Tourism in India

CHAPTER 1 |
TOURISM |
1.1 INTRODUCTION TO TOURISM
Since the beginning of the time people have travelled In the early periods, people used to travel for food, water and safety or acquisition of resources (trade). But in the recent times, the word travel is also associated with pleasure or exploration. Now, Tourism is the business of providing travel, accommodation, food, entertainment to the people who are travelling for the purpose of either recreation and leisure or business. Tourism may be expressed as the processes, activities, and outcomes arising from the relationships and the interactions among tourists, tourism suppliers, host governments, host communities, and surrounding environments that are involved in the attracting and hosting of visitors. Hence, tourism is the movement of people (tourists) to a destination outside of place, where they normally live and work. Tourism is not only restricted to people (tourists) but it is also the movement of activities of the providers. For example, the services provided during the course of travel. Tourism is about involving people and knowing them better. It is not a short term process of but a long term relationship between the consumer (tourists) and provider of Tourism Service.
Tourism is the collection of activities, services and industries that delivers a travel experience including transportation, accommodations, eating and drinking establishments, retail shops, entertainment businesses, activity facilities and other hospitality services provided for individuals or groups traveling away from home.
Fig: Relationship between leisure, recreation and tourism [1]
Tourism can be hence, called as the process of organised travel and is the theory and practice of travelling.
ORIGIN OF TOURISM
The origin of the term tourism lies back to the 17th century, from the word “tour”, which is derived from the Hebrew word “torah” meaning learning, examining. Hebrews called the people as “tourist”, whom they sent to see far off places and learn the socio-economic conditions of the people living in those places. And such action was referred to as “touring”. [2]
Later in 1994, Theobald suggested that the word tour has been derived from the Latin word “tornare” and the Greek word “Tornos”, ehich means “a lathe or a circle”, meaning a movement around a central point or axis. The suffix –ism in Tourism is defined as an “action or process; typical behaviour or quality, while the suffix –ist in Tourist is referred to the “one who performs a given action”. As a circle starts from a starting point and ultimately returns back to its beginning in the same way a tour represents a journey of a round trip which starts when the person leaves his original place and completes on his return to that place. And the one who takes this journey is called the tourist. [4]
In India we see the origin of the concept of Tourism in Sanskrit Literature. It has given us three terms derived from the root word “Atana” which means going out and accordingly we have the terms:
1. Tirthatana – It means going out and visiting places of religious merit.
2. Paryatana - It means going out for pleasure and knowledge.
3. Deshatana - It means going out of the country primarily for economic gains.[5]
DEFINETIONS OF TOURISM
Tourism has been defined by various people and various organisations differently.
The first definition of tourism was made by Guyer Feuler in 1905.[6] Guyer Feuler defined Tourism as a phenomenon unique to modern time which is dependent on the people’s increasing need for a change and relaxing, the wish of recognizing the beauties of nature and art and the belief that nature gives happiness to human beings and which helps nations and communities’ approaching to each other thanks to the developments in commerce and industry and the communication and transportation tools' becoming excellent.
Let us have an overview of the other important ones:
According to Herman Schullard (1910)
Tourism is the sum total of operates, mainly of an economic reason nature, which directly relate to an entity, stay and movement of foreigners inside and outside of a certain country, country, city or region.
According to Casper:
Tourism is the a global system dependent on the relations of sub systems of tourist, touristic establishments, and tourism organizations with the economic, social, politic, judicial, technological and ecological environment of these sub systems
According to World Tourism Organisation:
Tourism is a social, cultural and economic phenomenon which entails the movement of people to countries or places outside their usual environment for personal or business/professional purposes. Tourism is movement of people away from their place of residence and work for a period of not less than twenty four hours and not more than one year. [7]
According to Tourism Society of England (1976):[8]
Tourism is the temporary, short-term movement of people to destination outside the places where they normally live and work and their activities during the stay at each destination. It includes movements for all purposes.
According to International Council of Tourism England (1981): [8]
Tourism is defined in terms of a particular activity selected by their choice undertaken outside the home environment. It may or may not involve overnight stay outside the home.
According to Tourism Society of Britain: [8]
Tourism is temporary short term movement of persons to destination outside the places where they normally live, work and their activities are not earning anything.
According to UNWTO (1993): [8]
Tourism comprises the activities of persons traveling to and staying in places outside their usual environment for not more than one consecutive year for leisure, business and other purposes.
According to Hunziker and Krapf (1941) [8]
Tourism is defined as people who travel. The sum and the phenomena and relationships arising from the travel and stay of non-residents, in so far as they do not lead to permanent residence and are not connected with any earning activity.
According to Macintosh and Goeldner (1986) [8]
Tourism is the sum of the phenomena and relationships arising from the interaction of tourists, business suppliers, host governments and host communities in the process of attracting and hosting these tourists and other visitors.
According to Mathieson and Wall (1982), [9]
Tourism is the temporary movement of people to destinations outside their normal places of work and residence, the activities undertaken during their stay in those destinations and the facilities created to cater to their needs.
According to Buckart and Medlik (1974), [9]
Tourism denotes the temporary short-term movement of people to destinations outside the places where they normally live.
According to Mohammed Zulfikar:
Tourism is the business of attracting visitors and catering to their needs and expectations.
Tourism is a structural break from the routine life. It involves a separation from everyday life and offers an entry into another moral and mental state, where expressive and cultural needs become more important.
There are basically three phases in tourism:
a) The beginning (when the tourist separates/ moves out of his home)
b) The middle (the period of his movement when he comes across new places for experiencing change)
c) The end (process of his returning to home after the end of the tour)
According to International Association of Scientific  Experts in Tourism:[10]
The Association defined Tourism in terms of particular activities selected by choice and undertaken outside the home environment.
According to Naveen Rathore:
Tourism is the activity done by an individual or a group of individuals which leads to a motion from a place to another, from a country to another performing a specific task or it a visit to a place or several places in the purpose of entertaining which leads to an awareness of other civilisations and cultures, also increasing the knowledge of countries, cultures and history.
As per Macmillan Dictionary, tourism is referred to as the business of providing services for people who are travelling for their holiday.
As per the Oxford Dictionary, tourism is referred to as the commercial organization and operation of holidays and visits to places of interest.
Thus Tourism is more than travel; tourism is more about the accessibility of novelty and the modern world generally.
In general, Tourism comprises the activities of persons travelling to and staying in places outside their usual environment for not more than one consecutive year for leisure, business and other purposes not related to the exercise of an activity remunerated from within the place visited.
Other Terms related to tourism: [11]
i) Excursionist: Persons traveling for pleasure in a period less than 24 hours as defined by Macintosh and Goeldner (1986)
ii) Foreign Tourist: Any person visiting a country, other than that in which he/she usually resides, for a period of at least 24 hours as defined by the Committee of Statistical Experts of the League of Nations (1937).
iii) Travel: The act of moving outside one's home community for business or pleasure but not for commuting or traveling to or from school as defined by Macintosh and Goeldner (1986)
iv) Visitor: Any person visiting a country other than that in which he/she has his/her usual place of residence, for any reason other than following an occupation remunerated from within the country visited as defined by the United Nations Conference on International Travel and Tourism (1963).
DIMENSIONS OF TOURISM [12]
DIFFERENT PERSPECTIVES OF TOURISM [13]
a) Geographical Perspective - from a geographer’s perspective the main concern of tourism is to look into aspects like the geographical location of a place, the climate, the landscape, the environment, the physical planning and the changes in these emerging from provisioning of tourism facilities and amenities. A geographer feels that it is the climate, landscape or physical attributes which draw the tourist to a destination, for example; if a person from Delhi goes to Shimla in the summer he does so because of the cooler climate which he cannot get in Delhi
b) Sociological Perspective From a sociologist’s perspective Tourism is a social activity; it is about interaction between different communities—hosts and guests—and encounter between different cultures. This approach studies social classes, habits and customs of both hosts and guests in terms of tourism behaviour of individuals or groups of people and the impact of tourism on society.
c) Historical Perspective - from an historian’s perspective tourism is a study of the factors instrumental in the initiation of tourism to a particular destination, the order of happenings leading to tourism development, the reasons for happening of the occurrences in that order, beneficiaries of the tourist activity and an untimely and premature identification of negative effects. For example we all know that a lot of tourists visit Taj Mahal in Agra but a historian would be interested in studying the factors that bring the tourist there, e.g. the architecture, the story behind the monument, or something else that draws them there.
d) Managerial Perspective - from the management perspective tourism is an industry, and therefore needs managerial skills in order to be properly managed. As the industry grows we see continuous changes in various organisations and services linked with the industry, the tourism products and so on so this approach concentrates on management activities such as planning, research, pricing, marketing, control etc. as vital to the operation of a tourist establishment.
e) Economic Perspective – From an economist’s perspective tourism is a major source of foreign exchange earnings, a generator of personal and corporate incomes, a creator of employment and a contributor to government earnings. It is a dominant global activity surpassing even trade in oil and manufactured goods. Economists study the effects of tourism industry on the economy. This is a two way process.
NATURE OF TOURISM: LEIPER MODEL [14]
Tourism is characterized by two main concerns: It is multi-disciplinary with the human dimensions of tourism attracting the attention of geographers, historians, behaviour scientists, while the nature of tourism as a commercial activity appeals to those engaged in economics and business activities. Second, it is a young area of study-at most 50 years without the antecedents of a nature subject.
International Organisation support tourism for its contributions to the world peace, the benefits of mixing people and cultures, the economic advantages which can ensure and the fact that tourism is a relatively ‘clean industry’.
Tourism, however, is surrounded by a number of myths (which have contributed to the glamour) and these should be broken:
1. Tourism in the world is dominantly domestic (people travelling in their own country), nor international;
2. Most tourism journeys are by surface transport (mainly car), not by air;
3. Tourism is not purely for the purpose of leisure. It also includes business tourism, pilgrimages and tourism for health purposes.
CHARACTERISTICS OF TOURISM
The tourism industry is dependent on various factors like the location of the country, its culture and tradition, the social and political status, etc. This dependency has resulted in some unique features of the industry. Some of the characteristics of the tourism industry are :
a) Stable Locations: Tourism locations are fixed and potential customers have to visit these places for consuming the various services offered. For example, If a tourist visiting India wants to enjoy backwaters, he has to go to Kerela. However, the tourist cannot expect skiing facilities in a place like Kerela as it does not know there.
b) Huge Financial Investment: The tourism industry requires huge investment for the development of infrastructure to meet the needs and demands of customers. The government needs to spend a lot on travel facilities like airports and trains, on maintaining and improving tourist attractions and on providing accommodation and entertainment to tourists. Malaysia has heavily invested in the tourism industry and has promoted it excellently. Otherwise, it would become impossible for the government to sustain or increase the tourist inflow. The facilities provided should match the attitudes of the customer segments. Also a tourism destination should be developed according to the regulations of the local government. For example, if there is a restriction locally on the consumption of alcoholic drinks, this should be taken into consideration while developing and promoting the place.1
c) Unstable Demand: The demand for tourism products is not stable. For example, the tourists services and destinations are in demand during vacation time or when the weather is suitable
d) Perishability: Tourism products like airline seat or a room at a hotel are highly perishable and cannot be inventoried. This means that, all the unutilised resources during the low demand season cannot be inventoried and saved for the peak demand season.
DIFFERENCE BETWEEN TRAVEL AND TOURISM [15]
Though the words Travel and Tourism are synonymised and used interchangeably but Tourism is a wider concept and encompasses a lot more than travel alone.
Travel implies journeys undertaken from one place to another for any purpose including journeys to work and as a part of employment, as a part of leisure and to take up residence; whereas Tourism includes the journey to a destination and also the stay at a destination outside one’s usual place of residence and the activities undertaken for leisure and recreation. All tourism includes some travel, but not all travel is tourism .A person may often travel for a wide variety of purposes of which tourism is only one. However if properly handled, a part of the travel for non-tourism purposes can be motivated into travel for tourism as an additional purpose .For example a person on a journey as a part of employment to a place with one or more tourist attractions –like a spot of scenic beauty or historical significance, a pilgrimage, a lake, etc. can be induced to spare some time and money for a short visit and or stay for tourism purposes alone .In this sense every traveller is a ‘potential’ tourist and is upto the managers of the industry to tap this ‘potential’ and convert the traveller into an ‘actual’ tourist.
