Retention of Visitor spending: The key to achieving economic sustainability for tourism in (i.e. California and Giants Causeway) is maximising the economic retention of tourist spending in your local economy. The sustainable tourism businesses need to develop strategies that are capable of meeting the long-term economic needs and aspirations of the local community. If the communities are engaged by tourism organisations as stakeholders in tourism, and economic partners in the tourism industry, this will actively support local tourism businesses. Tourism is a rapidly growing industry and has far-reaching economic and environmental impact across the destinations; hence, if tourism is an important source of local employment and a significant buyer of local goods and services, residents are more likely to be supportive. The business operators and local communities need to work together to maximise local economic benefits as well as the positive impacts of destinations. The possible strategies to use to manage responsible tourism are, seeking out ways to include local service providers and producers in your business, encourage your local business suppliers to develop sustainable goods and services that reflect local nature, history and culture.
Widening access to facilities: One of the key challenges for Responsible Tourism is to broaden access. The local governors would need to approach their responsible side to the tourism facilities to make it more sustainable and using tourism to make better places for people to live in and better places for people to visit. The strategical movement for widening access to facilities considers an economic and social cases; the economic case is the business case, there is a market opportunity which includes all those who want to travel, visit or stay with a person with disabilities. There is also a social case. For example, in the Forest of Bowland a number of businesses have worked together to raise money for Trampers which enable walkers and mountain bikers to share the experience with the elderly and others with mobility challenges. Consequently, enabling those with disabilities or very limited financial resources to have a holiday would create an positive impact on the public as well as enhancing the image of current responsible bodies due to the their responsible projects.
Investment of tourism income in community projects: In many tourism destinations income from tourism directly reinvested in such as social and public projects to maximise the positive impacts. An example, the Gambia is targeting a 5 percent increase on its tourist numbers, and is upping investment to attract more visitors to the country. Tourism plays a key role in terms of the socio-economic development of the country. The vision is to diversify the scope and geographic spread of tourism to benefit their communities in terms of developing ecotourism and community-based tourism initiatives. They also want to diversify their product mix in terms of developing high quality facilities to appeal to the top end of the market and attract more high-spending tourists. Therefore, the government was planning to invest in and further utilise their islands to attract more people to the country by building of new resort, hotels and at the same time developing inland tourism facilities for ecotourism to attract high-end tourists. Consequently, the opportunities for investors are immense hence the government hopes to attract investment in the sector to make it more appealing and worthwhile to foreign tourists, and is offering incentives to those looking to pour money into rejuvenating the sector. http://www.ventures-africa.com/2012/08/gambia-increases-tourism-investment/
Training and employment of local people tourism education: The travel and tourism originations should employ local people wherever possible. Where local people lack of the necessary skills, training programmes should be implemented. An example is Sandals in the Caribbean, who claim to have compulsory training for 120 hours per year for line staff in their hotels.
Visitors and traffic management: Reducing the impacts on sensitive natural areas would enable the local communities to protect and sustain for future generations. The Peak District National Park could be shown as an example, as they have visitors from all around the world and it has enormous impact on social life’s as well as the landscape of the visiting places. By restricting, the visitor numbers would essentially lead them to cover most of the areas and it will reduce the traffic. They can minimise the risks by enforcing external visitors to visit at certain time, which will create an opportunity for protection and other things.
Planning control: Restrictions on the quantity and type of building help prevent a destination becoming over developed. In Majorca, tourism has become the most important source of revenue to the economy. Parts of the island have become over developed due to mass tourism. Eventually action had to be taken to try and reverse the decline in the islands image as a cheap destination for low spending, heavy drinking tourists. Building in restrictions were imposed on hotels throughout the island and the capital, Palma was restored.
Environment impact assessment and environmental audits: The environmental management of tourism facilities and especially hotels can increase the benefits to natural areas. However, this requires careful planning for controlled development, based on analysis of the environmental resources of the area. The planning stages helps to make choices between conflicting uses and to find ways to make them compatible. Consequently, by planning early for tourism development, damaging and expensive mistakes can be prevent and minimised, avoiding the gradual deterioration of environmental assets significant to tourism. For instance, cleaner production (company-specific environmental protection initiative) techniques can be important tools for planning tourism facilities in a way that minimises their environmental impacts. Secondly, the green building is an increasingly important way for the tourism industry to decrease its impact on the environment.
For instance, USA has started to use green buildings in order to reduce its impact onto their natural resources.
“The design, construction, and maintenance of buildings have a tremendous impact on our environment and our natural resources. The building sector alone consumes two-thirds of electricity produced in the U.S., and is a significant contributor to air pollution and the pollutants that case climate change. The challenge then becomes to build smart so that buildings use a minimum of non-renewable energy, produce minimal pollution, and use a minimum of dollars, while increasing the comfort, health, and safety of the people who work in them.”
Moreover, the Coffs Harbour City council has released such principles and control mechanism in order to minimise any potential impacts to the environment. There are special controls apply to areas that are subject to environmental constraints. An example, in any building development near to the forests needs to meet the required outlines, which would need to have an availability of firefighting operations, emergency water supplies and evacuation exit door.
The Torridge District Council has a plan provides that the best and most versatile agricultural land control mechanism. With the use of this strategy, any adverse effects on the environment are to be minimised. The District Council in partnership with others which has produced an Agriculture strategy for North Devon.
