Running Head: TOURISM DEVELOPMENT
Tourism Development and Planning
[Name of the Writer]
[Name of the Institute]
Tourism Development and Planning
Tourism is defined as those friendly tourist activities with the natural, cultural and social and community values, which allows you to enjoy a positive exchange of experience among residents and visitors, where the relationship between tourists and the community is fair and benefits the activity is distributed fairly, and where visitors have a truly participatory attitude in their travel experience. Tourism is fundamental for the economy of many regions, like Thailand. Because tourism involves attracting foreign exchange, it is generally the only means of economic development for some nations. It provides an opportunity for development, employment marketing and sale of local goods etc. It also helps in creating service industries, which are crucial for the development of a region. Many evolving nations like the overview of tourism as a vehicle for financial development, granted its promise to profit from foreign exchange, decrease earnings and paid work disparities, reinforce linkages amidst financial parts and assist to alleviate poverty. The dispute opposite policy maker is to have a broader viewpoint and better comprehending, that there can be both affirmative and contradictory consequences from tourism development. Tourism, in fact, has a number of features that make it an activity to be considered in the development process, so that its eco proper management can generate a series of positive effects on economic development in any territory. Thus, tourism’s development and planning of further improving is very essential for all the countries, especially those whose GDP mainly rely on the amount tourism that take place in the country.
The Brundtland report is also known as “Our Common Future”, is a determining document in the global legitimization which shows the concept of sustainable development (Aras, 2009). The report was launched in 1987 by United Nation appointed World Commission on Environment and Development. The commission's work was part of sustained efforts by the United Nations to rouse common efforts toward sustainable development in acknowledgment that environmental problems are interlinked and can best be solved under a global framework. The interdisciplinary commission was composed of influential experts representing the developed and developing world. The commission incorporated views of public discussion panels and three advisory groups.
Brundtland report consistently focuses on the environment and development that should be viewed as inextricably interlinked. It suggests that for the improvement of environment, it is necessary to develop the basic needs to at least balance the environmental conservation. The Brundtland report has talked about the sustainable development that the country should do in order to enhance the tourism (Warner, 2009). Tourism is healthy for the country as it contributed a lot in the GDP. The Brundtland report also suggested that in order to improve the economic growth of the country, it is important to work on the development of the tourism factors, so that the amount of tourist increase, and thus, the GDP will also increase, which will give a boost to the country’s economy. The Brundtland report says that the nation should not set limits to growth but requires a change in the quality of economic growth to make it more equitably distributed and environmentally benign (Strong, 2006). It also talked about the humanity problems, and proposes solutions based on eight interlinked themes, which includes:
1. Food security
3. Human settlements
6. International economic relations
7. International cooperation
8. Decision support systems for environmental management
Brundtland report has mainly focused on the following:
1. To propose long-term environmental strategies for achieving sustainable development for the year 2000 and beyond;
2. To recommend ways concern for the environment may be translated into greater cooperation among developing countries and between countries at different stages of economic and social development and lead to the achievement of common and mutually supportive objectives that take account of the interrelationships between people, resources, environment, and development;
3. To consider ways and means by which the international community can deal more effectively with environmental concerns, and;
4. To help define shared perceptions of long-term environmental issues and the appropriate efforts needed to deal successfully with the problems of protecting and enhancing the environment, a long-term agenda for action during the coming decades, and inspirational goals for the world community.
According to the Brundtland report the definition of sustainability contains two key aspects: the poverty alleviation and the environmental conservation (McCool, 2008). These central codes of belief of sustainable development have evolved into two main viewpoints referred to by some as the Green Agenda, which focused on the environment, contrasted against the Brown Agenda, which focused on poverty alleviation. Green Agenda education curricula, research, operations, outreach are biased toward such concerns as global warming, pollution, and resource preservation (Mowforth, 2008). On the other hand, Brown Agenda education tends to center on issues such as community involvement and empowerment, affordability, and the rights of indigenous people. Broadly, although there are exceptions to the rule and bearing in mind that the two are not mutually exclusive, the Green Agenda is espoused by the developed countries while the Brown Agenda is mainly championed by the developing countries.