Some of the characteristics that distinguish tourism from travel are: Tourism is:
1. Temporary, to distinguish it from the permanent travel of the tramp and nomad
2. Voluntary, to distinguish it from the forced travel of the exile and refugee
3. Round up, to distinguish it from the one-way journey of the migrant
4. Relatively long, to distinguish it from the recurrent trips of the holiday house owner
CLASSIFICATION OF TOURISM
The United Nations classified three forms of tourism in its “Recommendations on Tourism Statistics”:
a) Domestic Tourism :
It involves travelling by the residents of a given country within their own country. For example, Mr. X, a resident of Delhi, goes to visit Hawa Mahal in Jaipur.
b) Inbound Tourism:
Inbound tourism consists of visit to a country by non-resident of that country. For example, Mr. Y, a Canadian Citizen comes to India to see Red fort. He is an Inbound Tourist for India.
c) Outbound Tourism:
Visit by resident of a country to another country. For example Mr. Z, goes to visit Magic Kingdom in USA. He is an Outbound tourist for India. [16]
Various Other forms of tourism:
a) Sustainable Tourism:[17]
Sustainable tourism is tourism attempting to make as low an impact on the environment and local culture as possible, while helping to generate future employment for local people. 
b) Ecotourism [18]
According to World Tourism Organisation (WTO), “Tourism that involves travelling to relatively undisturbed natural areas with the specified object of studying, admiring and enjoying the scenery and its wild plants and animals, as well as any existing cultural aspects (both of the past and the present) found in these areas” is defined as Ecotourism. Ecotourism resources of India includes, Biosphere Reserves, Mangroves, Coral reefs, Deserts, Mountains and forests, Flora and Fauna, Seas, Lakes and Rivers, and Caves.
c) Pro-Poor Tourism
Pro-poor tourism, which seeks to help the poorest people in developing countries, has been receiving increasing attention by those involved in development; the issue has been addressed through small-scale projects in local communities and through attempts by Ministries of Tourism to attract large numbers of tourists
d) Recession Tourism:
Recession tourism is a travel trend, which evolved by way of the world economic crisis. Identified by American entrepreneur Matt Landau (2007), recession tourism is defined by low-cost, high-value experiences taking place of once-popular generic retreats. Various recession tourism hotspots have seen business boom during the recession thanks to comparatively low costs of living and a slow world job market suggesting travellers are elongating trips where their money travels further.
e) Medical Tourism:
Medical tourism (MT) is patient movement from highly developed nations to other areas of the world for medical care, usually to find treatment at a lower cost. Medical tourism is different from the traditional model of international medical travel where patients generally journey from less developed nations to major medical centers in highly developed countries for medical treatment that is unavailable in their own communities
f) Educational Tourism [19]
In educational tourism, the main focus of the tour or leisure activity includes visiting another country to learn about the culture, such as in Student Exchange Programs and Study Tours, or to work and apply skills learned inside the classroom in a different environment, such as in the International Practicum Training Program.
g) Religious Tourism [20]
Religious Tourism, also commonly referred to as faith Tourism, is a form of tourism whereby people of faith travel individually or in groups for pilgrimage, missionary, or leisure (fellowship) purposes. Religious tourism comprises many facets of the travel industry including Pilgrimages, Missionary Travel, Leisure (fellowship) vacations, faith-based cruising, Crusades, conventions and rallies, Retreats, Monastery Visits and guest-stays, Christian and faith based camps, Religious tourist attractions.
h) Dark Tourism
This type of tourism involves visits to "dark" sites, such as battlegrounds, scenes of horrific crimes or acts of genocide, for example: concentration camps. Dark tourism remains a small niche market, driven by varied motivations, such as mourning, remembrance, education, macabre curiosity or even entertainment. Its early origins are rooted in fairgrounds and medieval fairs.
i) Doom Tourism
It is also known as "Tourism of Doom," or "Last Chance Tourism". It involves traveling to places that are environmentally or otherwise threatened (such as the ice caps of Mount Kilimanjaro, the melting glaciers of Patagonia, or the coral of the Great Barrier Reef
j) Adventure Tourism [21]
Adventure Tourism is a type of niche tourism involving exploration or travel to remote areas, where the traveller should expect the unexpected. According to the Global Adventure Travel Trade Association, “adventure travel” may be any tourist activity including two of the following three components: a physical activity, a cultural exchange or interactions. Mountaineering expeditions, trekking, bungee jumping, rafting and rock climbing are frequently cited as an examples of Adventure Tourism.
k) Sports Tourism
Sport Tourism involves travelling by people either for observing or participating in a sports event, Events such as rugby, Olympics, Commonwealth games, Asian Games and football World Cups have enabled specialist travel companies to gain official ticket allocation and then sell them in packages that include flights, hotels and excursions.
COMPONENTS OF TOURISM [22]
Tourism is a composite phenomenon. It does not exist is isolation. Focus on these components can only promote tourism in any country:
1.2 FACTORS THAT PROMOTED TOURISM
The factors that promote tourism are as follows:
a) Motivation:
Motivation is the value of new experience and the transformation of travel from survival to an improvement in the quality of life. This includes:
i) Curiosity: Curiosity includes the feeling of excitement of people, while moving from known areas to unknown areas having different traditions and culture.
ii) Anticipation: it means what a person to hopes to find, see and do at a new area and place. To look for something and evaluate every new experience which one gets at a new place.
iii) Posterity: it is mainly in search of roots, i.e., to find decency
b) Holiday:
The word holiday seems to have been made from Holy and Days that is to say that the word holiday has two Sources namely, i) Religious and ii) Secular.
i) Religious: In Europe in olden days, a day was set at the end of a work cycle for religious rituals and this day was called as holiday. Later on saints days and other observance days were also added to theses holidays. No work was done on these days and people enjoyed on these days. These days were later called holidays.
ii) Secular: The secular religion was a part of imperial system when the state granted public holidays to celebrate the imperial glory. No work was done and people participated in fasting and fun. Games and sports were the highlight of such occasions.
c) Business:
The movement of people for business reasons has been a great motivator for people to travel. From beginning merchants travelled with their merchandise from one city to another city for trading. Today 85% of the travel is business.
d) Leisure:
It is a strong motivation in a highly stressed work life. The numerous resorts at various sea sides, hills and ski places provides various leisure facilities and keep people away from their monotonous daily routine life.
e) Mode of travel:
The invention of wheel, railways, Airlines, etc and network of routes, vehicles, cost of travel, documentations and safe passage, wayside facilities and conveniences all have been instrumental and promotional in the growth.
f) Education:
Education has always been great motivator to and for travellers. There have been great Universities in India, such as “Taxila” and “Nalanda”, which remained centres of education for students from far and near. Accommodation centres such as dormentaries, youth centres and youth hostels, etc are benefitted mainly.
g) Health:
Visit to the health spas, natural springs (for skin ailments and arthritis, etc), sanatoria, hill stations, resorts, etc also have been promoters of tourism. Health treatments abroad are expensive. People from all over the world come in India for treatments not only because of cost but for best quality services.
h) Religion:
All over the world, people travelled for religion. Particularly in India where travel for dip in holy waters, visit to cities of temples such as Amritsar, Kashi, Madurai, Mahabalipuram, Ajmer, Vaishno Devi, Amarnath in Kashmir and Char Dham Yatra pilgrims travelled.
i) Visiting friends and family:
This has also been an important reason for travel. Since, people travel by their own conveyance these days, mainly roadside catering establishment and motels, etc are benefited by this.
j) Visits to historical places:
Visits to historical places like Taj Mahal in Agra, Red Fort in Delhi, Amber Fort in Jaipur, and various other forts and palaces of Maharaja’s etc are also important treason for travel and promotion.
k) Adventure:
The thrill always lies in the new and explored like voyages undertaken by voyagers and navigators such as Marco Polo, Christopher Columbus and Vasco-Da-Gama, etc. Adventure sport are a trillion dollar industry that includes river rafting in Himalayan rapids or palcon hunting in Kandhar.
l) Cultural and heritage:
Culture and heritage of the place is also a basic factor that also has played a great role in enhancing tourism activities.
m) Philosophical discourses:
India and Greece have always been considered great centres for philosophical discourses and philosophies have been travelling from far and near.
n) Sports
Right from the times of first Olympics in 776BC to the present day sports and athlete meets such as Asian Games, Common Wealth Games, World Cups, Golf Tournaments, and Skiing. Afro Asian Games and Grand prime races, the participants and spectators have been travelling.
o) Fairs and festivals
National and International fairs such as Pushkar Mela, Surajkund Craft Mela, International Trade fair and festivals, such as Holi, Diwali, Id, etc., the people travel to enchant and view the glory, culture, colours of India and Hence, enhance tourism.
1.3 TOURISM IN INDIA
FACTS about India [23]
* The name river is derived from the river Indus. The valleys around the river were home to early settlers.
* India has never invaded any country in her last 100,000 years of history.
* About 5000 years ago, when men spanning continents led to a nomadic life, India had a developed civilisation known as Indus Valley Civilisation.
* Chess was invented in India
* Algebra, Trigonometry and Calculus are studies that originated in India.
* The ‘place value system’ and ‘decimal system’ were developed in India in 100 BC.
* The world’s first granite temple, Brihadeshwara Temple at Tanjavur, Tamil Nadu was built during the reign of Rajaraja Chola between 1004AD and 1009AD. The Shikhara of the temple is made of a single 80-tonne piece of granite.
* India is the largest democracy in the world, and the sixth largest country. Its civilization is as old as civilization itself.
* The game of snakes & ladders was created by the 13th century poet Sant Gyandev. It was originally called Mokshapat. The ladders represented virtues while snakes indicated vices.
* The world’s largest cricket ground is in Chail, Himachal Pradesh. It was built in 1983 after levelling a hilltop, which is 2,444 meters above sea level.
* India has the largest number of post offices in the world.
* Ayurveda is the earliest school of medicine known to mankind. Charaka, the father of medicine, consolidated Ayurveda 2,500 years ago.
* India was one of the richest countries till the arrival of British in the early 17th Century.
* Bhaskaracharya calculated the time taken by the earth to orbit the sun hundreds of year before astronomer Smart. According to his calculation, the time taken by the earth to orbit the sun was 365.258756484 days.
* Until 1986, India was the only source of diamonds in the world. (Source: Gemological Institute of America)
* Baily Bridge located in Ladakh valley between Dras and Suru rivers is the highest bridge in the world. The Indian Army built it in August, 1982.
HISTORY OF TOURISM IN INDIA: [24]
Tourism thrives on the history of the country. In fact, tourism cannot be isolated from history much less in a country like India, whose cultural heritage has a wealth of attractions.
India’s glorious traditions and rich cultural heritage are closely linked with the development of tourism. Its magnificent monuments attract a large number of visitors from all over the world. The wealth of cultural traditions extending over thousands of years, the natural surroundings, the architectural masterpiece, the music, dance, paintings, customs and languages all these make India a tourist paradise. Few countries in the world provide such varied interest to visitors.
In the words of Nehru, India is “a land of contrasts”, where rural tranquillity rubs shoulders with metropolitan bustle, austerity with pomp and show, and pageantry with simplicity. History has been equally generous in bequeathing a treasure of monuments. There is the immortal Taj, the Dravidian Temple of the south, especially those of Madurai, and the world famous frescoes of Ajanta and Ellora.
Over hundred years ago, the famous American traveller and writer Mark Twain, came to India. He wrote, India is the one country under the sun that is endowed with the perishable interest of alien prince and alien peasant, for lettered and the ignorant, the wise and the fool, the rich and the poor, the bonded and the free - one land that all men desire to see and having seen once, by even a glimpse would not give that glimpse for the shows of all the globe combined.[25] This sums up with relationship of history with tourism and how these two put together contribute towards the development of the country’s economy.
Agricultural economy (export of cash crop) was an important trade link for India. Iron ores tools and textiles, trading during later vedic period were trade from India. Caravan, saries were made during this period. Ritual, sacrifices and sports events were popular and attracted tourists. Arthshastra reflects the protection given to merchants and their high status in society. Insurance, safe package of good price regulations, weights and measures and use of coins made of gold, silver and copper as mode of exchange showed a developed mode of travel and merchants came to the courts of Raja and Maharaja for trading of their goods. Royal Capitals were trading and business centres developed. Brahmin villages lso developed into learning centres and scholars from other countries came to study here. Buddhists Sanghs established the tradition of pilgrims. Monks visited from villages to villages and court to court. Monastries were also use to house the travellers. Several expeditions from Greece via Persia or Mesopotamia cam to India and mentioned about Chariot roads in the country. Travel on inland water ways were also under the protection of state. Foreigners were accommodated at the city gate and were provided with facilities and travellers were required to carry an official note for safe passage. Gambling was licenced. Dancing halls and entertainment centres were there but under the control of inspectors. Kings and zamindards, etc. travelled for travel, pleasure and holiday on rivers and hills and summer retreats such as Shalimar and Nishant Gardens in Sri Nagar were developed and Jahangir was a frequent visitor to them. The Travel culture in India’s past can be identified by “KOS Minars” (milestones), Bodis, Sarais and network of roads.
The history of tourism is as old as civilisation started. Therefore, the history of tourism can be remarkable from the following:
1. The Indus Valley Civilization (3000BC)
The civilization of Indus Valley can be traced back to about 3000 B.C. The people of this civilization built well planned cities where almost 30, 000 citizens resided. The ancient municipalities of Indus Valley had proper town planning and also had citadels and granaries. The roads of the cities were well developed and even in those ancient times the households had proper sewerage systems.
The Indus Valley Civilization is also known as Harppan Civilization. The Indus Valley initiated the growth of urban centers like Lothal, Rakhigarhi, Mohenjodaro, Dholavira and Kalibagan. The urban civilization of Indus was marked by multi-storied houses, use of burnt bricks for construction and drainage system. The town of Mohenjadaro had a long canal that was connected to the sea. The Indus Valley had maritime trade relations with Mesopotamia.
The beginning of Indus Valley Civilization, marked the the Bronze Age in India. The impact of this age was extensively felt at Rajasthan, Haryana and Gujarat in India and parts of Punjab and Sindh that fall in modern Pakistan. The inhabitants of Indus Valley adopted new techniques in metallurgy. They started the use of bronze, lead, tin and copper.
2. The Origin of Indo-Aryans (400-1000 BC)
The sacred books of Hindus, the Rig Veda, perhaps the first piece of literature that humanity gave to itself, gives a clear picture of the Indo-Aryans. The Indo-Aryans consisted of families which lived in the villages on the river banks of the Punjab. They were surrounded by their flocks and herds of animals, which were their main possession. Their culture was rich. The father was the head of the well-knit patriarch families and commanded obedience from all the members of the family. The Rig Veda mentions a number of deities, chief among them being Varuna, the benevolent Sky God. Other principal gods were Indra (the god of thunder), Mitra (the sun god), Aditi (the goddess of eternity), Prithvi (the goddess of earth) and Usha (the beautiful goddess of dawn). Brahma, Vishnu and Rudra, though comparatively later conceptions, also find mention in Rig Veda. The Indo-Aryans of the vedic period had no temples not did they build images of their gods.
When any natural calamities like fllods, rains, earthquake or draught, etc happened, they believed that the god is annoyed with them because of some mistake done by them and so they moved to other places for food and shelter.
3. Emergence of Buddhism and Jainism (1000 BC- 600 BC)
The period after the epic age or the later Vedic Age (1000 BC- 600 BC) was marked by the rise and emergence of Buddhism and Jainism in India.
a) Buddhism: Buddhism is the oldest religion in the world. Gautam Buddha (563 – 483 BC) laid its foundation after he gained enlightenment under a Bodhi Tree at Bodhgaya. The preaching of Lord Buddha revolves around attaining salvation from worldly sufferings, universal brotherhood, peace and non-violence.
b) Jainism: Mahavira (540-467 BC) was the founder of Jainism. He founded the religion after attaining enlightenment. The teachings of Mahavira revolve around leading a pious life, to shun all violence and austere. He was the 24th tirthankar of the great Jain Spiritual leaders.
