in new factory and targeting new markets and on that point it must be needs to show accounting information to obtain possible investors and influence them to offer the essential funds for development. Financial controller needs to communicate with necessary functional sector.

Accounting specialist communicate other necessary parties to ensure the company financial divisional or functional budget. On that moment the financial officer essential to know about the production costs, labor costs, material purchases and sales. After that, the officer communicates the necessary functions and combination back time information flows and make appropriate decision.

As a coordinator, an accountant’s works systematically. He also works as a budget controller. The work movements of a budgeted controller are as follows:
    ➢ Make plan for budget;
    ➢ Assist financial manager to expand the next budget;
    ➢ Modify the budgeted terms;
    ➢ Elected important financial things in budget;
    ➢ Adjust necessary matter in budget;
    ➢ Make confirm the budget is standard;
    ➢ Make interrelated budget;
    ➢ Include necessary points;
    ➢ Adjust depertment wise budget; etc.

An accountant is a very important person of every business organization. Every organizational function in interrelated. Financial sector is the most essential sector in every business organization. An accountant is a person who sees the all accounts related works movements and makes proper decisions.

References:
        ▪ CAT Advanced Paper-5, ISBN NO-0-7517-1651-0, Chapter-4
        ▪ http://www.oppapers.com/essays/Nature-Purpose-Accounting/125145
Answer to the task no-5

In this task, I am a manager of accounts department. There have some information in the scenario. There have one requirement in this task. The appropriate answers of this requirement are as follows:

Requirement:                                              (Covered criteria 3.1 & P)
In this requirement says to critically analyze the above situation and identify systems and procedures for effective functional management. The appropriate answer of this requirement is as follows:

Current functional management of the company:
In this requirement in the scenario, I see that there has no enough information of the company; I thought the company is a production-based company. The company has many works system and work procedures. However, these are not standard and the command chain is not strong. This system and procedures are not able to control the company properly. It is low-level systematic command chain. A strong chain command is very effective for every company but in this time, there has no any strong and standard chain command in this company. The chain command is not department wise. When chain command is not works department wise then the purpose is not able to acquire. There has another problem of colleague in this company. There has no any strong information system and there is a serious lacks of co-ordination of all departments. Effective system and procedure is most essential for functional management in every organization. The appropriate systems and procedures for effective functional management are as follows:

The ethics or principles for functional management:
Business organization cannot run alone. Every business organization runs his works movement by following some standard fixed rules and regulations. In this term, some specific principles must need. To run the business properly and effectively some certain principles must need. Principles are very important for business organization. It built from the long-term work movement of the company. These principles different one organization from other organization. Organization solves different problems and makes necessary decisions by following these principles. Some important principles and ethics of organization are as follows:
         ➢ The organization works movement should run fast;
    ➢ There should be a horizontal flow of work exclusive of blockages;

    ➢ All the staff must be sincere about their own responsibility;

    ➢ Staffs should works in the organization as a permanent staff;

    ➢ Staffs should properly complete their own works;

    ➢ Staff should not duplicate other works;

    ➢ The present expert consultant of the business organization feature should effective and standard;

    ➢ All works procedure should easy because difficulty makes mistakes and the wrong idea;

    ➢ Works environment have to be favors for the staff;

    ➢ Production machines and necessary office machines have to be favors for the staff and workers;

    ➢ The work system and procedures should be considered probable helpful  for management;

    ➢ Any arrangement of the organization should be cost efficient. The profits should be contrasts with the cost of completion and following administration costs;

    ➢ Chain command is must be needed for a standard management; etc.



Effective systems for functional management:

A specific system is very important for functional management. In an organization, it is impossible to works properly or achieves the organizational goal with following fixed systems. System is prearranged map or plan for achieving business goal. Every business organization has own systems and working procedures. Organization set the systems for doing all business works or transaction for gaining organizational goal or purposes. Systems are very helpful for business organization. This specific system assists to maintain or control the overall business work movements.