Sustainable development is enhancing the basic needs of the country form improving the environment which attracts the tourists. The United Nation agencies are working on the sustainable development in tourism. They are the donors for the countries and other institutions to initiate an open dialogue for a more effective assistance (Fossati, 2000). Tourism special events are designed in order to improve the sustainability of the tourism. The themes used for the sustainable development are:
1. Building the governance and sustainability for the development of tourism.
2. Domestic and foreign investments are promoted, which helps in the sustainable tourism development.
3. The poverty reduction is done by linking the tourism sector and local suppliers of goods and services.
4. The human resource development is supported by improving the education, training and decent work. This includes the related capacity building in the tourism sector.
These themes are used to improve the tourism, which also helps in the development of the sustainability of tourism. The reason behind this sustainable development is to increase the tourism, and to help the country grow.
Role of sustainability in tourism development
The major role that the sustainability in tourism to increase the tourists in the world. The role of sustainability in tourism development is that, the tourism actions induce the environmental factors such as, those associated with travel and those related to holidays. The environmental impacts of tourism are compounded by the concentration of seasonal that is, summer and school holidays, and spatial which includes coasts, mountains, cities, some large sites. Ultimately, these impacts can cause a decrease in attractiveness of destinations.
When the above two impacts are analyzed, it can be said that the tourism travel shows the flow which represent a significant source of pollution. Activities of tourism in the Mediterranean usually depend on the air transport, especially if we talk about the islands (Richards, 2003). When the percentage of tourism was calculated of different countries, it was seen that there was an increase in the tourism only because of the sustainability development in the tourism. The local tourism favors the country as it initially gives the experience to the local people, who can suggest the improvement factors of tourism.
Favoring the aircraft and automobiles, these changes are involved in the growth in air pollution and greenhouse gas releases. Given the predominance of local tourism, alternative "rail and bus" could be implemented to encourage tourists to use public transport more energy efficient. Such a modal shift will require developing new strategies for travel, for example, through greater use of the rail network.
The analysis of environmental impacts associated with tourist stays shows that tourism is largely Mediterranean resort, the facilities built along the coast contribute to the creation of artificial coastline, the transformation of the landscape and loss of natural areas and biodiversity. The development of recreational boating also contributes to amplify these phenomena through the construction of ports and marinas highly space consuming (United Nations. Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, 2001). There are other negative impacts of this growing business: the destruction of small funds, disruption of the dynamics of coastal currents and the chemical and bacterial pollution.
Finally, seasonality and Mediterranean seaside tourism leads to high population densities on vacation spots, generating pressure on water resources and natural environments, peak energy consumption, and increased of waste. To this we must add, the social impacts of tourism: feeling of summer flooding, inflation and soaring housing prices, "culture shock", all of which may generate tensions between tourists and local people.
These were the main roles of the sustainability development of tourism. It helps in enhancing the attraction of touring the country, and it helps in increasing the amount of tourist every year. It also improves the environment of the country, which attracts the tourists more and it also helps in improving the country’s GDP.
Sustainable tourism can be defined in its purest form that it is a trade business, in which the activities to make a reduction influence on the natural environment and localized heritage (Middleton, 1998). Tourism is defined as those friendly tourist activities with the natural, cultural and social and community values, which allows one to enjoy a positive exchange of experience among the residents and visitors, where the relationship between tourists and the community is fair and benefits the activity is distributed fairly, and where visitors have a truly participatory attitude in their travel experience.
