Sustainable Tourism Is a Way for Canadian Government to Meet Efficiently Its Economic and Social Needs of People
Sustainable Tourism Is a Way for Canadian Government to Meet Efficiently Its Economic and Social Needs of People
Sustainable tourism is a way for Canadian government to meet efficiently its economic and social needs of people.
"Sustainability - meeting the needs of the present generation without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs"
BRUNTLAND REPORT (1987)
Tourism is a major component of economic growth all over the world. Especially in coastal areas where it is also a for sustainable development. Tourism is expected to exert an increasing influence on coastal landscape, ecosystem and cultural heritage management.
Coastal tourism, as well as tourism in general, is to a large extent dependant on an environment that is attractive to visitors. Consequently, protection of natural and cultural heritage is a precondition for sustainable coastal tourism. Protecting areas and sites constitutes an efficient and necessary way of safeguarding natural and cultural heritage. Therefore, such areas contribute strongly to sustainable coastal tourism, even though a sound balance between protection and development has to be strived for in each individual case.
This is why the nations of the world have committed themselves to the sustainable development of their natural and cultural heritage by signing international agreements. Some of them specifically address coastal zones but the majority is more general and wide ranging.
Natural heritage includes biodiversity, natural scenery, value for outdoor recreation, etc. and is best managed in line with the requirements of the Convention on Biological Diversity.
Sustainable Tourism involves social responsibility, a strong commitment to nature and the integration of local people in any tourist operation or development. Sustainable tourism is defined by the World Tourism Organization (WTO), the Tourism Council (WTTC) and the Earth Council as:
Sustainable Tourism Development meets the needs of present tourists, host regions while protecting and enhancing opportunity for the future. It is envisaged as leading to management of all resources in such a way that economic, social and aesthetic needs can be fulfilled while maintaining cultural integrity, essential ecological processes, biological diversity and life support systems. Sustainable tourism products are products which are operated in harmony with the local environment, community and cultures so that these become the beneficiaries not the victims of tourism development.
Responsible Tourism, Soft Tourism, Minimum Impact Tourism and Alternative Tourism are terms with a similar meaning as Sustainable Tourism. They are, for the purpose of this module included in the term Sustainable Tourism.
Some factors can be seen as "drivers", pushing the tourism industry towards a sustainable development approach.
* Increasing regulatory pressure;
* Growing awareness of cost savings from sensible resource consumption;
* Tourism professionals and operators recognize that environmental quality is essential for a competitive product;
* The awareness by governments and operators that the growth of tourism can have a negative impact on the environment;
* A growing awareness of communities about their potential to influence tourism policy
The current initiative to create a global standard for sustainable tourism has the potential to change the face of the tourism industry. Sustainable development, have been desired and signed by policy makers worldwide, few of these agreements have actually outlined a measurable policy. An important dimension of the conceptual framework of this study is positioning governance not as a metaphor but as a practical approach toward an institutional movement for sustainable tourism planning. Despite the rapid economic growth and urbanization in Canada during the past decade, the issue of ‘sustainability’ has remained an alien concept for policy makers.
In this part we want to analyze what is term sustainable tourism, social needs and economical needs.
In general the sustainable tourism is attempting to make as low an impact on the environment and local culture as possible, while helping to generate future employment for local people. The aim of sustainable tourism is to ensure that development brings a positive experience for local people, tourism companies and the tourists themselves.
The term sustainable tourism has come to represent and encompass a set of principles, policy prescriptions, and management methods. Consequently, the principles of sustainable tourism development appear to have been established by developed countries without taking into account conditions in the developing world. They fail to provide a conceptual vehicle for policy formulation to progress sustainable tourism development in those countries owing to limitations that originate from the structure of developing countries and the international tourism system.
Sustainable Tourism (also called Responsible Tourism) is simply about making a positive difference to the people and environment of destinations we travel to by:
- Respecting local cultures and the natural environment
- Buying local, giving fair economic returns to local families
- Recognizing that water and energy are precious resources that we need to use carefully
- Helping to protect endangered wildlife
- Protecting and enhancing favorite destinations for the future enjoyment of visitors and the people who live there
- Taking responsibility for our actions while enjoying ourselves.