Effective procedures for functional management:
Procedure is very important for functional management. System and procedure are both important for functional management. Procedure is progressions of different step of works for achieve a convinced works. Every organization has a fixed rules and regulations to achieve fixed goal. By following this procedures organization, complete his fixed works. This procedure will stay in all classes of employee and the hierarchy of the organization. Procedures helps the all work departments to works appropriately. Procedures fall many good effects in any organization. Some advantages of procedures in organization are as follows:
    ➢ Procedures make appropriate work manual;
    ➢ Procedures achieve in the  capable technique to fulfill the certain task;
    ➢ Procedures create formalities in every work;
    ➢ Create routine in  work;
    ➢ Helps to complete all works by maintain routine;
    ➢ Helps to the staffs to works them properly;
    ➢ Procedures helps staff to find their actual job simply;
    ➢ Established procedures helps to familiar job with the staffs;
    ➢ Procedures helps to works previous ways in present staffs;
    ➢ Helps to works manually;
    ➢ Reduce conflict of staff works; etc.

References:
        ▪ CAT Advanced Paper-5, ISBN NO-0-7517-1651-0
        ▪ http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/policy.html








Answer to the task no-6

In this task, Junaed is a HND in Financial Accounting student. She joined HMS Computer Ltd. as an audit junior. In the scenario there have given more information of Junaed and HMS Computer Ltd. In this task, there are three requirements. The appropriate answers of these requirements are as follows:

Requirement-1:                                        (Covered criteria 3.2 & P)
In this requirement says to analyze the above situation and explain about the term of management leadership. The appropriate answer of this requirement is as follows:

In the scenario, I see that, Junaed has recently joined HMS Computer Ltd. as an audit junior. His supervisor name is Mr. Akmal. Mr. Akmal has instructed her to prepare some audit related works, which integrated preparation of applicable audit files for external auditors. All works and data transaction of this organization should be formally. Formality is the standard quality of data transaction of this organization. In this case, there have a change. In the scenario, I see that instead of having a formal meeting with Junaed, Mr. Akmal has just sent her an informal email asking her to carry out the task.
In this case, formality is absent. Mr. Akmal informs Junaed informally. After asking him, Mr. Akmal kept on asking him about her progress in the works too frequently. For the reason Junaed think that the in this organization management leadership is weak. For that, Junaed is being demotivated and suffer that she has not been allotted works efficiently.

The term of Management leadership:
Management has defined as the procedure of situation and achieving goals during the implementation of five basic management functions that exploit material resources, financial, and human. These five functions are planning, organizing, staffing, directing and controlling.

“Management is defined as the art of getting work done through other people”
                                                                                [Chua Joon Eng and others]

A manager is very important person for every business organisation. Manager fulfills all managerial works of the organisation. Organisation hired manager and give necessary authority and power.  The aim of a manager is to complete the organization vision.

Leadership is directly related with management. For proper management proper leadership is must needed. Leadership means directing something properly. A leader’s proceedings are constant to helping a group to conquer its objectives. Leadership is the aptitude of management to encourage subordinates of work towards group goals with self-assurance. Leadership is an organizational task involve created a clear dream. Leadership shares the works image with the staff and providing information to the necessary parties. A leader is obviously is an important person of any business organization. Every business organization has manager. Manager works in organization as a leader.   A leader can be manger, but a manager is not necessarily a leader. If a manager is capable to control people to attain the goals of the organization with no using his prescribed authority to do so, then the manager is representative leadership. The main diverse of management and leadership is that, employees freely follow leaders for the reason that they want to, not because they have to do this. For that, the term of ‘Management Leadership’ is very important for every business organization.