The most important argument for sustainable tourism development in concerns the point of view and anticipations that all stakeholders, especially government policy makers, have about tourism’s assistance at the localized, local and nationwide levels. Many evolving nations like outlook tourism as a vehicle for financial development, granted its promise to profit from foreign exchange, conceive paid work, decrease earnings and paid work disparities, reinforce linkages amidst financial parts and assist to alleviate poverty. The sustainable tourism is a tourism which follows few principals of sustainability. The Brundtland report defined the sustainable tourism as the development that meets the needs of tourists and host regions present, while protecting and enhancing opportunities for the future. Tourism is viewed as a great means of economic stability in places with no other means of economic development. If it is not promoted and developed, it will have an adverse effect on the economy of the country. A sustainable development is essential in order to promote tourism, and hence to increase the GDP of the country.
There has been a lot of change in the political, cultural, social and technological development in the environment, which has increased the tourism, and has given the boost to the tourism. It has significantly increased the tourism industry and it mainly because of sustainable development in the tourism. In many countries, including Thailand, Tourism is also perceived as one of the means of attracting foreign exchange in a country to develop its economy. It happened only because of the continuous sustainable development in the tourism. Tourist, usually like gathering the souvenirs, especially from the sites which are archaeological, and this has caused harm to the sites. Tourism may also cause acculturation due to which attitudes, beliefs, mentalities, concepts and relationships of people get affected.
Concept of sustainability in tourism development
All forms of alternative tourism that protect, respect and bring in sustainable heritage resources generally describe sustainable tourism. The ecotourism is just one of the forms, it focus more on the discovery of ecosystems aspects of biodiversity. This includes the tourism in local areas to reduce its environmental footprint. Sustainable tourism seeks to reconcile economic objectives of tourism development with the preservation of the resources. If the tourism, that ensures the sustainable environmental development, it is considered to be a sustainable tourism according to the European working group. It ensures the sustainability of economic development which helps in the long run term (Edgell, 2006). Thus, the concept of sustainable tourism was developed to increase the improvement of the environment by the development of the environment.
Factors that may prevent sustainable tourism development
A lot of measures are taken in order to prevent sustainable tourism development. One of the factors is the economic impact. Economic development should be to that extend that it becomes capable of generating employment. Apart from this, developing and improving the infrastructure, promoting the activities which are involved in productivity, and enhancing indigenous resources are all those factors which helps in preventing the sustainable tourism development. Before the 1970's, assumed these premises and the mass international tourism brand new, few researchers had stopped to consider the economic costs entailed for the host societies this activity. But in that decade began to become apparent (Sharpley, 2002). Thus, it is true that tourism creates jobs, but on many occasions to the local population is seasonal and unskilled employment. It also tends to be an unstable employment, tourism is a sector with large fluctuations, and target areas have to deal with competition from new emerging through the development of transportation. It is also true that infrastructure is modernized, but according to the priorities as tourism and non-indigenous development and balanced with other productive activities. The revaluation of indigenous resources materialize often in inflationary processes, resulting from increased demand for land, water or food, the result is the increased cost of the food basket, the difficulty of access to housing or expulsion of farmers by increasing farm incomes. Tourism drives some productive activities such as construction, but also threatens other traditional, as seen in the case of agriculture. Finally, note that in certain areas where it has made a commitment to tourism as the main means of development, there has been creating problems similar to those of economies based on monoculture for export, such as dependency international market prices, fluctuating, or high risk on grounds of lack of diversification.
