Dissertation of Methodology

Dissertation of Methodology

STUDENT NAME: NGUYEN THANH NGA
DISSERTATION SUPERVISOR: MS VU CHI MAI
Dissertation title: The influences of leadership style on employee’s job satisfaction in Vietnam’s young science and engineering workforce– A case of VAST organization.
Executive summary
This study focuses on answering the question "research" has shown the relationship between leadership and employees within the organization. An overview of knowledge have shown the leadership style directly influences employee satisfaction. The satisfaction of employees in an organization is the most important element to remain active in the Organization, create value and achieve long-term goals. In this study, the relationship between leadership style and the staff have been clarified thanks to these elements have been clarified in the section above, the organizational culture is a problem has always been put on top of the head and operate businesses, however, besides the efforts of the staff, leadership skills also influence directly to this issue. Transformational leadership was proposed to change the style of leadership in VAST, according to the results collected from the questionnaires were raised this leadership trend was in line with the organization. Research Methodology in this chapter will focus on clarifying gaps defined in Chapter 2 (Literature review). The identification approach to clarify the relationship of components of leadership skills will be relevant to point out the job satisfaction of employees. This study focused on clarifying the influence of leadership styles and job satisfaction of employees in the organization and academic questions is defined "The influences of leadership style on employee’s job satisfaction in Vietnam’s young science and engineering workforce – A case of VAST organization "
Table of Contents
Executive summary 1
List of table and figure 4
Chapter 1 Introduction 5
Background 5
Purpose of research 5
Structure of the research 5
Chapter 2 Literature review 6
Introduction 6
Leadership theories 6
Leadership definition 6
Leadership styles 7
Leadership characteristics 9
Leadership ethics 10
Job satisfaction Theory 10
Background of job satisfaction 11
Job satisfaction definition 11
Research study on the relation between leadership styles on job satisfaction 17
Gaps in the Literature review 17
Chapter 3 Methodology 17
Research approach 17
Research question and research target 17
Quantitative and qualitative approach 18
Data collection 18
Questionnaire 18
Questionnaire structure 19
Interview 20
Interview structure 20
Ethical considerations 22
Validity and reliability of the study 22
Limitation of methodology 22
Chapter 4 Analyzing Data 23
Analyzing data from 200 employees of Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology (VAST) 23
Contingency leadership, external-internal factor, management and recognition 23
Transaction and transformational leadership in management 30
Analyzing data from managers of Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology (VAST) 40
Chapter 5 Finding and Addressing 41
Summary of data analysis 41
Leadership style focus on transformational leadership 42
Leadership style build an organizational cultural 44
Summary of finding 45
Chapter 6 Conclusion 45
Introduction 45
Addressing the research question 45
Discussion & Finding 45
Limitation of research 46
Future research 46
Conclusion 46
References 47
Appendix 51
Appendix 1 51
Appendix 2 52
Appendix 3 56
List of table and figure
Table 4.1 Contingency leadership
Table 4.2 age-rank * Contingency leadership
Table 4.3 External_internal_factors
Table 4.4 External internal factor
Table 4.5 Management- recognition |
Table 4.6 Recognition
Table 4.7 Promotion
Table 4.8 Age-rank * PromotionTable 4.9 Relationship |
Table 4.10: Age-rank * Relationship
Table 4.11 Creativity responsibility
Table 4.12 Age-rank * Creativity_responsibility
Table 4.13 Supportive_environment
Table 4.14 Age-rank * Supportive_environment
Table 4.15 Team_working_spirit
Table 4.16 Age-rank * Team_working_spirit
Figure 4.1 Contingency leadership
Figure 4.2 age-rank * Contingency leadership
Figure 4.3 External_internal_factors
Figure 4.4 External internal factor
Figure 4.5 Management- recognition
Figure 4.6 Recognition
Figure 4.7 Promotion
Figure 4.8 Age-rank * Promotion
Figure 4.9 Relationship
Figure 4.10 Age-rank * Relationship
Figure 4.11 Creativity
Figure 4.12 Age-rank * Creativity_responsibility
Figure 4.13 Supportive_environment
Figure 4.14 Age-rank * Supportive_environment
Figure 4.15 Team work spirit
Figure 4.16 Age-rank * Team_working_spirit
Chapter 1 Introduction
Background
According to Robin and De Cenzo (1998), job satisfaction reflects an employee’s general attitude toward their job. In specific, people with high level of job satisfaction have positive attitudes towards the jobs, while people who are dissatisfied with their job have the negative attitudes toward it. This statement also has been agreed by Avey, Carter and Buerkley (1991) by the conclusion that job satisfaction is an attitude involves specific beliefs about the job, behavior with respect to it, and feeling about it.