References:
        ▪ CAT Advanced Paper-5, ISBN NO-0-7517-1651-0
        ▪ Managing people and systems CAT Paper-5, ISBN NO-1 84390 714 3, Chapter-10, Page-178

Requirement-2:                                         (Covered criteria 3.2 & P)
In this requirement says to explain the better ways of communication system and the obstacles of delegation of works. The appropriate answer of this requirement is as follows:

Communication system Delegation and obstacles of organization:
In the scenario, I see that, Junaed has recently joined HMS Computer Ltd. as an audit junior. His boss is Mr. Akmal. Mr. Akmal instructed Junaed to do some audit related works, which included preparation of relevant audit files for external auditors. Mr. Akmal instructed him informally. He just sent her an informal email asking her to carry out the task. Every business organisation should be delegate the work formally. In this case, Mr. Akmal informally ask Mr. Junaed for complete the task. He did not properly maintain the work delegation system of his organisation.

For that reason, it is a great problem for HMS Computer Ltd. For every business organisation without proper delegation system, better communication is not possible. Delegation is an essential feature of organization and effectual management. Since management is, perform of receiving things done through the work of supplementary people. Manager or supervisor subordinates the all works. In the scenario, I see that there has a great problem of delegation system. For that, Junaed is demotivated for problem for delegation system. Mr. Akmal should be inform Junaed in formally or called by a meeting or formal communication such as formal letter. However, he informs Junaed just by an informal email. For this reason, Junaed is not satisfied of his work. There are many obstacles of delegations. Such as-
    ▪ Have lacking trust of the staff;
    ▪ Unwillingness to delegate;
    ▪ No proper planning of how delegation is to be carried out;
    ▪ Problem of staff grouping;
    ▪ Qualified skill is absent;
    ▪ Lack of clear guidance to the subordinate;
    ▪ Problem of make decision;
    ▪ Obstacles of proper formal communication system; etc.

References:
        ▪ CAT Advanced Paper-5, ISBN NO-0-7517-1651-0
        ▪ Managing people and systems CAT Paper-5, ISBN NO-1 84390 714 3


Requirement-3:                                       (Covered criteria 3.2 & M2)
In this requirement says to how Mr. Akmal could make Junaed motivated and using relevant theory, which are appropriate. The appropriate answer of this requirement is as follows:

Motivation is procedures that stimulates, maintain and regulates performance to an exact goal or finish. It can describe as the will to do, the advice to attain goals, the force to shine. It is also the quantity in which people desire and decides to connect in convinced behaviors. All performance is motivated; the presentation of a task is the product of aptitude and motivation. Advanced motivation guides to job fulfillment of workers and makes them dedicated to the organization. Motivation defined as the procedure, which prompted individuals to give to excellent of their ability for the accomplishment of organizational purpose.

“Motivation refers to psychological process that gives behavior purpose and direction.”                                                                                   [Robert Reitner]

In the scenario, I see that, Mr. Akmal instructed Junaed to do some audit related works, which included preparation of relevant audit files for external auditors. Mr. Akmal instructed him informally. He just sent her an informal email asking her to carry out the task. Every business organisation should be delegate the work formally. In this case, Mr. Akmal informally ask Mr. Junaed for complete the task. He did not properly maintain the work delegation system of his organisation. For that reason, it is a great problem for HMS Computer Ltd. For every business organisation without proper delegation system, better communication is not possible. Delegation is an essential feature of organization and effectual management.

Content theory:
Content theory is very effective for motivation. Motivation is very necessary things to gain business goal. Content theories sometimes known as ‘need’ theories and center on the needs provides by work. People vary not only in their aptitude to absolute a task but also in their will to do motivation. The motivation of a person depends on the potency of their needs. The model of content theory is as follows:
[pic]


Koontz and Weihrich identify a sequence response starting with needs, resulting in wants make displeased desires, then source accomplishment towards achieving goals. Finally fulfill personal goals and wants. In this case, Junaed is demotivated for lack of delegation of work system. Organization cannot fulfill his perceived need. For that, it is a great problem for HMS Computer Ltd.

Herzberg’s theory of motivation:
In the late 1950s F, Herzberg’s developed his two thing of theory from interviewing accountants and 200 engineers about satisfaction of their job and the events of their work.
The responds led Herzberg to bring to a close that, there are two significant issues to work situations. In addition, these are as follows:
    ▪ Satisfiers;
    ▪ Dissatisfiers; etc.