Sustainable Tourism is high on the agenda of tourists, tourism organizations and many tourism companies, which often have declared their willingness to move towards sustainability. While some companies and individuals have moved considerably in adjusting their behaviours to become more environmentally, economically and socially responsible, it however appears
clear that the tourism system as a whole is becoming less sustainable, both because of its overall rapid growth and of what has been called "veneer environmentalism" or "greenwash", i.e. the unwillingness to change travel behavior (tourists) or to engage in operational and business behavioral changes that are more fundamental, i.e. going beyond measures that are profitable because of resource savings, branding benefits or improved customer relations (private and public components of tourism industry).
Another term we will consider in our work is social needs. Maslow described social needs in his hierarchy of needs is a theory in psychology proposed. Maslow subsequently extended the idea to include his observations of humans' innate curiosity. His theories parallel many other theories of human developmental psychology, some of which focus on describing the stages of growth in humans. Maslow used the terms Physiological, Safety, Belongingness and Love, Esteem, Self-Actualization and Self-Transcendence needs to describe the pattern that human motivations generally move through. This five stage model can be divided into basic (or deficiency) needs (physiological, safety, love, and esteem) and growth needs (self-actualization). The deficiency or basic needs are said to motivate people when they are unmet. Also, the need to fulfil such needs will become stronger the longer the duration they are denied.
Maslow considered the social stage an important part of psychological development because our relationships with others help reduce emotional concerns such as depression or anxiety. Maslow's third stage of needs involves the need for social relatedness and connections with others, including the need for belonging, love, and affection. The social stage is not considered a basic need, but is instead believed to be an important part of psychological development. Our ability to develop relationships such as friendships, romantic attachments, and families help fulfill our need for companionship and reduces loneliness, anxiety, and depression.
Also we will discuss economic, social and ecological needs.
Ecotourism is a form of sustainable tourism - all forms of tourism can become more sustainable but not all forms of tourism can be ecotourism.
"Ecotourism is environmentally responsible travel and visitation to relatively undisturbed natural areas, in order to enjoy, study and appreciate nature (and any accompanying cultural features - both past and present), that promotes conservation, has low visitor impact, and provides for beneficially active socio-economic involvement of local populations"
Ecotourism is the act of visiting a location and leaving very little impact. Conservation of an area’s resources, such as energy and water, and preservation of the land and wildlife are important aspects of ecotourism. While natural ecosystems such as forests, waterways and deserts are often focuses when discussing ecotourism, the concept extends to all of an area’s environment, including cities and area attractions. Ecology: from the Greek oikos (household) and logos (study): the study of interrelationships between organisms and their environment. The term was coined in 1866 by German biologist and philosopher Ernest Haeckel, famous also for his discredited but interesting dictum that ontogeny (individual physical development) recapitulates phylogeny (the evolutionary development of its species).
Economic needs are subdivided in relation to the scale and structure of production. Absolute needs are an expression of the consumer power of society (the maximum volume of goods in production that can be consumed by society, if manufactured). Real needs are those that can and objectively should be satisfied under optimal reproduction. Needs subject to satisfaction can be satisfied by the actual state of reproduction, taking into account deviations from the optimum. Actually satisfiable needs constitute another subdivision of economic needs. In a market economy, needs subject to satisfaction operate in the form of effective demand. Based on the socioeconomic structure of society, the needs of society as a whole are distinguished from the needs of classes, strata, social groups, and individuals. Depending on the role played by their satisfaction in the reproduction of human capabilities, economic needs are classified as physical, intellectual, or social.
Cultural aspects of communication refer to having knowledge of different cultures in order to communicate effectively with cross culture people. Cultural aspects of communication are the cultural differences which influences communication across borders.
Sustainable tourism is the concept of visiting a place as a tourist and trying to make only a positive impact on the environment, society and economy. A key aspect is respect for the people who call the location home, the culture and customs of the area, and the socio-economic system. Sustainable social and economic needs can’t exist by themselves and closely interrelated, if something changing in one factor, another factors are changing too, positively or negatively.