Both Gautam Buddha and Mahavira were contemporaries and preached new doctrines and travelled from place to place to preach and teach the doctrine of Salvation by self-effort, purity of mind, right thought, non-injury and compassion.
4. The Mauryas (321-185 BC)
The Maurya empire was geographical extensive Iron Age Historical power in ancient India, ruled by the Mauryan Dynasty from 321 to 185 BC. Originating from the kingdom of Magadha in the Indo-gigantic plains (modern Bihar, eastern Uttar Pradesh and Bengal), in the eastern side of the sub-continent, the empire had its capital city by Patliputra (modern Patna). The Empire was founded by Chandragupta Maurya waho overthrown the Nanda Dynasty. The Empire was expanded into India’s Central and Southern Regions by the emperors Chandragupta and Bindusara.
Ashoka, the grandson of Chandragupta Maurya was able to build an even greater empire. He was the most celebrated and popular (274 – 232 BC) and brought about many administrative reforms. After the Kaling War, when he saw the dead and bloodsheds of soldiers, men, women and children, his heart was full of sorrow, guilt, and so he became devoted to non-violence, and adopted the religion of Buddhism and become a devotee of Lord Buddha.
He also embarked a period of intense missionary activities, sending scholars and monks to all parts of the then known world including Syria, Egypt and Macedonia. After a generous reign of over forty yeas, Ashoka died in 232 BC and also the Mauryan Empire came to an end.
5. The Guptas and the Classical Period
For 490 years, following the fall of the Mauryans, the Indian people would remain under the rule of the small city states. Then in 310AD, a new leader emerged who begun again to unify India. This leaders name was Chandragupta and set his capital in the old Kingdom of Magadha. Under the rule of Chandragupta and his descendants the people of Gupta Empire flourished. During this time period great advance in literature, art and science were made. For this reason, many historians refer to this time period as the golden era of Indian history. Science, mathematics, astronomy and medical science were for advanced in India than other countries. Trade and commerce flourished greatly.
Another very significant feature of this period was the growth of important seats of learning. The famous university at Nalanda, where students from all parts of the Asia came, and where the great Chinese Monk Hiuen Tsang spent many years was founded by a later Gupta emperor.
The Gupta dynasty was brought to an end by the invasions towards the close of the fifth century AD.
6. The Muslim Period
The early Muslim period refers to the start of Muslim rule in the history of Lahore, which began at the close of the tenth century. A new Islamic start arose in the uplands of Afghanistan with its capital in Ghazni. At the beginning of the eleventh century, Mahmud of Ghazni carried out a number of raids on northern India. Towards the end of the twelfth century, Mohammad Ghori succeeded the throne of Ghazni and invaded India.
After the fall of the Ghasnavid Empire, Lahore was ruled by various dynasties known as Delhi Sultanate, including the Khiljis, Tughlaqs, Sayrid, Lodhis and Suris. When Sultan Qutub-ud-din Aibak was crowned here in 1206, he became the first Muslim Sultan in South Asia.
Great cities like Delhi, Mandu, Ahmedabad, Bijapur and Golconda with their magnificent forts, mosques, pleasure gardens, etc. based on the Islamic traditions of Central Asia arose in different parts of India and attracted people of tourism.
7. The Mughal Empire
The founder of the Mughal Empire, Babur was the descendant of Timur and Ghenghis Khan. The Mughal Empire, in real sense started with Akbar (Humanyun’s Son). Akbar who ruled from 1556 to 1605 was undoubtedly the greatest of Mughal emperors. He annexed whole of the Northern India, Ajmer and Gwalior. Between 1586 and 1601 he extended his rule over Kashmir, Baluchistan, Kandhar and parts of Ahmednagar and Orissa. On the day of his death, his empire consisted of 15 provinces.
His son Jahangir took over the power in 1605 and died in 1627. He was succeeded by this son Jahan in 1928, under whose rule the Mughal Empire read the zenith of its glory and died in 1666.
Shah Jahan had an almost insatiable passion for buildings. With erecting a new capital city at Shahjahbad, he enriched the world’s store of architectural beauties by many other buildings, outstanding them being the Taj Mahal and Moti Masjid at Agra.
Aurangzeb defeated the son of Shahjahan, Dara in 1658 when he fall ill and conquered Mughal empire and Mughal empire came to an end in 1738.
There were many achievements in various fields during the Mughal period of Indian history, especially during the period ending with Aurangzeb’s reign. There was great activity in the fields of art, literature, architecture and economics. Architecture found its supreme realisation in great works like Taj Mahal, the Moti Mosque, the Red Fort in Delhi, the city of Fatehpur Sikri and the beautiful palaces of Rajput rulers. All these continue to be the great attractions to the people from all over the world and tourism was in full flow in India.
8. The Marathas
The Maratha Empire or the Maratha confederacy was an Indian imperial power that existed from 1674 to 1818. The Maratha Empire was founded by Shivaji 1674 when he carried out an independent Maratha zone around Pune from the Bijapur Sultanate.
His son Sambhaji succeeded Shivaji. He was taken prisoner and executed by Aurangzeb, in 1689 Rajaram, Shivaji second son then took the throne. The fight against the Mughals ended with the death of Aurangzeb in 1707 and soon the control passed to Peshwas. Peshwa Dynasty started by 1712 and ended in 1818 AD, Balaji Vishwanath (1712 - 1721 AD), Madho Rao (1761 – 1772 AD), Narayanrao Peshwa (1772 – 1773 AD) ruled the Peshwa Dynasty. By 1818, the Peshwa power came to an end.
Thus, we can say that the above period is remarked as origin of tourism in India.
TOURISM IN INDIA
“There are some parts of the world that once visited get into your heart and won’t let go. For me India is such a place when I first visited, I was stunned by the richness of the land by its lush beauty and exotic architecture by its ability to overload its senses with the pure, concentrated intensity of its colors, smells, tastes and souls. It was as if all my life I was seeing the world in black and white and when brought face-to-face with India, experienced every thing rendered in brilliant Technicolor.” - Keitlt Bellows
"It we were to look over the whole world to find out the country most richly endowed with all the wealth, power and beauty that nature can bestow in some parts a very paradise on earth. I should point to India.” -Max Mueller
The most valuable assets of India as a desirable tourist destination lies in thousands years old historical and cultural heritage. Every region, every part of lndia encompasses culture of its own, entirely distinct in traditions, language, festil'll4 beliefs and rituals with different and unique style of living and dresses.
No country in the world comprises such distinction such diversity with a unity and integration. This diversity may be attributed to the historical roots of developments of each region, due to different dynasties ruled the different  regions. The development of different life-style, celebrations of different festivals, adopting different Ian different dressing sense, all exit as per the norms fixed by the then ruling dynasty. Region has unique physical features, soil types and climatic conditions, so has distinct vegetation and wild life. When all the natural beauty is mingled with culture the resultant harmony present a unique land sparkled picture, reflecting destination in its unique and colorful way.
One finds everything in India: exotic as well as native, the snow clad Himalayas crowned the head in the north, enveloped all the beauty within itself, releases the mighty rivers, Indus, Gangas, and Yamuna and their tributaries. These rivers roll over the whole country like arteries, supplying life blood to the body of the country and its inhabitants through out the year. The complex beauty of the desert state of Rajasthan is found rarely in any part of the world. With Thar at its background and vivacious sand dunes, mirages and camels, the huge and glorified palaces, forts and Havelies, present a complex and unique beauty. The culture of Rajputs with bright Badhani colors intricate designs and the Royal background give their sharp look different from others. In their unique architectural style in the series of palaces are lake palace of Udaipur, sand colored forts' in Jaisalmer, city palace of Jaipur, the pink city of India coupled with the vibrant folk dances and folk songs make India an" Cultural ".
The Taj Mahal at Agra, symbol of Mughal romance and faith, in its architectural perfection and splendor attracts tourists from all over the world. Taj Mahal reflects the Persian cultural and their architectural eminence, today counted among the seven wonders of the world.
The caves of Ajanta-Ellora. the Sun Temple of Konark. the Temple of Khajurao and Dravidian style stone carved temples of Hoysalewara and Ranganathswamy, the medieval glory of Qutab Minar, Red fort, Fathepur Sikri and other forts and mausoleums with Persian architectural influence, the Victoria place at Kolkata, beautiful and elegant churches at Goa. each and every symbolizes the clarity of Indian culture with tremendous diversification andeach has its own attraction for the tourist.
India has witnessed many eras blooming on her soil. Each era and dynasty has left incredible  mark, on her different regions with uniqueness and distinction. From Harappas to Mauryas, Guptas to Sultans and Mughals to Portuguese and English, witnessed a met morph sis in each era. Different cultures with different life styles and beliefs, intermingled. Each century brought a new culture, made its impact, kept intact ~original identity and beliefs also, and thus a unique diversity with integration is the present India.
The Bhool Bholaiyan at Lucknow. the mystery of shaking Minarets in the mosque and tomb of Rajbibi in Ahmedabad, the acoustic wonders of Gol Gumbaj, the famous GoldenTemple at Amritsar, the oldest church at Palayurin Goa,the oldest synagogue at Mattancherry in Kochi and the oldest mosque in Eheraman Malik Manzil in Kodungallor, also the modern Lotus Temple, the Bahami temple of worship. the Stupa of Sanchi, Tower of Silence at Mumbai, and tallest statue of Bahubali at Kamataka, all speakofthe glorious heritage of our country and so are the of attraction for tourists throughout the world.
Nowhere in the world, can be found such multifaceted, most diversified culture with rich heritage reflecting many dynasties and regimes. India is known for its unparallel religious beliefs as well as for its vast variety of people, the animal kingdom and the rich flora. India is a miniature world, where the tourists find the best of the west and east coexisting in perfect harmony for centuries.
Another aspect of Indian culture can well be seen in its vibrant and colorful festivals. India has been the birth place of many religion. The Hinduism, The Buddhism, The Jainism, The Sikhism, The Islam and The Christianity also nourished and flourished here well. The Desert festival, the Kite festival, Boat race festival in south India, the Durga Pooja festival of Kolkata, Dussehera of My sore, Puri festival of Orissa, Ganesh Chaturthi festival of Maharashtra, all are celebrated so colorful and in such a grand manner, that reflect the wonderful observance of religious and cultural heritage of our country.
Not only the above historical festivals, the modem festivals, like the Taj Mahotsava, Khajurao Dance festival, Konark Dance festival, also give an opportunity of seeing all internationally acclaimed faces of Indian classical dance and music on one stage.
Over the years we have developed the concept of eco- friendly tourism, means that while promoting tourism in very possible manner we should not forget importance of ecological balance. Many of the places at the foothills of the Himalayas , have become the dumping ground of tourists. While promoting the tourism in wild life , it must be ensured that the tourists should not become a threat to the tranquility and ecological balance of the forests.
No doubt, India's diversified culture presents a 'paradise for tourists' but to keep it intact, a number, of judicious and prudent policies to facilitates the tourists and attract more and more tourists are to be framed and require to be implemented at a fast pace. The tourists visiting India, should be enchanted not only with the rich heritage, but they should also feel here safe, sound and welcomed. [27]
The Department of Tourism was formed to promote international and domestic tourism in the country. It provides infrastructure and carries out publicity campaigns. It provides information aimed at promotion of tourist sites in the world market. It formulates policies and programmes for the promotion of tourism in India. It has officers in India and abroad. The Indian Institute of Tourism and Travel Management, The National Council for Hotel management and Catering technology etc. provide professionally trained personnel to the industry.
The Tourism Advisory Board recommends measures for promotion of tourist traffic in India. It reviews the tourist trends and suggests appropriate measures. Some of the places, havelis and castles have been converted into heritage hotels. In these hotels, the tourists get the experience the exotic lifestyle of the bygone era. The exotic train 'palace on wheel's which travels through Rajasthan attracts a lot of foreign tourists. The Indian Tourism Development Corporation (ITDC) organizes entertainment programmes like folk dances and songs and provides shopping facilities. today many private companies like Sita Travels, Club Mahindra etc. arrange domestic as well as foreign tours.
With the growth of urban professional middle class, the tourism in India is flourishing, Many states have taken necessary steps to promote tourism. Goa promotes water sports like sailing, scuba diving and rafting. Kashmir offers the pleasure of winter sports like skiing and mountaineering. Kerala has introduced the concept of houseboats in its lagoons. Himachal Pradesh has developed winter sports in the state.
In 2005 The Indian Tourism Development Corporation (ITDC) stared a campaign called 'Incredible India' to encourage tourism in India. For a better growth, the department divided different places in different section like 'spiritual tourism,' 'spa tourism', 'ecotourism' and 'adventure tourism'. Things have now started looking bright for the Indian tourism industry.
The tourist infrastructure in India should be strengthened. Airports and railway stations should provide information to the tourists about the tourist destination. Government owned hotels should be properly managed. The Government should also take steps for the maintenance for the tourist destination. Steps should be taken to restore the ancient splendor of the monuments. Sincere efforts could help to further develop the Indian tourism industry. [28]
FINANCIAL STATISTICS OF INDIAN TOURISM:
Table 1
Foreign Tourist Arrivals (FTAs) in India, 1997-2011
Year | FTAs in India(in million) | Percentage (%) change over the previous year. |
1997 | 2.37 | 3.8 |
1998 | 2.36 | -0.7 |
1999 | 2.48 | 5.2 |
2000 | 2.65 | 6.7 |
2001 | 2.54 | -4.2 |
2002 | 2.38 | -6.0 |
2003 | 2.73 | 14.3 |
2004 | 3.46 | 26.8 |
2005 | 3.92 | 13.3 |
2006 | 4.45 | 13.5 |
2007 | 5.08 | 14.3 |
2008 | 5.28 | 4.0 |
2009 | 5.17 | -2.2 |
2010 | 5.78 | 11.8 |
2011 | 6.29 | 8.9 |
Source:
(i) Bureau of Immigration Government of India, for 1997-2010
(ii) Ministry of Tourism, Government of India, for 2011
The Foreign Tourist Arrival were high during the period of 2003-04 because of the launch of the Campaign named “Incredible India” Growth rate was low during 2008-09, because of the Global Economic Recession.