In this case, Junaed is not satisfied to his boss. Because Mr. Akmal informing him in informally. He should be informing formally.

Process theory:
The theories of motivation strain diverse factors contributing to job approval. Content theories, such as those of Maslow and Herzberg, strain the fulfillment of needs. Process theories, such as those of Vroom, highlight the consequence of plunder.

Process theories modify the stress from wants as in satisfied theory to the objectives and procedures by which workers are forcing. They effort to give details and explain how people set up, continue and straight performance aimed at the pleasure of needs or the removal or decrease of internal anxiety. Process theories put stress on the genuine procedure of motivation.

In this case, Mr. Akmal informally ask Mr. Junaed for complete the task. He did not properly maintain the work delegation system of his organisation. For that reason, it is a great problem for HMS Computer Ltd. In this case, Junaed cannot get his proper effort of his work. For that, his mind is break up. He cannot satisfy his work.

References:
        ▪ CAT Advanced Paper-5, ISBN NO-0-7517-1651-0
        ▪ Managing people and systems CAT Paper-5, ISBN NO-1 84390 714 3













Answer to the task no-7

In this task, Mr. Muzharul Islam is a pioneer Artichetect in the history of Bangladesh. He formed a development company named Rural Housing Development Corporation. This company mission is “Roof for all human”. There are given also more essential information in this task. In this task, there are two requirements. The appropriate answers of this requirement are as follows:

Requirement-1:                                         (Covered criteria 4.1 & P)
In this requirement says to explain principles of effective working relationship and teamwork for Rural Housing Development Corporation. The appropriate answer of this requirement is as follows:

Principles of effective working relationship for RHDC:
Effective working relationship is very important for every business organisation. It means those among the company and its customers, suppliers, those between a manager and his workforce and those between colleagues in each department. An excellent working relationship permits or make easy work deal, the achievement of tasks and the completion of objectives. Such as punctual, co-operation willing service, communication, expertise, co-ordination team working skills and shared recompense or remuneration.

A good working relationship is very important for gain the organizational goal or cover business purpose. High-quality relationships are builds on a society of support where each entity is working towards the accomplishment of shared aims and objectives. A good working relationship allows or facilitates on going and joint pleasing interpersonal relations. Such as-
    ▪ Politeness
    ▪ Friendliness
    ▪ Trust
    ▪ Openness
    ▪ The capability resolves divergence etc.

Principles of teamwork for RHDC:
Teamwork is important is very important for every business organisation. Every business organisation needs to take important decision or done important project works. One-person individual does not easily do these important works. However, in this section of work the teamwork is very effective. Teamwork able to complete that works properly.
The grouping of people may be working at the similar position but their goals and objectives are may be exceptionally diverse. A successful team would be better explained as any grouping of people who must considerably transmit with each other in order to achieve shared objectives.

“Peters and Waterman in their best-selling book in Search of Excellent defines the five key aspects they located in successful task force teams.
    ▪ The number should be small; inevitably, each member will then represent the interest of his or her section. There needs to be a backup of trust from those not present.
    ▪ The team should be of limited duration, and exist only to resolve this particular task. It is recommended that busy people, not permanent committee members, would be ideal because they would want to finish the task quickly.
    ▪ Membership should be voluntary.
    ▪ Communication should be informal and unstructured. There should be little documentation and no status barriers.
    ▪ It should be action-oriented. The team should finish with a plan for action not just a form of words.”