Second factor that can prevent the sustainable tourism development is the social cultural impact. It is sometimes pointed out that tourism can have positive benefits by allowing interaction between different cultures. However, socio-cultural impacts identified are usually negative for the host society. One of the highlights is the tendency to accelerate cultural change that stripped of its meaning to the cultural elements to leave only as epiphenomenal, the "visible", which is treated as a commodity. Tourism development can influence the structure of the host countries, creating or increasing social differentiation. And is that the benefits remain in the target zone is not usually spread evenly, but tend to be monopolized by a minority of the population. Cultural authenticity is, perhaps, a major incentive to draw tourists to Thailand. However, the question can be raised: what can be identified as authentic and how can this authenticity be maintained? Interestingly, one of the factors favoring the development of tourism in an area, the landscape tends to be particularly fragile in its development. We already saw the arrival of tourists tend to change the use of natural resources. But beyond that, often tends to over-exploited. Mass tourism has been particularly violent environment: urbanization of natural areas or integrated into the landscape, resource overuse of water, problems related to the treatment of waste, pollution of water by runoff, destruction of historical monuments, air pollution from the use of vehicles and heating, changes in the landscape to promote leisure activities like golf or skiing, etc. These processes are more incisive in the developing countries where environmental regulations are often more lenient to promote the tourism industry, and natural resources are easy prey to speculation. But not only mass tourism affects the environment. Forms of alternative tourism can also make non-sustainable use of resources. Under the concept "alternative tourism" are grouped various forms of tourism that, sometimes, looking for a sustainable development activity, but some only express opposition to mass tourism. However, if only because it is small scale tourism, alternative forms of tourism tends to involve much less disruption in the landscape. By contrast, there are times when the landscape is the main tourist value, public institutions fall short of establishing extreme conservation rules, to the point of impeding the normal development of traditional activities and without understanding that man has a role in the ecosystem
In the simplest of forms, Enclave Tourism is the tourism of islands. It has been segregated from the normal tourism practiced in many countries (Apostolopoulos, 2002). An island is surrounded by sea like Malaysia, Singapore, and Thailand etc. The major factor of tourism in such countries is the beach. Development, modernization and enhancement of beaches play the most important part in tourism. There is a lot that can be done. The most common thing of all is small bars on the beach. These bars have refreshment drinks which are the most wanted at places like the beach.
Elaborating Enclave Tourism it is a highly concentrated form of tourism. It is separate from other existing communities in being entirely enclosed and self-contained physically, socially and economically. The lifestyle of Enclave Tourism is very different from surrounding since it is dependent on foreign tourism.
A question arises as to what are the reasons behind this kind of tourism? Why do countries think this type of tourism can bring a change or will be better? This tourism is likely to arise due to the constraints imposed by the limitations of local infrastructure. Not all countries are large enough area wise to accommodate places to set up magnetic places for tourism. Second reason is that there are a small number of entrepreneurs. This leads to a limited number of business set ups in the country. Less number of businesses makes a total of less profit which renders in not ample tax to the government. Thus, the government cannot increase the budget for tourism. Eventually the normal tourism sector cannot pace up in advancement. There has to be some other source of earning other than the usual income from within the country. Another reason behind this type of tourism is a generally failure of the tourism sector of a country to significantly contribute to rural poverty alleviation.
Enclave tourism is dominated by foreign tourists. Foreign safari companies and investors are among the major pillars of Enclave Tourism. There are social implications of Enclave Tourism. Foreign tourists visit to promote this tourism further. This brings a gradual impact on the national people of the country. The foreign tourists bring their culture along. They carry their lifestyle with them wherever they go. The national people of the country despite showing their culture to the foreigners, they try to adapt their culture their style their lifestyle. They leave behind the type of clothing they do, the way they behave but readily drown the foreign culture. People tend to adapt new changes. This is the biggest social implication of Enclave Tourism.
Impact of enclave tourism
The economy of a country is greatly influenced by this tourism. It brings foreign currency which helps a great deal in improving and increasing the income. This money is used in the budget of tourism. Hence tourism can greatly be enhanced and developed. The more it gets developed the more foreigners it can attract and so more and more foreign currency comes in the country. This cycle continues if it gets a good start and can bring in a lot of income which can become one of the most important sources of income of a country.