Data and information on specific theory regarding Sustainable tourism in Canada came from quantitative research on the Internet. As the basics I will take the information collected by the previous researchers: Jamie Lisse, Dr. Stefan Gössling and Dr. Michael C. Hall. Secondary desk research from trade press, business press, industry experts to analyze, interpret and reconcile information across multiple different sources. Combined, these multiple sources and perspectives provided a rounded assessment of the current and anticipated opportunities and challenges facing the Canadian travel industry.
Area of study.
The capital of Canada is Ottawa. Edmonton and Calgary are also very big cities. Population centers are Toronto, Montreal and Vancouver. Official languages are English and French. The currency in Canada is Canadian Dollars. There are six times zones. Canada is a parliamentary monarchy in Commonwealth of Nations. So the head of the State is Queen Elizabeth the II. Head of the Government is the Prime Minister, Jean Chretien. Canada is the 2nd largest land after Russia in the world. The total area is about 9 970 610 square kilometers. This is about 120 times larger than Austria. There are ten provinces and three territories, which are put under the Federal Government of Canada.
Canada’s climate is not as cold all year round as you might think. Winter temperatures fall below freezing in most of Canada but the South Western coast is relatively mild. Along the Arctic Circle is where it is coldest, the temperatures fall below freezing for around seven months of the year. During the summer the Southern provinces often have temperatures of over 86 o F and high levels of humidity. In terms of rainfall, Western and South-Eastern Canada has the most, while the Prairies are dry and only get 250 – 500 mm per year.
Canada has 30.7 million inhabitants. These are 3.1 inhabitants per square kilometer. This is very low because in Austria there are 97 inhabitants per square kilometer. The urbanization is about 77% (in Austria 64%). The major industries respectively products are agriculture, minerals, natural gas, oil, hydroelectricity, forest products and motor vehicles. Major trading partners are the USA, Japan, United Kingdom, Germany and South Korea.
The Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in Canada was worth 1821.40 billion US dollars in 2012. The GDP value of Canada represents 2.94 percent of the world economy. GDP in Canada is reported by the The World Bank Group. The gross domestic product (GDP) measures of national income and output for a given country's economy. The gross domestic product (GDP) is equal to the total expenditures for all final goods and services produced within the country in a stipulated period of time. This page provides - Canada GDP - actual values, historical data, forecast, chart, statistics, economic calendar and news.
Government in Canada is organized into three and quite often four levels: federal, provincial or territorial, and municipal (which is often subdivided into regional and local). Each level is charged with various responsibilities by either the Constitution or a higher level of government.
Tourism (domestic and international) contributes 2% to Canada’s GDP and accounts for 3.8% of national employment. The sector’s contribution in both these measures has remained broadly stable over the past five years. Tourism generated 662 900 jobs in 2008, an increase of 1.4% over 2007.
Tourism spending in 2008 increased by 5.51% on 2007, reaching CAD 74.7 billion. Spending by Canadians on tourism in Canada grew by 8.2% on 2007 and accounted for 79% of total tourism expenditure, while international tourism spending declined by 3.6%.
The number of visitors from Canada’s most important international market, the United States, which accounts for 83% of all inbound visitors, is in decline. Total arrivals from the United States declined by 12% in 2008, including day trips. Trips of one night or more fell by 6.6% while day trips were down by 17.9%.
A high proportion of overnight international tourists (52%) come to Canada for leisure purposes (including outdoor activities and sports), followed by visiting friends and relatives (24%), with business travel (including meetings, conventions, trade shows and other work) held in third place (15%).
A whole-of-government approach will enhance the federal government’s role as an effective partner with industry and other levels of government in support of an internationally competitive tourism sector. The Strategy focuses on four priorities:
* Increasing awareness of Canada as a premier tourist destination.
* Facilitating ease of access and movement for travelers while ensuring the safety and integrity of Canada’s borders.
* Encouraging product development and investments in Canadian tourism assets and products.
* Fostering an adequate supply of skills and labor to enhance visitor experiences through quality service and hospitality.
The federal government, 10 provincial governments and 3 territorial governments, as well as municipalities, all have a role to play in supporting tourism. The Canadian Council of Tourism Ministers fosters coordination between the federal and provincial-territorial levels of government.