According to Beblin, the achievement of a grouping can depend on the equilibrium of entity skills and personality types. He outlines eight diverse personality types, which shape the full variety of team roles. These eight types of roles are as follows:
    ▪ The chairman
    ▪ The shaper
    ▪ The plant
    ▪ The monitor-evaluator
    ▪ The resource-investigator
    ▪ The company worker
    ▪ The team worker
    ▪ The finisher

References:
        ▪ CAT Advanced Paper-5, ISBN NO-0-7517-1651-0
        ▪ Managing people and systems CAT Paper-5, ISBN NO-0-7517-1651-0, Chapter-14




Requirement-2:                                                 (Covered criteria D3)
In this requirement says to create a team from the different department & level of RHDC for the south Bengal project and describe how the team can work effectively. The appropriate answer of this requirement is as follows:

Key aspect of successful teams:
Peters and Waterman in their best-selling book in Search of Excellent define the five key aspects they located in successful task force teams.
    ▪ The number should be small; inevitably, each member will then represent the interest of his or her section. There needs to be a backup of trust from those not present.
    ▪ The team should be of limited duration, and exist only to resolve this particular task. It is recommended that busy people, not permanent committee members, would be ideal because they would want to finish the task quickly.
    ▪ Membership should be voluntary.
    ▪ Communication should be informal and unstructured. There should be little documentation and no status barriers.
    ▪ It should be action-oriented. The team should finish with a plan for action not just a form of words.

The primary roles of team, which do Peters, identify, and Waterman are as follows:
         ➢ Product champion
         ➢ Executive champion
         ➢ Godfather

According to Beblin, the success of a group can depend on the balance of individual skills and personality types. He outlines eight different personality types, which form the full range of team roles. These eight types of roles are as follows:
    ▪ The chairman
    ▪ The shaper
    ▪ The plant
    ▪ The monitor-evaluator
    ▪ The resource-investigator
    ▪ The company worker
    ▪ The team worker
    ▪ The finisher



Stage of group development of a team:
Groups of whatever type do not come into existence fully formed. They grow, mature, and possibly dissolve. It is possible to identify the stages of development through which a group goes before it becomes fully efficient and effective. B W Tucman has formulated four stages through which groups proceed:

1) Forming:
This stage involves the introduction of team members, either at the initiation of the team, or as members are introduced subsequently. Members are likely to be influenced by the expectations and desires they bring with them, and will be keen to understand how the leadership is likely to operate, in terms of style and character. This is a stage of transition form a group of individuals to a team.

2) Storming:
The team is likely to enter this phase, as members grow more confident. Procedures are being developed and people get a clearer view of objectives. Conflicts will occur, as individuals will have different opinions as to how the team should operate. These conflicts can however be constructive in that they lead to workable and acceptable procedures that enable the task to be done. The best teams will understand the conflict and preconceptions, norms of attitude, behavior etc will be challenged and rejected. Members actively listen to each other, compete for chosen roles within the group and navigate an agreed way forwards. Some individuals will strive for or attempt to impose leadership on the group. If successful, this stage will have forged a stronger team with greater knowledge of each other and their objectives. Unfortunately, teams may disintegrate during this phase. Some individuals may decide to leave the group if it does not proceed in a way that is acceptable to them.

3) Norming:
This stage establishes the norms under which the group will operate. Norms are shared views, beliefs, and expectations about forms and standards of behavior. They may develop for the pace of work, the relationships between members and even for dress and language. Members experiment and test group reaction as the norms become established. Typically, the norming stage will establish behavior patterns, level of trust and openness, individual roles and how the group will take decisions. Team members will sigh up to a common working method, which everyone in usually willing to share in. during this phase team members are able to reconcile their own opinions with the greater needs of the team.



4) Performing:
Once this final stage has been reached the group is capable of operating to full potential, since the difficulties of adjustment, leadership contests etc should have been resolved. The emphasis is now in reaching the team goals, rather than working on team process. Relationships are settled, and team members are likely to build loyalty towards each other. The team is able to manage more complex tasks, and cope with greater change.

Team building:
Team building is the process of removing obstacles that prevent the team from working effectively and planning how to improve the overall performance of the team. It is necessary because not all teams are winners, at least not right away. A football team in that it will not be a winner unless it is a truly coordinated team effort. There are several activity or behavior indicators within a group that can indicate a need for team building work. They include:
    ▪ A decrease in output or productivity or quality of work;
    ▪ A decrease in job satisfaction, leading to an increase in people leaving or applying for transfers;
    ▪ A reluctance to change methods of doing work or to use new equipment;
    ▪ Internal conflict
    ▪ Low morale, lack of enthusiasm and poor individual motivation; etc.