The research of Spector (1985) pointed that employee is tended to satisfy with the job they feel is fulfilling and rewarding more than others. Later, in another research, he considered job satisfaction as a global feeling or attitude of employees about various aspect or facets of the job (Spector, 1997). Beside job satisfaction, leadership style which one of the most important factor affect directly job satisfaction. we would present a brief discussion on the historical review of the scientific studies and the prevailing theories of leadership. According to House and Aditya (1997), the studies of organizational leadership have evolved toward many directions, including a variety of leadership styles, for example, servant leadership, emergent leadership, contingency leadership, transactional leadership, and transformational leadership ... Nevertheless, most of them focus on two main approaches. The first one is to characterize the leader's behavior, while the second approach is to demonstrate the leadership styles and their results. In the context of this work, three recent theories to be discussed which are the contingency theory, the transactional theory, and the transformational theory.
Purpose of research
This study focuses on answering the question "research" has shown the relationship between leadership and employees within the organization. An overview of knowledge have shown the leadership style directly influences employee satisfaction. The satisfaction of employees in an organization is the most important element to remain active in the Organization, create value and achieve long-term goals. In this study, the relationship between leadership style and the staff have been clarified thanks to these elements have been clarified in the section above, the organizational culture is a problem has always been put on top of the head and operate businesses, however, besides the efforts of the staff, leadership skills also influence directly to this issue. Transformational leadership was proposed to change the style of leadership in VAST, according to the results collected from the questionnaires were raised this leadership trend was in line with the organization.
Structure of the research
The structure of this study are divided into 6 sections, 1 part concentrate to explain and introduce the purpose of the research, the Foundation of the research problem. Part 2 is an overview of knowledge, giving these theories were the researchers studied in the past and as the basis for this study. Part 3 is a method of research, this chapter presents the methods and research tools in order to achieve the highest efficiency. Part 4 is the data analysis and data collected from questionnaires and interviews. Chapter 5 is the section to discuss and find out the answers to the issues raised in section 2. Chapter 6 is intended to synthesize and draw conclusions for the whole research paper.
Chapter 2 Literature review
Introduction
Leadership style and employee satisfaction are important concern for organizations. This study examined employee satisfaction with a particular focus on Leadership styles within the organization. As aforementioned, the aim of this work is to find a correlation between the leadership styles and the job satisfaction, particularly for Vietnamese young science and engineering workforce. This chapter is going to give a basic literature review on the relevant theories and researches. The definitions of, for example, what leadership is, what leadership’s characteristics are, the differences and similarities in the various leadership style, what job satisfaction is and how it can be perceived, will be given.
Leadership theories
Leadership definition
Hemphill and Coons (1957) defined leadership as the behavior of an individual who is influencing, delegating and conducting a group or team of individuals towards shared goal. Whereas, House (1977), in his research of charismatic leadership, has defined leadership as an individual's ability to motivate, to lead, and to coach employees toward a certain goal in the most effective manner. Much simpler, Warren Bennis defined leadership as “the capacity to translate vision into reality” while Peter Drucker said “The only definition of a leader is someone who has followers” (Kruse, 2013). It is worth to recall the famous quote of Stogdill (1974) about definition of leadership: “There are almost as many definitions of leadership as there are persons who have attempted to define the concept.” However, the nature of leadership does not depend on how differently it is expressed by others. So what is the leadership anyway? In general, one might imagine that leadership is “a process of social influence, which maximizes the efforts of others, towards the achievement of a goal” (Kruse, 2013).