Table 2
Foreign Exchange Earnings (FEE) (in US million dollars)
For tourism in India, 1997-2011
Year | FEE (in US million dollars) | Percentage (%) change over the previous year. |
1997 | 2889 | 2.0 |
1998 | 2948 | 2.0 |
1999 | 3009 | 2.1 |
2000 | 3460 | 15.0 |
2001 | 3198 | -7.6 |
2002 | 3103 | -3.0 |
2003 | 4463 | 43.8 |
2004 | 6170 | 38.2 |
2005 | 7493 | 21.4 |
2006 | 8634 | 15.2 |
2007 | 10729 | 24.3 |
2008 | 11832 | 10.3 |
2009 | 11136 | -5.9 |
2010 | 14193 | 27.5 |
2011 | 16564 | 16.7 |
Table 3
Foreign Exchange Earnings (FEE) (in Rs. Crores)
from tourism in India, 1997-2011
Year | FEE from tourism in India (Rs. in Crores) | Percentage (%) change over the previous year. |
1997 | 10511 | 4.6 |
1998 | 12150 | 15.6 |
1999 | 12951 | 6.6 |
2000 | 15626 | 20.7 |
2001 | 15083 | -3.5 |
2002 | 15064 | -0.1 |
2003 | 20729 | 37.6 |
2004 | 27944 | 34.8 |
2005 | 33123 | 18.5 |
2006 | 39025 | 17.8 |
2007 | 44360 | 13.7 |
2008 | 51294 | 15.6 |
2009 | 53700 | 4.7 |
2010 | 64889 | 20.8 |
2011 | 77591 | 19.6 |
Table 4
Comparative Study of Top 10 Source Countries for Foreign Tourist Arrivals in India
(FTA in million)
| 2011 | 2010 | 2009 | 2008 | 2007 | 2006 | 2005 | 2004 | 2003 | 2002 |
USA | 1.004 | 0.931 | 0.803 | 0.828 | 0.799 | 0.697 | 0.651 | 0.526 | 0.411 | 0.348 |
UK | 0.791 | 0.759 | 0.749 | 0.787 | 0.796 | 0.734 | 0.611 | 0.556 | 0.431 | 0.388 |
Bangladesh | 0.399 | 0.432 | 0.458 | 0.540 | 0.480 | | - | - | - | - |
Sri Lanka | 0.305 | 0.266 | 0.241 | 0.229 | 0.204 | 0.154 | 0.136 | 0.128 | 0.109 | 0.108 |
Canada | 0.255 | 0.242 | 0.221 | 0.224 | 0.208 | 0.176 | 0.158 | 0.136 | 0.107 | 0.093 |
Germany | 0.253 | 0.228 | 0.194 | 0.209 | 0.184 | 0.157 | 0.120 | 0.117 | 0.077 | 0.065 |
France | 0.237 | 0.225 | 0.195 | 0.218 | 0.205 | 0.175 | 0.152 | 0.132 | 0.098 | 0.078 |
Malaysia | 0.218 | 0.179 | 0.134 | 0.119 | 0.113 | 0.107 | 0.096 | 0.084 | 0.071 | 0.064 |
Japan | 0.189 | 0.168 | 0.124 | 0.151 | 0.146 | 0.119 | 0.103 | 0.096 | 0.077 | 0.059 |
Australia | 0.186 | 0.170 | 0.149 | 0.148 | 0.136 | 0.110 | 0.096 | 0.082 | 0.058 | 0.051 |
Total of Top 10 | 3.387 | 3.601 | 3.268 | 3.453 | 3.271 | 2.429 | 2.123 | 1.857 | 1.439 | 1.254 |
Others | 2.453 | 2.174 | 1.840 | 1.914 | 1.810 | 2.015 | 0.362 | 0.319 | 0.064 | 0.021 |
All Countries | 6.290 | 5.775 | 5.108 | 5.367 | 5.081 | 4.444 | 2.485 | 2.176 | 1.503 | 1.275 |
Table 5
Number of Indian National Departures from India
Year | No. of Outbound Visits (in Million) | Percentage (%) change over the previous year. |
1997 | 3.73 | 7.6 |
1998 | 3.81 | 2.3 |
1999 | 4.11 | 8.0 |
2000 | 4.42 | 7.3 |
2001 | 4.56 | 3.4 |
2002 | 4.94 | 8.2 |
2003 | 5.35 | 8.3 |
2004 | 6.21 | 16.1 |
2005 | 7.18 | 15.6 |
2006 | 8.34 | 16.1 |
2007 | 9.78 | 17.3 |
2008 | 10.87 | 11.1 |
2009 | 11.07 | 1.8 |
2010 | 12.99 | 17.4 |
2011 | 14.21 | 9.4 |
Table 6
Number of Domestic Tourist Visits to all States/ UTs in India, 1997-2011
Year | No. of Domestic Tourist Visits (in million) to States/ UTs | Percentage (%) change over the previous year. |
1997 | 159.88 | 14.1 |
1998 | 168.20 | 5.2 |
1999 | 190.67 | 13.4 |
2000 | 220.11 | 15.4 |
2001 | 236.47 | 7.4 |
2002 | 269.60 | 14.0 |
2003 | 309.04 | 14.6 |
2004 | 366.27 | 18.5 |
2005 | 392.01 | 7.0 |
2006 | 462.32 | 17.9 |
2007 | 526.56 | 13.9 |
2008 | 563.03 | 6.9 |
2009 | 668.80 | 18.8 |
2010 | 747.70 | 11.8 |
2011 | 850.86 | 13.8 |
Table 7
Number of Foreign Tourist Visits to all States/ UTs in India, 1997-2011
Year | No. of Foreign Tourist Visits (in million) to States/ UTs | Percentage (%) change over the previous year. |
1997 | 5.50 | 9.3 |
1998 | 5.54 | 0.7 |
1999 | 5.83 | 5.3 |
2000 | 5.89 | 1.1 |
2001 | 5.44 | -7.8 |
2002 | 5.16 | -5.1 |
2003 | 6.71 | 30.1 |
2004 | 8.36 | 24.6 |
2005 | 9.95 | 19.0 |
2006 | 11.74 | 18.0 |
2007 | 13.26 | 12.9 |
2008 | 14.38 | 8.5 |
2009 | 14.37 | -0.1 |
2010 | 17.91 | 24.6 |
2011 | 19.49 | 8.8 |
Table 8
Share of India in International Tourist Arrivals in World, and Asia & the Pacific Region, 1997-2011
Year | International Tourist Arrivals (in million) | FTA in India (in million) | Percentage (%) share an rank of India in World | Percentage (%) share an rank of India in Asia and the Pacific |
| World | Asia and the Pacific | | % Share | Rank | % Share | Rank |
1997 | 593.0 | 89.0 | 2.37 | 0.40 | - | 2.67 | - |
1998 | 611.0 | 88.3 | 2.36 | 0.39 | 47th | 2.67 | - |
1999 | 633.8 | 97.6 | 2.48 | 0.39 | 46th | 2.54 | - |
2000 | 683.3 | 109.3 | 2.65 | 0.39 | 50th | 2.42 | 11th |
2001 | 683.4 | 114.5 | 2.54 | 0.37 | 51st | 2.22 | 12th |
2002 | 703.2 | 123.4 | 2.38 | 0.34 | 54th | 1.93 | 12th |
2003 | 691.0 | 111.9 | 2.73 | 0.39 | 51st | 2.44 | 11th |
2004 | 762.0 | 143.4 | 3.46 | 0.45 | 44th | 2.41 | 11th |
2005 | 803.4 | 154.6 | 3.92 | 0.49 | 43rd | 2.53 | 11th |
2006 | 846.0 | 166.0 | 4.45 | 0.53 | 44th | 2.68 | 11th |
2007 | 894.0 | 182.0 | 5.08 | 0.57 | 41st | 2.79 | 11th |
2008 | 917.0 | 184.1 | 5.28 | 0.58 | 41st | 2.87 | 11th |
2009 | 883.0 | 181.1 | 5.17 | 0.59 | 41st | 2.85 | 11th |
2010 | 940.0 | 204.4 | 5.78 | 0.61 | 42nd | 2.83 | 11th |
2011 | 983.0 | 217.0 | 6.29 | 0.64 | 38th | 2.90 | 9th |
Sources:
(i) UNWTO Tourism Market Trends 2007 edition for the years upto 2005
(ii) UNWTO Barometer June 2010 for 2006 and January 2011 for 2007
(iii) UNWTO Highlights for 2011 Edition for 2008 and 2012 Edition for 2009, 2010 and 2011
Table 9
Share of India in International Tourist Receipts in World, and Asia & the Pacific Region, 1997-2011
Year | International Tourist Receipts (in US $ billion) | FEE in India (in US $ billion) | Percentage (%) share an rank of India in World | Percentage (%) share an rank of India in Asia and the Pacific |
| World | Asia and the Pacific | | % Share | Rank | % Share | Rank |
1997 | 442.8 | 82.6 | 2.889 | 0.65 | - | 3.50 | - |
1998 | 444.8 | 72.3 | 2.948 | 0.66 | 34th | 4.08 | - |
1999 | 458.2 | 79.1 | 3.009 | 0.66 | 35th | 3.80 | - |
2000 | 475.3 | 85.3 | 3.460 | 0.73 | 36th | 4.06 | 10th |
2001 | 463.8 | 88.1 | 3.198 | 0.69 | 36th | 3.63 | 12th |
2002 | 481.9 | 96.5 | 3.103 | 0.64 | 37th | 3.22 | 13th |
2003 | 529.3 | 93.7 | 4.463 | 0.84 | 37th | 4.76 | 9th |
2004 | 633.2 | 124.1 | 6.170 | 0.97 | 26th | 4.97 | 8th |
2005 | 679.6 | 135.0 | 7.493 | 1.10 | 22nd | 5.55 | 7th |
2006 | 744.0 | 156.9 | 8.634 | 1.16 | 22nd | 5.50 | 7th |
2007 | 857.0 | 187.0 | 10.729 | 1.25 | 22nd | 5.74 | 6th |
2008 | 939.0 | 208.6 | 11.832 | 1.26 | 22nd | 5.67 | 6th |
2009 | 853.0 | 204.2 | 11.136 | 1.31 | 20th | 5.45 | 7th |
2010 | 927.0 | 255.3 | 14.193 | 1.53 | 17th | 5.56 | 7th |
2011 | 1030.0 | 289.4 | 16.564 | 1.61 | 17th | 5.72 | 8th |
Sources:
(i) UNWTO Tourism Market Trends 2007 edition for the years upto 2005
(ii) UNWTO Barometer June 2010 for 2006 and January 2011 for 2007
(iii) UNWTO Highlights for 2011 Edition for 2008 and 2012 Edition for 2009, 2010 and 2011
IMPORTANT FACTS:
(i) India
Particulars | 2011 | 2010 | 2009 | 2008 | 2007 |
No. of Foreign Tourist Arrivals in IndiaAnnual Growth Rate | 6.31M9.2% | 5.78M11.8% | 5.11M-3.3% | 5.37M5.6% | 5.08M14.3% |
No. of Indian National Departures from India Annual Growth Rate | 13.99M7.7% | 12.99M17.4% | 11.07M1.8% | 10.87M11.1% | 9.78%17.3% |
No. of Domestic Tourist Visits Annual Growth Rate | 850.86M13.80% | 740.21M10.7% | 650.04M15.5% | 562.92M6.9% | 526.56M13.9% |
Foreign Exchange Earnings from Tourism (i) In INR Terms Annual Growth Rate (ii) In US $ terms Annual Growth Rate | 77,591C19.6%16.56B16.7% | 64,889C18.1%14.19B24.6% | 54,960C8.3%11.39B-3.0% | 50,730C14.4%11.75B9.5% | 44,360C13.7%10.73B24.3% |
Foreign Tourist Arrival by Mode of Transport (i) Air (ii) Land (iii) Sea | 88.4%11.0%0.6% | 91.8%7.5%0.7% | 89.8%9.2%1.0% | 89.1%10.2%0.7% | 88.4%11.0%0.6% |
(ii) World
Particulars | 2011 | 2010 | 2009 | 2008 | 2007 |
No. of International Tourist Arrivals Annual Growth Rate | 990M5.0% | 940M6.6% | 880M-4.2% | 922M2.0% | 903M6.6% |
International Tourism ReceiptsAnnual Growth Rate | 1030B11.1% | 919B8.0% | 852B-9.5% | 944B10.2% | 856B15.4% |
(iii) Asia & the Pacific Region
Particulars | 2011 | 2010 | 2009 | 2008 | 2007 |
No. of International Tourist Arrivals Annual Growth Rate | 217.0M6.1% | 203.8M12.7% | 181.6M-1.3% | 184.1M1.2% | 184.310.4% |
International Tourism ReceiptsAnnual Growth Rate | 289.4B13.4% | 248.7B22.4% | 203.2B-2.7% | 207.6B11.0% | 188.920.7% |
(iv) India’s Position in the World
Particulars | 2011 | 2010 | 2009 | 2008 | 2007 |
Share of India in International Tourist Arrivals | 0.64% | 0.61% | 0.58% | 0.58% | 0.56% |
India’s rank in World Tourist Arrivals | 38 | 40 | 41 | 41 | 42 |
Share of India in International Tourism Receipts | 1.61% | 1.54% | 1.20% | 1.24% | 1.25% |
India’s Rank in World Tourism Receipts | 17 | 17 | 22 | 23 | 20 |
(v) India’s Position in Asia and the Pacific Region
Particulars | 2011 | 2010 | 2009 | 2008 | 2007 |
Share of India in Tourist Arrivals | 2.90% | 2.83% | 2.81% | 2.92% | 2.76% |
India’s rank in Tourist Arrivals | 9 | 11 | 11 | 11 | 11 |
Share of India in Tourism Receipts | 5.72% | 5.71% | 5.22% | 5.66% | 5.68% |
India’s Rank in Tourism Receipts | 8 | 6 | 6 | 6 | 6 |
M: Million
B: Billion
C: Crores
Factors Affecting Growth of Tourism Sector of Indian Economy: [29]
* Technological Advancement
* Increase in General Income level of the populace.
* Aggressive advertisement campaigns on the tourist destinations
* Better Communication, transport and safety measures.