Project team development process:
Wilemon and Thamhain have developed a model, which they refer to as a multidimensional framework, to guide the project team development process. This team development process is composed of the following tasks and goals:
    ▪ Recruiting of team members
    ▪ Climate setting for team development
    ▪ Goal setting
    ▪ Role clarification
    ▪ Procedure development
    ▪ Decision making
    ▪ Control

References:
        ▪ CAT Advanced Paper-5, ISBN NO-0-7517-1651-0
        ▪ Managing people and systems CAT Paper-5, ISBN NO-0-7517-1651-0, Chapter-14


Answer to the task no-8

In this task in the scenario there have given a hint about ship breaking industry in Bangladesh. At this time ship, breaking industry in Bangladesh is very important for this country economic flow and development. In this task there have given two requirements. The appropriate solution and answer of these requirements are given below:

Requirement-(a):                                    (Covered criteria 4.2 & P)
In this requirement says to critically analyze the above situation and explain the importance of safe and secure working environment. The appropriate answer of this requirement is given below:

Recently the government of Bangladesh declared ship breaking as an industry. Day to day the ship breaking industry of Bangladesh gain more success. Recently they sales their ship to Germany and many other countries. Recently their reputation spread the whole world and they competition the other big ship industry such as Singapore, UK, Canada, and USA etc. For this probability, the government declares it is as an industry.

Bangladesh is a development country. The garments industry is the most important industry of this country. Recently ship-breaking industry takes attraction all of us. Ship breaking industry is a god bless of us.
Because not every country could built ship-breaking industry. In which country inside the sea or big river, only these countries able to run this industry. Bangladesh has the world biggest sea beach. It is very helpful for ship breaking industry. On the other hand, the full south side of Bangladesh is inside the Bay of Bengal.

Bangladesh able to development of this countries economic situation with depends by ship breaking industry. Though Bangladesh is a new runner of ship breaking industry, but this country develop of this industry very quickly. However, there are many lacking and mistake in this industry. The work places are not 100% safe for the workers and environment. The management systems also are not make conform accurately.

It is very important to maintain safe and secure working environment in a work place. Safety and security is the major question in the ship breaking industries in Bangladesh.

The word safe in mainly related with the employee. Nowadays the ship breaking industries run quickly but they cannot give their employee and environment to fully safety and security.

In the scenario there were mention that there has absence of clear cut policy, more hazardous ship breaking yards have registered a mushroom growth in Chittagong earlier, increasing the threat to life and environment of the surrounding areas. It is very dangerous news for outside peoples and environment. It collapage the other industries which depends on it, if this industry are to be closed. For that there has needed some standard regulations for follow.

Safety and security system is a very important matter. It is very important to continue this industry. Safety means not only the employees safety but also the outside environment safety. If management cannot maintain proper safety, this industry could not reach it goal. If management cannot maintain the employee’s safety, the employees cannot wants to work here.

On the other hand, if management cannot maintain the safety of environment, it is impossible to run the industry properly. For that, it should be make sure the safety of employees and the overall environments. To keep safe the workplace-such as ship breaking some rules as follows as:
    ▪ Maintaining a proper management;
    ▪ Employee should be learn about their safety;
    ▪ Keep burnt control system;
    ▪ Proper electricity system;
    ▪ Keep safe ship breaking industry from the other industry;
    ▪ Maintain the employee health safety;
    ▪ Maintain a special dress for the employee;
    ▪ Keep emergency medical system;
    ▪ Keep this industry far from the locality where peoples lives;
    ▪ Appoint the specialist engineer of ship breaking industry;
    ▪ Employee always should be keep a helmet in the head;
    ▪ There should also needed a proper waste management here;
    ▪ Use modern technology for this industry; etc.