Within the federal government, the Minister of Industry has the lead responsibility for tourism, as part of a mandate to foster a fair, efficient and competitive marketplace, an innovative economy, competitive industry and sustainable communities. The Minister of State (Small Business and Tourism) has specific responsibility to promote tourism and small business development.
The Canadian Tourism Commission is Canada’s national tourism marketing organization; it is a Crown corporation that reports to Parliament through the Minister of Industry.
A number of federal government departments and agencies provide significant support for tourism through funded programs and through the direct control and operation of tourism attractions:
• Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada helps rural Canada develop and maintain strong, adaptable and vibrant communities, supporting, for example, wine and culinary tourism.
• Canadian Heritage is responsible for national policies and programs related to arts and cultural industries, heritage, official languages, citizenship participation and identity, human rights, Aboriginal peoples, youth and sports initiatives, as well as national ceremonies and symbols.
• Human Resources and Skills Development Canada promotes skills development, labor market participation and inclusiveness and ensures labor market efficiency.
• Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development Canada administers Aboriginal economic development programs that support a wide range of initiatives, including those related to tourism.
• Parks Canada is the steward of the national parks and historic sites system.
More and more tour operators take an active approach towards sustainability. Not only because consumers expect them to do so but also because they are aware that intact destinations are essential for the long term survival of the tourism industry. More and more tour operators prefer to work with suppliers who act in a sustainable manner, e.g. saving water and energy, respecting the local culture and supporting the well-being of local communities. In 2000 the international Tour Operators initiative for Sustainable Tourism was founded with the support of UNEP.
Sustainable tourism travelers
Nearly two-thirds of Canadian travelers say they are concerned about global warming, the loss of natural habitats and ecosystems, and the use of child labor in developing countries. But the question remains: Does this mean that Canadian travelers are willing to change their travel behaviors on the basis of these concerns?
Currently, the concept of sustainable tourism is not well understood among consumers. Only 8 per cent of Canadian travelers claim to be very or fairly familiar with it (with no evident change in that level between 2007 and 2008). This figure is low by any standard. Other tourism concepts generate much higher levels of claimed familiarity (25% in the case of adventure tourism, for instance). However, the concept of sustainable tourism does generate a positive reaction among consumers when they are given a definition – “tourism that respects the local environment, culture, people, and economy.” More than 8 in 10 Canadian travelers (83% in 2007 and 86% in 2008) agree that sustainable tourism practices would have a positive effect on the world’s future. In other words, while appreciation of the concept is currently underdeveloped, and while there is likely some yea-saying associated with environmental issues, it is quite possible that the issue of sustainability will have a significant impact on future decision-making, behavior, and marketing plans in the tourism sector.
Many Canadian travelers express willingness to take personal action. One third says that they would switch from a preferred holiday destination to one that supported sustainable tourism, while 4 in 10 would try to find and use a travel agency that adheres to environmental guidelines. And over one-quarter (28% in 2007 and 27% in 2008) say they would pay a premium for an ethical and sustainable holiday. These numbers are slightly higher than what TNS reported for Europe and the U.S.A. in the Green Travel survey (November 2007). An impressive 32% of Italians claimed a willingness to switch to more ethical, greener vacations, in contrast to only 16% of Americans. In Britain, 7% of the travelers have actually gone so far as to make a payment towards minimizing the impact of their travelling; in Spain, 12% have done so.
In light of these figures, it is quite likely that many Canadians will be receptive to appeals that minimize the environmental impacts of travel. As illustrated by the TNS study, Canadian travelers believe that multiple stakeholders share the responsibility for activating demand for sustainable tourism. Three-quarters believe that both the mass media and businesses which market and sell tourism should ensure that information and sustainable choices are made available to travelers. Almost two-thirds believe that government has an important role to play in educating its citizens about the necessity of adopting sustainable tourism practices. And, finally, two-thirds of travelers feel that it is ultimately the travelling public that occupies the locus of control and that travelers themselves must take responsibility for planning travel with sustainability in mind.
One of the interviewed travelers had this to say. “Sustainable tourism is the optimal use of natural and cultural resources for national development on an equitable and self-sustaining basis to provide a unique visitor experience and an improved quality of life through partnership among government, the private sector, and communities.” It is clear that consumers do not see themselves as standing alone in an effort to push the sustainability endeavor forward, but rather see a need for various stakeholders to work cooperatively in this effort. Undoubtedly, engaging consumers and making environmentally friendly choices readily available to the public will raise the profile of the sustainability concept.