* Rapid growth of the Indian Economy.
* Increasing prosperity, families with double income and DINK (Double income no kids) couples.
* Paid Holidays with LTCs/LTAs (Leave travel concessions/ Leave travel allowance)
* Advances in transport and communication
* Rising education levels and the desire to travel, etc.
* Economic and Political stability from last 10 years.
On the other hand, the recent economic recession and terrorist threats have led to decrease in travel.
However, Tourism is an industry which needs comparatively little investment and can bring high returns. The Government is trying to promote India as a global destination through the ‘Incredible India’ campaign. In the absence of threats to peace, peace, economic stability, tourism can continue to grow and we hope it will grow and remove disparities of income.
These are some suggestions India can take to improve tourism:
* Raise awareness of tourism and create the desire to travel.
* Develop sources for tourism like South Africa, Israel, Spain, China, etc., which do not send many tourists from India. Develop tourism among NRIs and PIOs.
* Maintain and increase the per capita spending of tourists.
* Reduce seasonality by developing new markets
* Try to extend the length of stay in India.
* Emphasize leisure tourism, business tourism and culinary tourism, which earn a lot of money.
* Besides these, air travelling, budget hotels, and other facilities for tourists should be set up all over the nation.
1.4 NEGATIVE IMPACTS OF TOURISM
The negative impacts of tourism can be summarised under three aspects:[30]
1
A) Economic Effects:
Successful tourism relies on establishing a basic infrastructure, such as roads, visitor centres and hotels. The cost of this usually falls on the government, so it has to come out of tax revenues. Jobs created by tourism are often seasonal and poorly paid, yet tourism can push up local property prices and the cost of goods and services. Money generated by tourism does not always benefit the local community, as some of it leaks out to huge international companies, such as hotel chains. Destinations dependent on tourism can be adversely affected by events such as terrorism, natural disasters and economic recession.
B) Social Effects:[30]
Visitor behaviour can have a detrimental effect on the quality of life of the host community. For example, crowding and congestion, drugs and alcohol problems, prostitution and increased crime levels can occur. Tourism can even infringe on human rights, with locals being displaced from their land to make way for new hotels or barred from beaches. Interaction with tourists can also lead to an erosion of traditional cultures and values.
The two major issues that require the need of Sociologists: [31]
* There is a need for many more multi-disciplinary studies where sociologists can contribute the insights of their discipline to the study of particular aspects of the tourist phenomenon or to the analysis of tourism in specific countries and regions. Here, there is a clear need for work to examine the social carrying capacity of destinations; work which must be closely linked to community-based models of tourism planning.
* The quantification of the socio-economic costs and benefits of tourism requires the joint efforts of sociologists and economists. At present this work is being carried out almost entirely by economists, who are not always in the best position to identify all of the phenomena requiring quantification or the appropriate weightage to apply to each.
C) Environmental Effects:[30]
Tourism poses a threat to a region's natural and cultural resources, such as water supply, beaches, coral reefs and heritage sites, through overuse. It also causes increased pollution through traffic emissions, littering, increased sewage production and noise.
Negative Impacts of tourism on INDIA…. [32]
If not well planned and controlled, tourism may generate negative impacts or reduce the feasibility of multiplier effect on local economy. Let us briefly look at some of these.
a) Loss of Potential Economic Benefits :
Tourism is a capital intensive industry and no local involvement is possible at that level. So the large resources, required for immediate tourist facilities, airport, services roads, bridges, sewage and electricity are brought in either by government or private enterprises. Unexposed villagers suddenly find themselves in large scale external visitations and changes in which they have no say.
Loss of potential economic benefits to the local areas can occur and local resentments are generated if many tourist facilities are owned and managed by outsiders. Also, local elites can be created if tourist facilities and services are owned and managed by only a few local persons or families, with most of the community receiving minimal or no benefits. However, there may be few alternatives to outside ownership during the initial stages of development, if local capital is very limited. Potential foreign exchange earnings are reduced when imported goods and services are utilized in tourism.
b) Economic and Employment Distortions :
Economic distortions can take place geographically, if tourism is concentrated m only one area or a few areas of a country or region, without corresponding development in other places. Resentment by residents in the under developed areas may ensue from this situation. Even within tourism areas, there may be resentment against persons earning relatively good income in tourism by those who are unemployed or have lower income jobs.
Employment distortions maybe created if tourism attracts employees from other economic sectors such as agriculture and fisheries, because of its higher wages and perhaps more desirable working conditions, if there is not an overall surplus of workers available. There may be resentment by residents if migrant workers are brought into works in tourism, especially if they stay on after they are no longer needed. It also leads to loss of potential economic benefits. If expatriate managers and technical staff are employed in tourism, at much higher wages than local scale, there may be resentment by local, less skilled workers, in addition to the loss of potential economic benefits.
Considering that the tourism industry is seasonal it inevitably results in underemployment, unemployment and social unrest. Employment in the hotel industry has its own patterns. According to the hotel industry's own calculations every hotel room built at an average estimated cost of Rs. 3.5 lakhs provides direct employment to three persons and indirectly for an additional six only. Even if we take both categories together the cost works out to Rs. 30,000 per job as against an estimated Rs. 12,000 in the small scale sector. The present day growth of tourism therefore transfers a country's resources from weaker sectors of the economy to the tourism sector which also displaces people from their traditional occupations.
As is evident from the pattern in Goa and Orissa, instead of providing a boost to employment, increasing tourism has actually led to a loss of employment. Some recent researches have informed that the percentage of fisheries displaced into urban sources of livelihood in Goa stood at a staggering 75%.
The luxury oriented tourism industry world wide also features control by outsiders and the marginalization of the locals. Since resort tourism demands huge tracts of land for sports, golf-courses, car-parks and gardens, lands are bought by outsiders who can afford to buy sites at high prices. In Goa when the locals were unwilling to sell their land, the government acquired it for tourism development. Another problem here is that in many cases these outsiders are not sensitive to the local ecology, environment and community sentiments.
c) Inflation and Loss of Amenities for Residents :
Inflation is another direct result of the coming of tourism to an area. Foreign tourists pay for many overvalued goods and services quite gladly since they are cheaper than the same goods in their own countries. In Goa, Alphones mangoes, cashew nuts and certain kinds of fish are out of the reach of the average Goans. The nigh prices radiate citywide and stabilize all over. Similarly if there is over crowding of amenity features, shopping and community facilities and congestions of transportation systems by tourists, residents cannot conveniently use them and will become resentful of tourism. Hill stations like Shimla and Nainital are examples of this kind. Prices shoot up during the tourist season overcrowding of parking place and water shortage is also there.
If local features such as beaches are closed off to the local population and maintained for the exclusive use of tourists, residents lose access to their own amenities and can become hostile towards tourism. This situation aggrevates if physical barriers, such as fences are imposed between residents and tourists. Similarly, like electricity, roads and water supply, the infrastructure is tailored to the requirements of foreigners and local elites and escapes the common people entirely. For example, while daily flights bring tourists to Khajuraho, the villagers walk a long distance to get their wood or water. The tourists have all the facilities in the luxurious hotels whereas the villagers don't have water supply and electricity.
In Goa the water level has fallen far below the reach of the village wells since the deep wells of the hotels keep pumping up water for their pools and lush green lawns. Along with that the hotels are ensured 24 hours water supply and water in tanks. A 50% concession has been given for the hotels' water and electricity bills. Accute shortage of water means rationing for all tourist cities be it Panjim or Ooty but not for these hotels. Besides large hotels prevent smaller establishments by locals to come up near their projects. In one case at least, a hotel has prevented electrification of an area to keep out competition. It is in this.sense that instead of incurring facilities and amenities, tourism can also sometimes prevent the growth of such facilities.
d) Fluctuations in Productivity Index :
Tourism is seasonal and depends on climatic changes, international and domestic political situations, and general world economy. Therefore, the productivity index of the industry as a whole is reduced during the off season particularly to the investors, and in general to the national economy.
The products of tourism are 'perishable' services, which can not be saved for future sale. If there is no tourist for a room, it goes 'waste' for that day. The activities of many subsidiary industries which supply the needs of tourism, fishing for instance, will have to be reduced.
The after effects of the epedemic in Surat or the rise of militancy in certain regions could be seen on the tourism industry all over India. One can understand the plight of those who provide subsidiary services or whose earnings are linked with tourism. The worst hit in such situations are the poor.
e) Cultural Impact :
Over commercialization and loss of authencity of traditional arts and crafts, customs and ceremonies can result if these are over modified to suit tourist demands. For example important traditional dance and work performances, some of which may have religious significance, being greatly shortened and changed to fit tourists' tastes and schedules. Similarly, traditional high quality handicrafts are being mass produced to provide tourist souveniors. This situation often results from the insensitivity or lack of understanding on the part of the 'cultural brokers' for tour operators or handicraft organisers, whether foreign or local, who are not concerned about cultural purity or authenticity.
In extreme cases, there may be a loss of cultural character, self-respect, and overall social identity because of submergence of the local society by the outside cultural patterns of seemingly more affluent and successful tourists. Deterioration of cultural monuments and loss of cultural ante pets may result from uncontrolled use and misuse by tourists.
f) Impact on the environment:
The various types of negative or undesirable environmental impacts are generated by tourism as beneficiaries try to exploit the nature without investing in its conservation. Not all these negative impacts are likely to take place in one area because of the types of impact often depend on the kind of tourism developed and the specific environmental characteristics of the tourism area. The scale of tourism development in relation to the carrying capacity of the environment greatly influences the extent of environmental impacts.
v) Water Pollution :
If a proper sewage disposal system has not been installed for hotels, resorts and other tourist facilities, there may be pollution of ground water from the sewage, or if a sewage outfall has been construded into a nearby river, lake or coastal sea water and the sewage has not been adequately treated, the effluent will pollute that water area. This situation is common in beach resort areas where the hotels construct an outfall into the adjacent water area which can also be used for swimming by tourists or for fishing by locals. Recreational and tourist transportation motor boats in surface water result in pollution in river, lakes and sea water due to spilling oil and gas and cleaning their bilge in water. This is usually common in enclosed harbor and places where natural water circulation is slow.
vi) Air Pollution :
Tourism is generally considered a "smokeless industry." But it can also result in air pollution by tourist vehicles in a particular area, especially at major attraction sites, that are accessible only by road. This is due to improperly maintained exhaust systems of the vehicles. Also, pollution in the form of dust and dirt in the air may be generated from open, devegetated area if the tourism development is not properly planned, developed and landscaped or is in an interim state of construction.
vii) Noise Pollution :
Noise generated by a concentration of tourists road and certain types of tourist attractions such as amusement parks or car/motorcycle race tracks may reach uncomfortable and irritating levels for nearby residents and other tourists. Such loud noise can often result in ear damage and also a psychological stress.
viii) Visual Pollution :
It may result from several sources. These can be due to poorly- designed hotels and other facility buildings which are not compatible with local architectural style or not well integrated into the natural environment. Other reasons can be poor maintenance of buildings and landscaping obstruction of scenic views by development use of large and ugly advertising signs. Littering of landscape also results in visual pollution.
ix) Waste Disposal Problems :
The most common problem in tourism areas is the littering of debris on the landscape. This is due to large number of people using the area of picnicking. Improper disposal of solid waste from hotel restaurants, and resorts generate both litter and environmental health problems from vermin, disease and pollution. It can also lead to the degradation of tourist sites.
1.5 ROLE AND IMPORTANCE OF TOURISM
ROLE OF TOURISM:
Tourism plays an important role in economic development and creation of jobs in India. The Approach paper of the 12th Five Year Plan prepared by Planning Commission highlights the need to adopt “Pro-Poor tourism” for increasing net benefits to poor and ensuring that tourism growth contributes to poverty reduction. Tourism plays a key role socio-economic progress through creation of jobs, enterprise, infrastructure and revenue earnings. The Planning Commission has identified tourism as the second largest sector in the country in providing employment opportunities for low skilled workers.
The role of tourism is as follows:
a) Providers of Jobs:
Tourism is a leading industry in the service sector at the global level as well as national level. It is a major provider of jobs. Tourism has become one of the largest and fastest growing industries in the global economy. For every INR, 1 million of investment, the number of jobs created is as follows:
Industry: 18%
Agriculture: 45%
Travel and Tourism: 78%
b) Instrument for Economic development:
Tourism is a major social phenomenon of the modern society with enormous economic consequences. It is an important instrument for economic development and employment generations, particularly in remote and backward areas in a positive step for poverty eradication and overall development.
c) Contribute to GDP:
Some of the significant features of India’s tourism industry or the role or the importance of Tourism Industry in India’s GDP has been listed below:
i) Tourism is the largest service industry in India, about 5.92% of the country’s GDP comes from tourism and it provides employment over 9.24% of the country’s workforce.
ii) India witnesses’ more than 5 million annual foreign tourist’s arrivals (FTA) and 562 million domestic tourism visits. During the year 2011, the number of FTA in India reached the level of 6.29 million, registering a growth of 8.9 % over the FTA of 5.78 million in 2010. The Growth rate of 8.9% in 2011 for India is better than the UNWTO’s projected growth rate of 4% to 5% for the world in 2011 and 7% to 9% for Asia and the Pacific.
iii) The tourism industry in India generated about US $ 100 billion foreign exchange earnings in the year 2008 and during 2011 it was US $ 16.56 billion as compared to US $ 14.19 billion in 2010, showing a growth of 16.7% and that is expected to increase to US $ 275.50 Billion by 2018 at a 9.40% annual growth rate.
iv) The role of Tourism Industry in India’s GDP also features medical tourism that include traditional therapies like Yoga, meditation, Ayurveda, Allopathy and other conventional system of medicines.
d) Generates Revenue to Government:
In the Union Budget 2011-2012, Service Tax on the air travel was hiked by INR 50 for domestic travel and INR 250 for international travel, in the economy class. For higher classes, it would be a flat 10%. The Service tax widened to include in its overview hotel accommodation above INR 1000 per day; air conditioned restaurants servicing liquor and some categories of hospitals and diagnostic tests thus generate revenue to the government.