Enclave Tourism requires high investment in just small projects. This causes a healthy capital to be spent on a little thing hence leading to better utilization of it. This is a unique advantage of this type of tourism which is not seen much in any other sector. It focuses specifically on the demand of the traveler. It looks upon what a traveler needs and so keeps this factor as its chief motive. It aims to meet the demands of the foreign tourist. This creates a whole multitude of tourists to visit this country. When the entire capital is just utilize in meeting the demand of the tourists then there is nothing that can hinder the tourists to think twice before visiting that particular country. Foreign ownership dominates this tourism hence there is foreign investment as well. The country in turn gets an advantage by paying less. This tourism requires little contribution of the county’s income since most of it is paid by the foreign companies.
When tourism is developed in a country more shops are built, most importantly souvenir shops are set up. Maintenance of the tourism resorts has to be done which is very important. Apart from these tourist guides are preferred by many people. These all lead to an increase in the job opportunities for the local people specially the poor ones. Thus, Enclave Tourism also benefits the local people as well.
Advantages and Disadvantages
Despite these advantages some disadvantages also escort this type of tourism. Since foreign investment plays a major role in it, there is a high probability that the country gets dependent on foreign investments. If the foreign company chooses not to be a part of a country anymore, that country can face a lot problems in allocating a contribution from its income to the tourism sector ample enough to sustain its running. Enclave Tourism can lead to high level leakage of confidential information of a country. When a foreign company works with a country it eventually gets the share of some confidential information which that foreign country can leak or use it negatively.
Disadvantages are faced in every sector and so on Enclave Tourism as well but because of these this type of tourism cannot be neglected. It brings a good income through little expenditure and so is very beneficial for a company. It is mostly practiced in developing countries and contributes a lot in the country’s income.
Tourism development and planning is important for all the nations in order to make the environment friendly for the tourists. The sustainability of the development of the tourism was first described in the Brundtland report. It focused on the sustainable tourism and the sustainability of the development of the tourism. Improving the environment development attracts more tourists and thus it contributes in the GDP of the country. Many countries are more dependent on tourism such as Malaysia, Indonesia, Thailand, etc. For these countries, the development of the environment is very important as the economy majorly rely on it. Tourism is fundamental for the economy of many regions, like Thailand. Because tourism involves attracting foreign exchange, it is generally the only means of economic development for some nations. It provides an opportunity for development, employment marketing and sale of local goods etc. It also helps in creating service industries which are crucial for the development of a region. Transport is one of the most important services which include buses, railroads, cruise ships, airlines, and taxi services, along with them certain hospitality services are also required for the tourists. These include hotels and lodging, resorts, accommodation and entertainment sites such as casinos, bars, shopping malls, night clubs, movie theaters etc. The issue of tourism is closely linked to drinking responsibly, because like many of the things that make our work possible, or give meaning to our lives, sightseeing consumer demands. To qualify for biodiversity, for example, we move about and consume energy. Are we giving up completely on tourism as an act of "consumer"? Similarly, is it consumer to read a newspaper? We know that the edition of Sunday New York Times, for example, involves the disappearance of a large forested area of Canada, but does the existence of a free press is one of the conditions of democracy? A particularly interesting example of these contradictions is, without doubt, tourism.
The most important dispute for sustainable tourism development in concerns the viewpoint and anticipations that all stakeholders, and government policy makers, have about tourism’s assistance at the localized, local and nationwide level. Many evolving nations like the overview of tourism as a vehicle for financial development, granted its promise to profit from foreign exchange, decrease earnings and paid work disparities, reinforce linkages amidst financial parts and assist to alleviate poverty. The dispute opposite policy maker is to have a broader viewpoint and better comprehending, that there can be both affirmative and contradictory consequences from tourism development. Moreover, broader point of view actions of all stakeholders engaged with tourism from the community grade to the nationwide grade to find the entails to work simultaneously in a more proactive modes that will boost the affirmative consequences, and minimize the likely contradictory consequences of tourism development. Sustainable tourism development presents the opening to take proactive advances founded on very broad participation by stakeholders, which would assist to more productive principles and plans. Tourism is used to increase the GDP of the country and it is the most effective measure of improving the economy.