Sustainable tourism policies: By applying environmentally sustainable tourism policies in a strategic manner could prevent the destruction to the environment. Most importantly, by establishing an association with charities and other companies would lead to protect the natural environment, traditions and culture. An example Thomson, support The Travel Foundation, a UK charity that claims to help protect the natural environment of UK for future generations.
* Travel and Tourism L3 BOOK 1 Gillian Dale
* Class Notes
In this assignment, I will be critically examining the way Cape Town has implemented strategies (positive and negative) give my opinion on how the benefits and limitations of the strategies in place.
After the signing of the Responsible Tourism Charter in 2009, the City of Cape Town and its partners have worked closely with other city departments and the local tourism industry to develop a Responsible Tourism Plan for Cape Town that focuses on local needs, people, environment, resources, culture, heritage, and their economy. The city believes that a successful plan will only emerge if the local industry and destination shareholders are co-architects of the plan.
By adopting responsible tourism policies and practices, tourism business can make significant progress. Implementing responsible tourism is important to specific audience segments in Cape Town for the following reasons such as; ensures that Cape Town is a sustainable destination, with water, energy and biodiversity conservation and integrated waste management, helps to create a safer destination and promotes fair business practice.
Primarily, the responsible tourism provides competitive advantage. A significant and growing number of tourists are looking for better experience, a better quality product. They are looking for experiences, which enable them to get closer to the living culture of countries and to experience diverse natural and cultural heritage. Consequently, this is a global trend in the established markets as consumer expectations of their holidays change, people are taking more, shorter trips, and they expect to get more from them.
Likewise, the increasing numbers of consumers are looking at the reputation and responsibility of the companies they buy from. This affects their direct purchases from companies in Cape Town and it influences the economy side of the host country too. An example, places like USA or UK is one of the most prestigious and popular destination within the two different continents, however their success should not hide their strategically development plans for tourism as it demonstrated responsible tourism practices in order to be sustainable in every sense. This implies that tourism destinations that practice Responsible Tourism will have a powerful competitive advantage over other destination. Therefore, the City of Cape Town will have to implement strategic policies in order to accelerate their growth as a responsible destination.
P) In relation to the development of Cape Town has brought positive and negative impacts within it. The local government of the city has established various strong policies and tourism visions for Cape Town to position as a world class competitor and South Africa`s premier tourism and events destination. An example, in 2010 South Africa hosted World Cup that has brought a lot of attention to the country itself. Hence, they have invested of tourism income in projects to support the creation of business opportunities for local communities and emerging entrepreneurs. With limited access to capital and international networks, large-scale investments in hotels, lodges, car rental, or reservations are difficult. Therefore, they have broadened its economic objectives, which is essential for sustainable tourism that contributes to poverty alleviation, benefit economic empowerment, job creation, business development and skills development. This is a positive contribution towards the future of responsible tourism at the destination. They have maximised this strategy by working with organisations to minimise the revenue that leaks on their local area by training, employing locals and providing tourism education on local people to boost the overall standard of living in their region. An example, Phinda Private Game Reserve employs 250 people, of whom 80% are local. The reserve provides direct benefits to some 10% of the surrounding community. Consequently, supporting local economic growth is therefore a key to long-term success!
P) Furthermore, one of their positive strategies that are in place is protecting and enhancing human resources. They have indicated that it is vital to assessing social impacts before developing tourism projects in order to minimise negative impacts and maximise positive ones. Secondly, the city of Cape Town is also combating the exploitation of human beings, particularly the exploration of children and vulnerable residents, through abusive forms of tourism (e.g. sex tourism).
P) The most widely used definition describes sex tourism as “consisting of people from economically developed nations traveling to undeveloped countries specifically to purchase the sexual services of local women and children”. Therefore, people who do not have any partner are more likely to go countries like South Africa, Cape Town.
As a result, they are investing with tourism revenues to community projects by using the “tourism taxes” for such purposes. They have implements a strategy, which is reinvesting revenue from tourism in social projects such as protecting and educating women in skills that make them productive members of society. Consequently, this is also links to the Cape Town`s responsible approach for the social concerns which has created by tourism. In addition, they have been using a positive strategy termed “retention of visitor spending” which allows other communities to benefit from tourism. A good example of this is where; local people turn their farmhouses into tourist accommodation to benefit from tourism.
N) The medium and large-scale enterprises began to demand to have a place in South Africa/ Cape Town. This has been more popular just after the 2010 World Cup. The World Cup has created curiosity and attracted people from all around the world to the destination. Due to the attractiveness, large hotels companies such as Hilton have built their hotel within the destination. This has also led other accommodation providers to build their hotels to areas near where the safari tours made. Consequently, the city began to become over-develop by buildings. Therefore, the local government of Cape Town has implemented a strategy to minimise the negative impact by applying a planning control on the quantity and type of buildings at particular areas.
The strategies that implemented in place are not enough to cover the demands of responsible tourism. The idea of content marketing is to attract and retain visitors by creating relevant and valuable content. An example, supporting a producers association with marketing and materials, providing tourist with information that encourage them to engage and spend locally limited by the misuse of marketing strategy.
N) An another example of negative strategy are; the Zulu artefacts on sale are not ‘Zulu’, not made by Zulus and the sales income does not go to Zulus. In instances such as this, a clear policy and management decision has not placed so far, hence, from my perspective this would put the growth of local enterprises down as it limits the increase of local products.