e) Promotes Investment:
The Government of India has from time to time introduced tax deductions and incentives for investments in the sector. In its UNION BUDGET 2010-11, it introduced an investment linked deduction benefit, for new hotels, in the “2-Star” category and above, anywhere in India. Is it to figure under Section 30/35 of the IT Act, 1961. Tax deduction would be on the ‘Profits linked to investments’. This would induce investment in new projects in the hospitality segment, create more hotel rooms, and boost employment rates, a positive development indeed.
f) Better Infrastructure:
In order to boost tourism R&D breakthroughs have evident in terms of better infrastructure being made available to the discerning traveller. World class airports, passenger handling systems, better air, road, and rail. Connectivity, more user friendly hotel rooms and convention facilities well-appointed knowledge papers and articles in niche areas of tourism in India and online portals boosting traveller’s interest in diverse spheres, have entrusted tourists.
g) Regional development:
In the year 2011, 5.11 million foreign tourists visited India. Majority of the foreign tourists come from USA and UK. Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra, Delhi, Uttar Pradesh and Rajasthan were top states to receive inbound tourists. Domestic Tourism was massive at 650 million.
h) Changes in Hospitality Sector
The booming success of Indian Tourism industry has led to a domestic change in the hospitality development as well. The increase in the ratio of tourists have resulted in the increase of room rates and also setting up of a wide range of hotels and other residing areas. A number of international hotels such as the Hilton, Accor, Marriott International, Cabana Hotels, and Premier Travel Inn and Inter-Continental hotel groups have professed about making some large scale investments to appeal 65000 additional rooms to suffice the needs. India is most likely to set up forty hotels of global brands by 2011. The hospitality sector in India is assumed to reach 11.41 billion US dollars in coming two years.
i) Promotes Health and Care Facilities:
Healthcare tourism is on the rise in India. Visitors can avail several private healthcare facilities. The number of tourists visiting India for medical treatment is expected to reach one million by 2012 representing a CAGR of 28.09% since 2007.
j) Technological Advancement:
The Indian tourism industry offers online booking system, one of the basic proofs of technological advancement in this sector. These online bookings are applicable for booking the air tickets via Internet by logging on to the website and also booking the hotel room of the place to be visited. The online tourism industry has accounted for a turnover of 800 million US dollars which is apparently 14% of the entire travel and tourism industry.
IMPORTANCE OF TOURISM:
Tourism as an industry is very important for every country all over the world. Travel Industry can be best defined as that part of the national economies caters to a traveller who is visiting places outside his residence locality. There are many countries in the world, whose economy is fully dependent on tourism. It is one of the largest industries in the world. The Industry generates approximately 7,000,000 million dollars of total revenue worldwide. Travel and tourism employment, investment and output and value added exceed those of such major industries such as steel, automobiles, textiles, and electronic in virtually every country. Tourism hence, today is a great economic force as well as it can be said that in addition to this is a cultural and social force.
Pandit Jawahar Lal Nehru, the Late Prime Minister of India has once said,” we must welcome these friendly visitors from abroad for economic reasons, as tourism brings foreign exchange but even more so because it leads to greater understanding and mutual appreciation.
Some important impact areas of tourism are as follows:
a) Social Importance of Tourism:
In tourism there are variety of social relationships, hence, its importance are as follows:
i) Relationship between the tourists as an individual or a member of group and the social network such as family, neighbour, where the tourist is seen as a representative of the home reference group.
ii) Social relations of the tourist group itself, its composition, it’s tour programme and relations with other groups it encounters.
iii) Guest host relations including those who serve the industry and host population at the destination.
iv) When the tourists come into contact with the places he visits and its population, a social exchange takes place. His social background affects the social structure and mode of life of his destination, he is in turn affected by it and sometimes carries back home with him new habits and way of life. Travel experiences often are among the most outstanding memories in the traveller.
v) The early motivation of travel is regarded as cultural and tourism is been a carrier for the cultural propagation, which is necessary for a deeper understanding of people and broadening of knowledge.
vi) Tourism helps in human being satisfying their basic urge to know the cultural aspect of other people and since tourism is considered about the movement of people, it gives more opportunity of communication between different cultures.
vii) The aspirations of people to know about the work of art (painting, architecture, sculpture, etc.), history and heritage, food, clothing, religion, way of living, etc is achieved by the act of touring.
Tourism has always stood as carrier for social and cultural promotion.
b) Economic Impact of Tourism:
As per Andra Siegfried “travel is the fourth dimension of modern economics” one of the most important aspects of tourism is foreign exchange earnings for the countries.”
The economic importance of tourism is as under:
i) Tourism is one of the most important aspects for developing countries.
ii) Both domestic and international tourism must be considered to evaluate the impact of tourism on the economy.
iii) To the host region, area, travel provides, a basis for developing tourism as an export industry, which means that the level of economic activities of the area shall increase through the sale of products and services to the tourists.
iv) Tourism provides foreign exchange without exporting anything out of the country and it provides more stable earnings for the country than any other industry.
v) It increases export earnings and a rate of growth of the economy.
vi) The income is the form of foreign exchange earnings from an invisible exports helps in offsetting the losses, if any, which the country may have from a visible export.
vii) This balance of payments may also be defined as “a statement of income and expenditure on International accounts”
viii) Payments and receipts on international account are of three kinds:
* Visible Balance of Trade (relating to the export and import of goods and commodities manufactured)
* Invisible Items (relating to services such as transport, shipping, banking, and Insurance)
* Capital Transfers
ix) Apart from revenue increase the tourism also has impact on employment generation.
x) Accelerate the development of the area.
xi) The amount of visitor’s expenditure that remains in an area and provides source of income to residents and business is called direct effect and his money is further paid to suppliers, wages of workers and other items used in producing the products and services purchased by the visitors is secondary effect.
xii) Tourism and tax earnings : the government of almost all countries have always vested interest in the financial gains through tourism industry.
xiii) Depending upon the tax and fiscal policies government derives substantial income from tourism industries and direct and indirect taxes levied on different forms of income and economic activities.
xiv) The infrastructural development of the country is another important benefit of tourism. Although the investment made in a country on the infrastructure either by the government or private sector (whichever as the case may be as per the policy of the government) may be attributed and expenditure towards tourism sector, productive infrastructure development such as in airport, railway transport facilities and roads, etc are basically done at the government level. But at the same time hotels, markets, and other accommodation sector infrastructure development is done mainly on private sector to promote and encourage for greater economic diversification which represents the foundation of any future economic growth of a country.
c) Cultural Importance of Tourism:
Tourism is a big motivator for the promotion of culture and spreads the cultural values of the host country to the visitors. Culture of a country includes various things such as life style, music, dance, food, architecture, art and many other such things. Tourism helps in spreading all these to various parts of the world. India is one country which has very old and rich heritage and culture and is probably the only country with diversified culture. Properly planned it can be the biggest tourism asset of India. Tourism is a cultural expression which covers education, recreating and hobbies, etc which competes for time, money and efforts and provides aspiration or compensatory satisfaction. It is a part of “the management of leisure time”.
d) Importance of Tourism as Regional Development:
Regional development is another very important aspect of impact of tourism. The more the region or area is visited by the tourists (both domestic and international) the more the area or region to be developed, and thus development has be in all fields and sector, be it historical places, hotels, picnic spots, roads or airports, railway connections and environment, etc. Every country has many such regions which may be full of natural beauty, cultural and heritage attractions.
It is important to note that only these areas have been developed but at the same time this has resulted in development of areas around them, employment for local people, cottage industries, more shops, hotels and other such development have taken place in these areas.
e) Educational Importance of Tourism:
Not only in the present age, tourism has always been of great importance for education. Many such example of university such as Taxila and Nalanda, etc are there in India and also like Alexandria and Greece have been centres of education in ancient times. Even in modern times educational tourism is important. Study tours, short times, and sandwich courses in foreign universities, educational exchange programmes such as for Commonwealth countries and scholarship programmes under UNDP are part and parcel of International Tourism resulting in better knowledge about the host countries.
f) Importance of tourism in Image Building:
Tourism helps in building of image of a country. The historical places and monuments, etc. form a good image while at the same time the way they are maintained their approach roads (which if are poorly maintained), the inadequate transport facilities, poor accommodation facilities, etc. might project a bad image. The age old culture and religion and heritage may project a good image while the greedy priests and beggars and touts at such places will project a negative image. It is the job of not only the department of tourism to project a positive image abroad of India through tourist officer, farm tours, and briefing tours, but also of every Indian abroad do the same and also at the same time every citizen of India who comes in contact with foreign tourist to project a healthy image, dignity of country.
g) Importance of tourism for employment:
Tourism is a man power intensive process and one of the major direct economic effects of tourism related to employment. It provides both direct and indirect employment to skilled and unskilled people. Jobs which are in tourism industry economic sector are in industries such as hospitality (accommodation sector) transportation and travel agencies, etc.
In addition to those involved in jobs of skilled and semi-skilled and unskilled nature such as waiters, cooks, chamber maids, porters, drivers and gardeners, etc., a large number of workers such as managers, marketing and sales executive travel agencies staff and accountants, etc are also engaged in tourism industry.
Other supporting industries and business such as handicraft, cottage and textile industry which may be small or large and which may be catering to tourist industry directly or indirectly such as bank or communication industry also offer great job to people. Hence, tourism brings more employment opportunities in underdeveloped or developing countries.
It is estimated that accommodation sector involves more than 50% of the employment tourism industry. World Tourism Organisation estimates approximately 11-12 million persons employed in accommodation sector alone. It is also estimated that nearly 8 to 10 percent of working population is estimated to be employed in tourism industry.
h) Tourism importance for National Understanding and International Goodwill:
It is important particularly for developing nations to frame tourism promotion policies and tourism is a greater promoter of national understanding. Further the interactions of large number of people especially foreign tourist who come in contact with local population who are not only providing services and products to tourist but are good provider of the way of living and culture to them by their friendly and courteous behaviour. People from all over the world speaking different languages, with different lifestyles comes close to each other breaking down prejudices, barriers and suspections that exists between their nations. Tourism is a vehicle for international understanding by the way of bringing diverse people face to face.
i) Importance of tourism for Environment:
Apart from other impacts tourism has also spill over benefits such as preservation of environment which covers up area of historical sites and cultural values. Careful cleaning and beautifying of historical places through care tourism development. Environment has acquired a broad definition and in addition to land, water, air, flora and fauna it also covers people, their creations, and social, economic and cultural conditions that affects their lives. Growing concerns of environment concern and individual quality of life is felt all over the world. Environment whether natural or man-made is an essential resource for tourism changes in environment are necessary for tourism development, but these changes need to be done aesthetically without damaging it in anyway. Awareness of the problem of environment balance as a result of growing tourism has been realized by both public and private sectors all over the world.
Conservation involves safeguarding the visual beauty of the country side and implies wise use of resources. It also means survival of animals and other living things such as flora and providing ample space for them to live, grow and breathe fresh air.
1.6 TOURISM IN THE WORLD ECONOMY [34]
Travel & Tourism is an important economic activity in most countries around the world. As well as its direct economic impact, the industry has significant indirect and induced impacts. The UN Statistics Division-approved Tourism Satellite Accounting methodology (TSA:RMF 2008) quantifies only the direct contribution of Travel & Tourism. But WTTC recognises that Travel & Tourism's total contribution is much greater, and aims to capture its indirect and induced impacts through its annual research.
Direct Contribution:
The direct contribution of Travel & Tourism to GDP reflects the ‘internal’ spending on Travel & Tourism (total spending within a particular country on Travel & Tourism by residents and non-residents for business and leisure purposes) as well as government 'individual' spending - spending by government on Travel & Tourism services directly linked to visitors, such as cultural (eg museums) or recreational (eg national parks).
The direct contribution of Travel & Tourism to GDP is calculated to be consistent with the output, as expressed in
National Accounting, of tourism-characteristic sectors such as hotels, airlines, airports, travel agents and leisure
and recreation services that deal directly with tourists.The direct contribution of Travel & Tourism to GDP is calculated from total internal spending by ‘netting out’ the purchases made by the different tourism sectors. This measure is consistent with the definition of Tourism GDP, specified in the 2008 Tourism Satellite Account: Recommended Methodological Framework (TSA: RMF 2008).
Total Contribution:
The total contribution of Travel & Tourism includes its ‘wider impacts’ (i.e. the indirect and induced impacts) on the economy. The ‘indirect’ contribution includes the GDP and jobs supported by: Travel & Tourism investment spending – an important aspect of both current and future activity that includes investment activity such as the purchase of new aircraft and construction of new hotels; Government 'collective' spending, which helps Travel & Tourism activity in many different ways as it is made on behalf of the ‘community at large’ – for example tourism marketing and promotion, aviation, administration, security services, resort area security services, resort area sanitation services, etc; Domestic purchases of goods and services by the sectors dealing directly with tourists - including, for example, purchases of food and cleaning services by hotels, of fuel and catering services by airlines, and IT services by travel agents. The ‘induced’ contribution measures the GDP and jobs supported by the spending of those who are directly or indirectly employed by the Travel & Tourism industry.
TRAVEL AND TOURISM’s CONTRIBUTION TO GDP:
The direct contribution of Travel & Tourism to GDP in 2012 was USD 2,056.60 billion (2.9% of GDP). This is forecast to rise by 3.1% to USD 2,120.40 billion in 2013.This primarily reflects the economic activity generated by industries such as hotels, travel agents, airlines and other passenger transportation services (excluding commuter services). But it also includes, for example, the activities of the restaurant and leisure industries directly supported by tourists.
The direct contribution of Travel & Tourism to GDP is expected to grow by 4.4% pa to USD 3,249.2 billion (3.1% of GDP) by 2023.
(Direct Contribution of Travel and Tourism to GDP)
The total contribution of travel and tourism to GDP was USD 6,630.40 billion in 2012 (9.3% of GDP) and is expected to grow by 3.2% to USD 6,842.0 billion (9.4% of GDP) in 2013.
It is forecast to rise by 4.4% pa to USD 10,507.10 billion by 2023 (10.0% of GDP).
(Total contribution of Travel and Tourism to GDP)
(Note: all values are in constant 2012 prices and exchange rates)
TRAVEL AND TOURISM’s CONTRIBUTION TO EMPLOYMENT:
Travel & Tourism generated 101,118,000 jobs directly in 2012 (3.4% of total employment) and this is forecast to grow by 1.2% in 2013 to 102,364,000 (3.4% of total employment).