In Canada there are three associations dealing with sustainability:
* Tourism Industry Association of Canada. The sustainable development of the tourism industry is one of the core principles of TIAC. They encourage the Canadian tourism sector to embrace sustainable practices with greater commitment and are currently positioning Canada as a sustainable tourism destination.
* BC Sustainable Tourism Collective. This collective of six influential tourism operators was founded on the vision that travel within B.C. can foster appreciation and stewardship for the natural environment, regions and communities.
* Gros Morne Institute for Sustainable Tourism. The objective of the GMIST is to enhance the quality and sustainability of outdoor/nature-based experiences afforded throughout Atlantic Canada, by providing developmental training programs respecting sustainable tourism practices, experiential tourism services and eco-adventure tourism.
Planning helps to make choices between the conflicting interests of industry and tourism, in order to find ways to make them compatible. By planning sustainable tourism development strategy at an early stage, prevents damages and expensive mistakes, thereby avoiding the gradual deterioration of the quality of environmental goods and services significant to tourism.
Basic principle of sustainable development
Passing the Federal Sustainable Development Act in 2008 signaled a change in how the Government of Canada would fulfill its commitment to sustainable development. The Act called for a comprehensive approach representing all of government through a Federal Sustainable Development Strategy (FSDS) that is updated every three years. This approach, currently in its second cycle, provides a whole-of-government view of actions to achieve environmental sustainability, is integrated into core federal planning and reporting, and is supported by a robust measurement strategy.
The most recent Progress Report was released in February 2013, showing the progress of federal departments and agencies towards achieving the goals and targets set out in the FSDS. It provides parliamentarians and Canadians with a whole-of-government picture of the contributions of the federal government to achieve environmental sustainability, with a focus on what has been accomplished thus far. This report is submitted by the Sustainable Development Office of Environment Canada to the Minister of the Environment and tabled in each House of Parliament, as required by the Federal Sustainable Development Act.
The Government of Canada accepts the basic principle that sustainable development is based on an ecologically efficient use of natural, social and economic resources and acknowledges the need to integrate environmental, economic and social factors in the making of all decisions by government.
Some governments, like Canadian, collect money in more far-reaching and indirect ways that are not linked to specific parks or conservation areas. User fees, income taxes, taxes on sales or rental of recreation equipment and license fees for activities such as hunting and fishing can provide governments with the funds needed to manage natural resources.
In our opinion, sustainable tourism assumes a greater social responsibility, fulfillment of obligations in relation to nature, as well as the involvement of local people in all processes related to the management of tourism activities. Sustainable tourism satisfies the needs of present tourists and host regions while protecting and enhancing opportunities for the future. Management of all resources must meet the economic, social and aesthetic needs; maintain cultural integrity, essential ecological processes, biological diversity and life support systems. Sustainable tourism products must bring benefit and not damage tourism development.
The main positive economic impacts of sustainable (coastal) tourism are: contributions to government revenues, foreign exchange earnings, generation of employment and business opportunities. Further information on economic contributions of tourism can be found on the website of the World Travel and Tourism Council.
Travelling brings people into contact with each other. As sustainable tourism has an educational element it can foster understanding between people and cultures and provide cultural exchange between guests and hosts. This increases the chances for people to develop mutual sympathy, tolerance and understanding and to reduce prejudices and promote the sense of global brotherhood. Strengthening communities Sustainable Coastal Tourism can add to the vitality of communities in many ways. For e.g. events and festivals of the local communities where they have been the primary participants and spectators. Often these are refreshed, reincarnated and developed in response to tourists’ interests. The jobs created by tourism can act as a very important motivation to reduce emigration from rural areas. Local people can also increase their influence on tourism development, as well as improve their jobs and earnings prospects through tourism-related professional training and development of business and organizational skills.
Sustainable tourism can also improve the preservation and transmission of cultural and historical traditions. Contributing to the conservation and sustainable management of natural resources can bring usually the chance to protect local heritage or to revitalize native cultures, for instance by regenerating traditional arts and crafts.