In a ship breaking industry if there has no any specific secure working environment, they face a lot of problem. Some problems are given below:
    ▪ Cannot reached goal;
    ▪ It hamper the working environment;
    ▪ Employees are de motivated;
    ▪ It affect the outside industry;
    ▪ It hampers the reputation of this industry; etc.
For those reasons, it should be make sure the secure working environment in a ship breaking industry.

References:
        ▪ CAT Advanced Paper-5, ISBN NO-0-7517-1651-0
        ▪ Managing people and systems CAT Paper-5, ISBN NO-0-7517-1651-0, Chapter-17,18




Requirement-(b):                                             (Covered criteria D2)
In this requirement says to design an appropriate system to ensure a safe and secured working environment for all level of labors and employees in a typical ship-breaking industry. The appropriate design and system to ensure a safe and secured working environment for ship breaking industry is given below:

Bangladesh is a development country. The garments industry is the most important industry of this country. Recently ship-breaking industry takes attraction all of us. Ship breaking industry is a god bless of us. Because not every country could built ship-breaking industry. In which country inside the sea or big river, only these countries able to run this industry. Bangladesh has the world biggest sea beach. It is very helpful for ship breaking industry. On the other hand, the full south side of Bangladesh is inside the Bay of Bengal.

Bangladesh able to development of this countries economic situation with depends by ship breaking industry. Though Bangladesh is a new runner of ship breaking industry, but this country develop of this industry very quickly. However, there are many lacking and mistake in this industry. The work places are not 100% safe for the workers and environment. The management systems also are not make conform accurately.

It is very important to maintain safe and secure working environment in a work place. Safety and security is the major question in the ship breaking industries in Bangladesh.


Importance of health and safety:
In a work place, it is very important to maintain the safety or worker health. Because health is wealth. Health safety and well-being at work are significant for a number of reasons. These reasons are-
    ▪ Employees-as should human beings-he protected from needless pain and suffering.
    ▪ Employers and employees both have legal obligations to take reasonable measures to promote healthy and safe working.
    ▪ Accidence, illness and other causes of employee absence and impaired performance cost the employer money.
    ▪ A business’s corporate image may suffer if its health and safety record is bad.
    ▪ A business’s employer brand may suffer if its health and safety record is bad. This may make it difficult to keep attract and keep qualified staff.

Some probable danger material of an office:
    ▪ Obstacles such as boxes, files, books or open desk drawers;
    ▪ Slippery or uneven floors, frayed carper or trailing cables and wires;
    ▪ A cup of coffee or other liquids placed where they might spill;
    ▪ Objects placed too high to reach, when any employee stand on a chair;
    ▪ Electrical or other equipment;
    ▪ Chemicals;
    ▪ Taking insufficient work breaks, or sitting with poor posture etc.

Responsibility for health and safety at work:
Every organization may have dedicated departments, manager or staff in charge and safety security. These may include specialists for example:
    ▪ A first aid or medical officer;
    ▪ An employee counselor or health promotion officer;
    ▪ A fire prevention officer;
    ▪ Security guard;
    ▪ A building manager, sanitation officer, equipment manager are responsible for different aspects of the work environment; etc.

A role of these people is to make and implement relevant policies and procedures listen to employee concern and to respond to any problems and emergencies.

Responsibility for every worker in ship breaking industry:
In order to contribute to healthy, safe and secure work environment every worker need to:
    ▪ Be alerts to potential hazard as employee go about his work;
    ▪ Take responsibility for his own behavior in the work place, in order to protect him and others;
    ▪ Employees should keep himself informed about health and safety issues relevant to his workplace;
    ▪ Worker should warn people who may be at immediate risk as a result of hazardous conditions or behaviors;
    ▪ Take steps, within the scope of workers authority, to maintain hazards;
    ▪ Inform appropriate people to identified hazards and need for corrective action which is beyond the scope of his own authority;

Law and regulation on health and safety:
In the UK, several major acts of parliament apply to workplaces, including:
    ▪ The offices, Shops and Railway Premises Act 1963
    ▪ The Health and Safety at work Act 1974
    ▪ The Fire Precautions Act 1971 and Fire Safety and Safety of Places of Sport Act 1987

Health and safety training:
Training is required on an ongoing basis for technical updates on health and safety law, when changing roles or areas of work, new work methods and new equipment. The amount and types of training required should be assessed according to individual employee needs.