This includes employment by hotels, travel agents, airlines and other passenger transportation services (excluding commuter services). It also includes, for example, the activities of the restaurant and leisure industries directly supported by tourists.
By 2023, Travel & Tourism will account for 125,288,000 jobs directly, an increase of 2.0% pa over the next ten years.
The total contribution of Travel & Tourism to employment was 261,394,000 jobs in 2012 (8.7% of total employment). This is forecast to raise by 1.7% in 2013 to 265,754,000 jobs (8.8% of total employment).
By 2023, Travel & Tourism is forecast to support 337,819,000 jobs (9.9% of total employment), an increase of 2.4% pa over the period.
DIFFERENT COMPONENTS OF TRAVEL AND TOURISM
Leisure travel spending (inbound and domestic) generated 76.0% of direct Travel & Tourism GDP in 2012 USD 3,222.10 billion) compared with 24.0% for business travel spending (USD 1,017.40 billion).
Leisure travel spending is expected to grow by 3.2% in 2013 to USD 3,324.10 billion, and rise by 4.6% pa to SD 5,196.00 billion in 2023.
Business travel spending is expected to grow by 3.1% in 2013 to USD 1,048.90 billion, and rise by 4.1% pa to USD 1,572.80 billion in 2023.
Domestic travel spending generated 70.7% of direct Travel & Tourism GDP in 2012 compared with 29.3% for visitor exports (i.e. foreign visitor spending or international tourism receipts).
Domestic travel spending is expected to grow by 3.2% in 2013 to USD 3,090.80 billion, and rise by 4.6% pa to USD 4,831.20 billion in 2023.
Visitor exports are expected to grow by 3.1% in 2013 to USD 1,282.00 billion, and rise by 4.2% pa to USD 1,934.80 billion in 2023.
The total contribution of Travel & Tourism to GDP is three times greater than its direct contribution.
Share of Top 10 Countries of the World and India in International Tourist Arrivals in 2011
Rank | Country | International Tourist Arrival* (in million) | Percentage (%) Share |
1 | France | 79.5 | 8.09 |
2 | USA | 62.3 | 6.34 |
3 | China | 57.6 | 5.86 |
4 | Spain | 56.7 | 5.77 |
5 | Italy | 46.1 | 4.69 |
6 | Turkey | 29.3 | 2.98 |
7 | UK | 29.2 | 2.97 |
8 | Germany | 28.4 | 2.89 |
9 | Malaysia | 24.7 | 2.51 |
10 | Mexico | 23.4 | 2.38 |
| Total of Top 10 | 437.2 | 44.48 |
| India # | 6.3 | 0.64 |
| Others | 539.5 | 54.88 |
| Total | 983.0 | 100.00 |
*Provisional
# Excludes nationals of the country residing abroad
Source: UNWTO Tourism Highlights, 2012 Edition
Share of Top 10 Countries of the World and India in International Tourism Receipts in 2011
Rank | Country | International Tourism Receipts* (in US $ billion) | Percentage (%) Share |
1 | USA | 116.3 | 11.29 |
2 | Spain | 59.9 | 5.82 |
3 | France | 53.8 | 5.22 |
4 | China | 48.5 | 4.71 |
5 | Italy | 43.0 | 4.17 |
6 | Germany | 38.8 | 3.77 |
7 | UK | 35.9 | 3.49 |
8 | Australia | 31.4 | 3.05 |
9 | Macau (China) | NA | - |
10 | Hong Kong (China) | 27.7 | 2.69 |
| Total of Top 10 Countries | 455.3 # | 44.21 |
| India | 16.6 | 1.61 |
| Others | 558.1 | 54.18 |
| Total | 1030.0 # | 100.0 |
*Provisional
NA: Not Available
# Excludes Tourism Receipts of Macau (China)
Source: UNWTO Tourism Highlights, 2012 Edition
THE GOLDEN TRIANGLE
INTRODUCTION TO GOLDEN TRIANGLE
Golden Triangle is a tourist circuit in India. The various Golden Triangles in India are: [35]
1. Delhi, Agra and Jaipur
2. Khajuraho, Orcha and Gwalior
3. Kushinagar, Garnath and Bodhgaya
4. Konark, Bhubaneshwar and Puri
5. Chennai, Kaunchipuram and Mamallapuram
In this Project we will be discussing the magical Golden Triangle circuit of Delhi, Agra and Jaipur, which is India’s most popular tourist circuit. These cities provide a classic and unforgettable introduction to the country and its charms.
This triangle has been dubbed "golden" for the extraordinary wealth of cultural and historical splendour on offer in each of the three cities. Jaipur, capital of the largely desert state of Rajasthan, is home to some of Asia's best bazaars. You could spend weeks in Delhi, the sprawling, fascinating Indian capital, and not see it all, while Agra, once the heart of the Moghul empire, boasts the unparalleled beauty of the Taj Mahal, which adorns the banks of the Yamuna river. The Golden Triangle is a classic introduction to India: if you've never been to the subcontinent before, start here.
These trips usually last 7 or 8 days and do the trip as a circuit starting and ending in Delhi. Flights and hotels are often included in the price, and it is normally possible to do the trip by coach or private journey through most tour operators. The Golden Triangle is now a well-travelled route, hosting many of India's great cultural gems, and providing a good spectrum of the country's different landscapes.
The Golden Triangle is so called because of the triangular shape formed by the locations of New Delhi, Agra and Rajasthan on a map, but is occasionally expanded to include the wider geographical area of North India, most frequented by tourists. Most tourists fly from Delhi, travel southwards to the site of the famous Taj Mahal at Agra, then west, to the desert landscapes of Rajasthan, including the city of Jaipur. These three cities are extremely popular as tourist destinations among the foreign tourists visiting India as well as among the natives.
On the map, these form a roughly equilateral triangle, some 200-250km along each side. The circuit is about 1000 km by road. Each leg is about 4 to 6 hours of drive. The fast Shatabdi train now runs on all the legs of the Golden triangle tour.
MEANING OF GOLDEN TRIANGLE AND INTRODUCTION TO VARIOUS CITIES OF IT
Golden Triangle is said to a region which is more or less triangular in shape and is noted for its success, prosperity and influence. Various countries in Asia, Australia, Europe and North America form this golden triangle.
Now let’s discuss the three Cities of the Golden Triangle chosen in the Project:
JAIPUR
Jaipur is the capital and largest city of the Indian state of Rajasthan. It was founded on 18 November 1727 by Maharaja Sawai Jai Singh II, the ruler of Amber, after whom the city has been named. The city is surrounded by hills and dotted with forts. Houses with pink latticed windows line the streets, and look almost magical at sunset. An extremely well planned city, Jaipur was designed by an engineer and scholar Vidyadhar Bhattacharya, in accordance with ancient Hindu treatise on architecture, the Shilpa Shasta (Vastu).
It was planned in a grid system with wide straight avenues, roads, streets and lanes and uniform rows of shops on either side of the main roads. Jaipur remains the only place where the nine sectors that sub-divide the city symbolise the nine divisions of the universe. Jaipur is surrounded by a wall having seven gates and was built for protection from invading armies and wild animals that lurked just outside in the jungles that surrounded the city. 
The Old City, also known as the Pink City, is a wonderful place to wander around. The whole city was painted pink by Maharaja Man Singh II when Prince of Wales, later Edward VII, visited Jaipur in 1876. Today, every home within the city is obliged by law to maintain this facade - hence Jaipur's is also called the Pink City. [36]
Demographics:
As of 2011, Jaipur had a population of 3,073,350 The Population of the Jaipur Metropolitan area is 3,646,590. Jaipur is the 10th largest city of India according to census of 2011. The Hindu population accounts for 77%, Muslim 17%, Jains 4%, Christians 0.5%, and Sikhs 0.5%. While 47.49% people lived in rural areas, 52.51% lived in urban areas. The overall literacy rate for the district was 76.44%. 87.27% males and 64.63% females were literate. The sex ratio was 898 females per 1,000 males.
Hindi and Rajasthani are the most common language for daily communication. Punjabi is also widely spoken. According to National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB) report of 2009, Jaipur ranks 3rd in the list of 35 Indian cities with a population of more than 1 million (10 lakh) for crime rates.
Area, Weather and Temperature
Area | 11117.8 sq.km |
Altitude | 431m above sea level |
Temperature in summer | (March to June) 45 degree Celsius (Max), and 25 degree Celsius (Min) |
Temperature in Winter | (November to February)22 degree Celsius (Max), and 5 degree Celsius (Min) |
Rain | (July to September) 650mm |
Best time to visit | October to March |
Places of Interest
The city of Jaipur is well known for it rich cultural heritage that is finely showcased in its various forts, palaces and monuments that dots the landscape of the city, that is also called as the pink city of Rajasthan. An air of regality still pervades the air of Jaipur even after the Raj era has long gone. The tradition and culture of Jaipur is the fine manifestation of a fine blend of its regal past with slight dose of modernity. The tourists visiting the city find its people, the most hospitable people in India. Tourists are welcomed with traditional touch of padharo mhare desh.
Main Sights:
Jaipur is a major tourist destination in India. In the 2008 Conde Nast Traveller Readers Choice Survey, Jaipur was ranked the 7th best place to visit in Asia.
The Various Temples and Places of Worship includes,
1. Govind Dev ji Temple
2. Galtaji
3. Laxmi Narayan Mandir, popularly called Birla Mandir
4. Garh Ganesh Temple
The major Forts and Monuments of Jaipur includes,
1. Hawa Mahal
2. Amber Fort
3. Jaigarh Fort
4. Nahargarh Fort
5. City Palace
6. Jantar Mantar
7. Jal Mahal
8. Rambagh Palace
9. Central Museum
10. Albert Hall Museum
The city also has a number of gardens and Parks, among them, the most prominent are Ram Niwas Garden, Sisodia Rani Garden and Palace and Jawahar Circle Garden.
Other places of interest are Chand Baori, Chokhi Dhani, Kathputli slum and Raj Mandir Cinema.
Cuisine
Jaipur cuisine is as rich as the royalty of Jaipur enriched with ghee, mawa and dry fruits.  These are vegetarian and nutritious. Ghewar, Feeni, Chougni ka laddu, Thal ki Barfi, Mohan thal are some of the specialties in sweets of Jaipur.  Dal-Bati Churma, Mawa Kachori, Besan Ka Gatta, Kair Sangri, Chakke Ki Sabji , Rabri, Makke ki roti and Bazre ki roti are some of the main attractions of Rajasthani cuisine found in Jaipur. 
Art, Traditions and Culture
Folk Dance | Ghoomer |
Art and Crafts | Major hub for arts and crafts. Includes, Bandhani, Block Printing, Stone Carving and sculpture; tarkashi, zari, gota, kinari and zardozi, silver jewellery, gems, kundan, meenakshi and jewellery; miniature paintings, blue pottery, ivory carving, shellac work, leatherware, etc. |
Performing Arts | Jaipur Gharana of Kathak |
Festivals | Gangaur Festival, Jaipur Literature Festival and Teej |
Getting to Jaipur
* By Air – Jaipur is well connected by air to Delhi, Mumbai, Calcutta and to the other tourist destinations of Rajasthan i.e. Jodhpur and Udaipur.
* By Rail - Jaipur is connected by superfast trains to Delhi and Mumbai and to the other tourist destinations of Rajasthan i.e. Jodhpur and Udaipur.
* By Road -Jaipur is well connected by road to Delhi (250 kms), Agra (250 kms), Jodhpur (330 kms), Udaipur (400 kms), Bikaner (330 kms), Pushkar (145 kms) and serves as the gateway for tourists travelling through Rajasthan.
DELHI
Delhi also known as the National Capital Territory of Delhi is a metropolitan region in India that includes the national capital city, New Delhi. It is India's second-most-populous city after Mumbai, and the largest city in terms of area
“Delhi is the sign of old India and new? especially the stones here whisper to our ears of the grows older of long ago along with the air we breathe is entirely filled with the dirt and dust and fragrances of a past era , as also of the fresh and also piercing wind gusts of the existing .” in the words of Jawaharlal Nehru
Delhi - India’s capital and major gateway to the country, contemporary Delhi is bustling metropolis, which successfully combines in its fold the ancient and the modern. Its strategic location was one of the prime reasons why successive dynasties chose it as their seat of power. It is not surprising then that what constitutes Delhi today, is a conglomerate of seven cities. Down the ages the region in and around modern Delhi saw Lalkot built in the mid-11th century, Siri established by Allauddin Khilji, Tughlakabad, and Ferozabad built by the Tughlaks followed by the city of the Lodis and then came Shahjahanabad, capital of the Mughals under Shah Jahan. 
New Delhi reflects the legacy the British left behind, distinction between the capitals of the British and the Mughals respectively. But wherever the visitor goes he will invariably confront the city’s past.
Delhi is a city that bridges two different worlds: Old Delhi and New Delhi.
Old Delhi (Shahjahanabad)
‘Old’ Delhi, the capital of Muslim India between the mid-17th and late 19th centuries, is entirely filled with tremendous mosques, historic monuments and even forts. The historical Delhi of the Mughal emperors was in the middle of a wall and was an overcrowded city of modest by lanes. Although also known as Old Delhi, this region is also known as Delhi. Old Delhi, Shah Jahan’s seventeenth-century capital (Shahjahanabad), can be found 2km approximately more north. The Delhi Jn rly stn is within Old Delhi, the inter-state bus terminus is moderately to the north, at the Kashmiri Gate. Buses check out all over the place north and west India from the Kashmiri Gate. In close proximity to the Delhi Gate is situated the Yamuna on the left along with the Aruna Asaf Ali Rd on the right , ending at Ramlila Pavilion , the juncture of Old and New Delhi .
It’s an exciting area of brightly coloured bazaars, thinner streets and hardly managed chaos. Monuments in sandstone and marble , which place yourself in assorted states of repair , create Delhi a veritable museum of Indo-Islamic architectural mix , noticed at it is best in the frenetic roads of Old Delhi . Old Delhi seems totally different from the more contemporary New Delhi and south Delhi areas.