Checklist-A safe and healthy working environment:

Cleanliness:
    ▪ Floor and steps must be cleaned at least once a weak;
    ▪ Furniture’s and fittings must be clean;
    ▪ Rubbish must not be allowed to accumulate in work areas; etc.

Washing facilities:
    ▪ These should be provided washing facilities;
    ▪ They should be clean and hot water, soap and towels; etc.

Drinking water:
    ▪ Adequate drinking water must be provided together with cups or a fountain.

Machinery and equipment:
    ▪ All equipment should be properly maintained;
    ▪ Dangerous parts of machines should be fenced;
    ▪ No person under the age of 18 should be required to clear machinery if this involves;
    ▪ No person should be allowed to operate a machine specified as dangerous unless instructed to the dangerous; etc.
Fire precautions:
    ▪ Appropriate fire fighting equipment should be provided;
    ▪ There must be adequate means of escape;
    ▪ Business premises should generally have a valid fire certificate from the local fire authority;
    ▪ Fire exists should be clearly marked;
    ▪ Escapes route should be kept unobstructed;
    ▪ Fire alarms should be provided and tested periodically;
    ▪ People working in the building should be familiar with the escape drill; etc.

Electrical equipment:
The following checklist is designed to demonstrate the kind of precautions that should be taken when operating any electrical equipment.
    ▪ Never place heavy objects on the equipment, or subject it to shocks;
    ▪ Insert the plug fully into the electrical socket. Do not use damage plugs and sockets;
    ▪ Do not remove or open any covers while using the equipment;
    ▪ Never unplug or turn off the equipment while it is in operation;
    ▪ When unplugging the power cord, do not pull on the cord. Grasp the plug and pull in out;
    ▪ If the plug or socket get hot, switch off at the socket, pull out the plug and called a qualified electrician;
    ▪ Never use any magnetized object, inflammable aerosols or liquids near the equipment;
    ▪ Be careful do not drop small objects into the equipment; etc.

Illness and accident:
As with other emergency, there should be clear procedures laid down for health emergencies in the organizations occupational health and safety. Health emergencies may include such events as these given below:
    ▪ Workplace injury such as sprains, strains, factures, burns, eye injuries and bleeding from wounds;
    ▪ Electric shocks or heat exhaustion;
    ▪ Fainting or colapage;
    ▪ Poisoning or allergic reaction to gases or toxic substances;
    ▪ Manifestations, illness, or chronic conditions suffered by individuals: heart attack, diabetic shock, epileptic fits and so on; etc.



Security:
In a business setting, security generally involves preventing or dealing with commercial threats: theft, espionage or sabotage, and unauthorized access to premises to confidential data.

Importance of security:
Security, like health and safety in important for a number of reasons.
    ▪ To protect employees and others on the premises from danger and fear;
    ▪ To protect the assets of the business, and save costs of repair or replacement;
    ▪ To prevent or minimize disruption to normal working from unexpected intrusion;
    ▪ To protect confidential and sensitive information from unauthorized assess and potential consequences; etc.

Data security:
Information is an item at risk of security break. It can be damaged, lost or stolen in the same way that equipment and valuables can. People may seek to sabotage or steal information from organizations for:
    ▪ Monetary value
    ▪ Competitive advantage
    ▪ Pure nuisance value

Responsibility for workplace security:
As with health and safety, the organization may have dedicated departments, managers or staff in charge of security, including:
    ▪ Security guards
    ▪ Data security specialists
    ▪ Industrial security consultants

References:
        ▪ CAT Advanced Paper-5, ISBN NO-0-7517-1651-0
        ▪ Managing people and systems CAT Paper-5, ISBN NO-0-7517-1651-0, Chapter-17,18

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