New Delhi
The further Delhi, the imperial city produced as the capital of India by the British. In addition to it is historic attraction and purpose as the government centre, Delhi is a significant travel gateway. In 1911, the British questioned Lutyens to provide new meaning to city improvement which is mirrored in the architectural models and elegance that buildings in Delhi like Parliament House, Rashtrapati Bhavan, India Gate, Connaught Place and numerous government buildings like the South and North blocks along the stunning view available from Raj Path. The capital of the Indian republic is at New Delhi, the prepared city devised by the British. The smooth roads, modern houses and structures and workplaces and bureaus attract tourist. As you show up of the New Delhi railway station, in front is Paharganj and on the south Chemsford Road which intersect at Connaught Place. New Delhi, the imperial city developed by the British Raj, is composed of extensive, tree-lined avenues and striking government buildings, and also has an expression of order lacking from other parts of the city.
The city's importance lies not just in its past glory as the seat of empires and magnificent monuments, but also in the rich and diverse cultures. No wonder chroniclers of Delhi culture - from Chand Bardai and Amir Khusro to present day’s writers - have never been at a loss for topics. In Delhi, you will discover that the city is sprinkled with dazzling gems: captivating ancient monuments, fascinating museums and art galleries, architectural wonders, a vivacious performing-arts scene, fabulous eating places and bustling markets.
Delhi has been the political hub of India. Every political activity in the country traces its roots here. This was true even of the mythological era. The Pandavas of the Mahabharata had their capital at Indraprastha, which is believed to have been geographically located in today's Delhi.
Demographics:
According to the 2011 census of India, the population of Delhi is 16,753,235. The corresponding population density was 11,297 persons per km2, with a sex ratio of 866 women per 1000 men, and a literacy rate of 86.34%. In 2004, the birth rate, death rate and infant mortality rate per 1000 population were 20.03, 5.59 and 13.08, respectively. In 2001, the population of Delhi increased by 285,000 as a result of migration and by 215,000 as a result of natural population growth – this made Delhi one of the fastest growing cities in the world. By 2015, Delhi is expected to be the third-largest conurbation in the world after Tokyo and Mumbai. Dwarka Sub City, Asia's largest planned residential area, is located within the National Capital Territory of Delhi.
Hinduism is Delhi's most popular religion, with approximately 81% of Delhi's population. The city has large communities of Muslims (11.7%), Sikhs (5%), Baha'i (0.1%), Jains (1.1%) and Christians (0.94%) in the city. Other minority religions include Buddhism, Zoroastrianism and Judaism. The principle language in Delhi is Hindustani, and Hindi (Devanagari Script) is the principal written language of the city. There is a sizable Punjabi and Urdu speaking population. Punjabi and Urdu has second language status in Delhi.
According a 1999–2000, estimate, the total number of people living below the poverty line, defined as living on US$11 or less per month, in Delhi was 1,149,000, or 8.23% of the total population, compared to 27.5% of India as a whole. 52% of Delhi residents live in slums without basic services like water, electricity, sanitation, sewage system or proper housing. In 2005, Delhi accounted for the highest percentage (16.2%) of the crimes reported in 35 Indian cities with populations of one million or more. The city has the highest rate of kidnapping and abduction cases with 9.3%; the national rate is 2.2%. Delhi accounts for 15.4% of crime against women in Indian cities.
Area, Weather and Temperature
Area | 1483 sq.km |
Altitude | 293 m above sea level |
Temperature | 45 degree Celsius (Max), and 4 degree Celsius (Min) |
Rain | (July to Mid-September) 714mm |
Best time to visit | October to March |
Places of Interest
Delhi is the place which has a high esteem history and culture to boast on. Delhi's Historical monuments and ancient architecture makes the city a sought after destination for tourists and connoisseurs.
The richness of Delhi's heritage can be seen in grand Mughal forts and the temples that represent great Indian architecture.
Main Sights
The various Temples and places of worship includes
1. Akshardham Temple
2. Laxminarayan Temple, also known as Birla Mandir
3. Nizam-ud-din Shrine
4. Jama Masjid
5. ISKON Temple
6. Gurudwara Rakab Ganj
7. Gurudwara Sis Ganj
8. Baha’i Temple or Lotus Temple
9. St. James Church
10. Cathedral Church
11. Buddhist Temple……….and many more
The major architectural places of Delhi includes,
1. India Gate and Rajpath
2. Sansad Bhawan
3. Rashtrapati Bhawan
4. Connaught Place
From Mughal Empire:
1. Humayun’s Tomb
2. Purana Quila
3. Red Fort
4. Salimgarh Fort
5. Chandni Chowk
6. Safdargunj’s Tomb
7. Qutub Minar
8. Jantar Mantar
9. Lodi Tomb
The various Museums includes National Agricultural Science Museum, National Museum and National Rail Museum. Connaught Place and Dilli Haat are among the major marketplaces.
On the banks of the Yamuna, there are few revered memorials, namely Raj Ghat, Veer Bhoomi, Shakti Sthal, Shanti Vana and Vijay Ghat.
Cuisine:
From the by lanes of the walled city to the swanky hotels and restaurants, Delhi has the taste of all.
Delhi gives you the option of choosing from the wide variety of cuisines. However, the main cuisine of Delhi is influenced by its residents and it is the place where Mughlai Cuisine was originated.
The dearth of food habits among the city's residents created a unique style of cooking which became popular throughout the world, with dishes such as Kebab, biryani, tandoori. The city's classic dishes include Butter chicken, Aloo Chaat, chaat, dahi vada, kachori, jalebi and lassi.
The fast living habits of Delhi's people has motivated the growth of street food outlets. A trend of dining at local dhabas is popular among the residents. High profile restaurants have gained popularity in recent years, among the popular restaurants are the Karim Hotel, the Punjab Grill and Bukhara. The Gali Paranthe Wali (the street of fried bread) is a street in Chandni Chowk particularly for food eateries since the 1870s, almost the entire street is occupied by fast food stalls or street vendors who regularly. It has become almost a tradition that almost every prime minister of India has visited the street to eat paratha at least once, and other Indian cuisines are available here
Getting to New Delhi
* By Air – Delhi is India's second busiest International airport. Almost all major International airlines operate direct flights to and fro Delhi. In addition, a number of major domestic airlines also use Delhi airport as their hub, connecting it with virtually the length and breadth of India.
* By Rail - Delhi is connected by super-fast trains to almost all major cities of India.
* By Road - Delhi serves as the Gateway to all other tourist destinations in North India, including Agra (220 kms), Jaipur (250 kms), Chandigarh (265 kms) etc.
AGRA
Agra the former capital of Hindustan, is a city on the banks of the river Yamuna in the northern state of Uttar Pradesh, India.
Agra has found its mention in the famous Hindu epic Mahabharat as the forest of Agraban close to Mathura. Badal Singh founded the city in 1475. Sikandar Lodhi made Agra his capital city. Later, Babur defeated the Lodhis to capture the city situated on the banks of River Yamuna and thus, the long association of Mughals with Agra started. The Mughal love of architecture translated into beautiful monuments such as Taj Mahal, Agra Fort, Fatehpur Sikri and Sikandra. The glory of Agra was at its peak during the reign of Akbar, Jehangir and Shah Jahan. Akbar made it the center of art, culture, commerce and learning and Shah Jahan saw it in full bloom. In fact, it is said that it was Akbar who laid the foundation of the modern city that we see now in 1558 and was known as Akbarabad. Most of the buildings belong to the period between mid-16th century and 17th century and were of high quality. After Delhi, Agra is the most visited tourist city in North India.
Demographics:
According to the 2011 India census Agra has a population of 17,75,134, while the population of Agra cantonment is 50,968 and that of Agra district is 3,620,436. Males constitute 53% of the population and females 47%. Agra has an average literacy rate of 81%, higher than the national average of 59.5%; with 86% males literate. Literacy rate of males is considerably higher than that of women. Agra district literacy rate is 62.56%.
Hinduism, Islam, and Jainism are three major religions in Agra district with 81.6%, 15.5%, and 1.4% of the population following them. And others are 1.5% 52.5% of Agra's population is in the 15–59 years age category. Around 11% of the population is under 6 years of age.
Area, Weather and Temperature [38]
Area | 62 sq.km |
Altitude | 169m above sea level |
Temperature in Summer | 45 degree Celsius (Max), and 21.90 degree Celsius (Min) |
Temperature in Winter | 31.7 degree Celsius (Max), and 4.2 degree Celsius (Min) |
Rain | 66 cm. July to end of October |
Best Time to visit | October to March |
Places of Interest:
Being the proud owner of one of the Seven Wonders of the World Agra is one of the most important tourist destinations in India. Synonymous with the Taj Mahal the beautiful city is home to some of the finest mausoleums, forts and palaces. The entire city speaks volumes about the wealth, craftsmanship and architecture of the Mughal Dynasty. Main Sights
The various Temples and places of worship includes
1. Jama Masjid
2. Moti Masjid
3. Mangaleshwar Temple
4. Bageshwarnath Temple
5. Guru Ka Taal
6. Itmad-Ud-Daulah
The major architectural places includes,
1. Taj Mahal
2. Agra Red Fort
3. Jahangir Palace
4. Sikandra Fort
5. Chini ka Rauza
6. Jodha Bai ka Rauza
7. Octagonal Tower
8. Mariam’s Tomb
The various Museums includes The Taj Mahal Museum and Spiritual Museum. Mughal kings built many gardens, besides forts and mausoleums, in the northern India during their reign. These all enticing gardens have survived the strongholds of time and change. The mughal gardens are also famous for their architectural plans. Mughal gardens are built in a typical Charbagh pattern. The entire garden area is divided into four sections by watercourses, pavements and the gardens are often cascaded. Mehtab Bagh, Taj Mahal Garden and Shah Jahan Marg are among the famous gardens of Agra.
The various gateways to Agra are Fatehpur Sikri, Mathura, Bateshwar, Gwalior, Vrindavan, Bharatpur Bird Sactuary and Govardhan.
Cuisine:
Influenced greatly by the Mughals in their food habits the commoners of Agra are great food connoisseurs just as the mughals were. The cuisine of Agra can be descried as rich creamy and spicy. If you really want to get the taste of authentic Mughlai cuisine then its time you pack your bags and visit this beautiful city.
The people of Agra mostly use the tandoor to prepare their rotis and kebabs. A paradise for all kinds of kebabs that are marinated and cooked with the most exotic range of spices and dry fruits Agra is ethereal for the food lover. Some of the most popular dishes include tandoori chicken, seekh and boti kabab and even tandoori fish. The superb Mughlai cuisine with its luscious sauces of milk, curd, cream and crushed nuts are found in the city.
There is rich, creamy kormas; tender, steak like pasandas in an almond sauce; nargisi kofta, mince (usually mutton) moulded 
Getting to Agra
* By Air – Agra is now connected, with a daily direct flight from Delhi.
* By Rail - Agra is very well connected by train from New Delhi. The Shatabdi Express, Taj Express and Inter-city Express trains from Delhi take between 2 and 3 hours to reach Agra. There are also overnight trains connecting Agra with Bandhavgarh and Kanha.
* By Road - Agra is well connected to Delhi (220 kms/04 hrs. away)
SURVEY OF THE GOLDEN TRIANGLE
KEY FINDINGS:
1. Almost 55% of the total foreign tourist arrivals are from Europe, USA and Canada.
2. The average stay of international tourists is 28 to 29 days in India and they spent almost 6 to 7 days in the golden triangle.
3. The average spend of an International Tourist is US $ 1,928 in India and $ 385 in Golden Triangle.
4. The must visit tourist attractions of the golden triangle are:
Delhi: Akshardham Temple, Lotus Temple, Chhatarpur Temple, Jama Masjid, Red Fort, Qutub Minar, Humayun’s Tomb, India Gate and Raj Ghat.
Agra: Taj Mahal, Agra Fort, Fatehpur Sikri and Sikandra Fort
Jaipur: City Palace, Hawa Mahal, Jantar Mantar, Laxmi Narayan Temple, Jal Mahal and Amber Fort
5. Textiles, handicrafts and Jewellery are the among the major shopping draws of the tourists
SURVEY RESULTS
Entry Point for International Tourists coming to India to visit Golden Triangle, n=100
* Delhi clearly contributes a strategic advertisement area for the stakeholders of the tourism industry since it captures almost 78% of the tourist arrivals coming to visit Golden Triangle.
* Since Delhi is the first place to visit in the Golden Triangle circuit, New Delhi Airport, main railway station, ISBT, Bikaner House Bus station, and Delhi-Jaipur-Agra highways should be highly considered to promote the unique experience offered by the golden triangle.
Guide books, internet, and friends and relatives are the main sources of the information used by an international tourist when planning a trip to the golden triangle.
A strong presence in guide books appears to be a prerequisite for the success as more than two-third of the international tourist surveyed declared using them when planning their trips
Foreign Tourists tend to make an expected stay in India generating high revenues for the tourism industry.
Tourists stay on an average almost 6-7 days in the golden triangle trip and spend around $ 385 per day on this trip.
Location | Average Stay (days) | Average Spend ($) |
India | 28 to 29 days | 1,928 |
Golden Triangle | 6 to 7 days | 385 |
Almost half of all the transport bookings are made through travel agents and tour operators while internet bookings remain relatively low.
1. Over one-third of international tourists book their transport with the travel agent.
2. 25% of the tourists even go directly to the station and book on the spot.
3. There is a clear lack of internet booking facilities for local travel.
4. It is very difficult to book travel online for international tourists due to the lack of payment options.
The Golden Triangle’s cultural sites are the overwhelming attraction for foreign tourists while its shopping opportunities feature strongly.
There is an absence of evening entertainment that could increase tourist expenditure in the golden triangle and create a more diverse experience.
Developing leisure and entertainment activities could be a way for Golden Triangle to differentiate from other cities in India.
Textiles are the favoured purchase of international tourists, with handicrafts and jewellery also being popular.
While international tourists consider the Golden triangle safe and people friendly, they also find it crowded, noisy and dirty.
7.92 is the average grade given to the overall visit to Golden Triangle.
95% of the foreigners interviewed would recommend to visit the golden triangle.

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