Leadership styles
In this part, we would present a brief discussion on the historical review of the scientific studies and the prevailing theories of leadership. According to House and Aditya (1997), the studies of organizational leadership have evolved toward many directions, including a variety of leadership styles, for example, servant leadership, emergent leadership, contingency leadership, transactional leadership, and transformational leadership ... Nevertheless, most of them focus on two main approaches. The first one is to characterize the leader's behavior, while the second approach is to demonstrate the leadership styles and their results. In the context of this work, three recent theories to be discussed which are the contingency theory, the transactional theory, and the transformational theory.
Contingency leadership
Contingency leadership theory considers the ability of leaders to lead their subordinates in various situational factors, including the leader’s preferred styles, capabilities and behaviors of subordinates as well as other factors (Fiedler, 1967). This concept has been studied by several models such as normative decision theory (Vroom and Jago, 1988), path-goal theory (House, 1971), and situational leadership theory (Hersey and Blanchard, 1977). Most of these contingency models and associated researches were proposed over 30 years ago, well before the emergence of two other modern theories, the so-called transactional and transformational leadership, which will be discussed later.
The main ideas of the contingency theory can be described by four points (Morgan, 2007). First of all, there is no best way to lead an organization and subordinates, or to make decision from situation to situation. The appropriate way of organizing depends on the type of task, internal and external factors. Secondly, to manage organization the internal and external factors need to be satisfied and balanced. Thirdly, management must be concerned with highest priority to be balanced and aligned. Finally, different types of companies or organizations have different internal and external factors to be considered. To achieve the goal the leaders have to influence the subordinates’ behavior upon the internal and external contributing factors.
It is worth to mention the definition of Scott (1981) on the contingency theory: "The best way to organize depends on the nature of the environment to which the organization must relate". This statement is supported by other studies of Lawrence and Lorsch (1967), and Thompson (1967), which investigated the impact of contingency factors, such as technology, suppliers and distributors, consumer interest groups, customers and competitors, government, on organizational structure. Their structural contingency theory was popularly applied for organizational structural theories for most of the 1970s.
Transactional leadership
Since the last two decade, with the recent development of modern sociality, the ability to influence employees to maximize their performance using motivational methods rather than using power or authority has been considered as one of the most important feature for the modern leadership (Kotter, 1996).
Supporting for this idea are two leadership styles theorized by Burns (1978), giving the identification for the first time between transactional leaders and transformational leaders. Transactional leadership, as named, contains a transaction between a leader and his/her subordinates. This transaction, which is mutually agreed, could be a reward or discipline, depending on the performance of employees. Both leader and subordinates focus on achieving the mutually agreed target without any attempt to improve subordinate's attitudes, responsibilities, or a development for long-term plan. A transactional style leader achieves compliance simply via an exchange of rewards for performance. The major drawback of this leadership style is that there is no connection between leader and employees other than a transaction and employees benefit merely from rewards, rather than from their own work.
These transactions can be divided into two types: high quality and low quality. High quality transactions are non-tangible, unmeasurable, and are rewards that improve the relationship between the leaders and employees. While high quality transactions being exchanged warrants the relationship is valuable, rewarding, and in control, low quality transactions are tangible, resulting in an unstable relationship. For example, transactional leaders will offer a promotion for higher productivity. Once rewards are unavailable or might not be interesting any more, the transactional leadership might lose its effectiveness. Even though transactional leadership is good and has been applied in many organizations there is another leadership theory which has been believed to be better.
Transformational leadership
Even though transactional leadership is good and has been applied in many organizations there is another theory, the so-called transformational leadership, which has been believed to be better. Unlikely the transactional style, a transformational leadership is not based on “give and take” relationship. It is the leader's ability to inspire his/her subordinates to rise above their own expectation for a greater good organization (Bass, 1985). Schwarzwald, Koslowsky, and Agassi (2001) state that "Transformational leaders go beyond transactional leadership and are characterized as visionary, articulate, assured, and able to engender confidence in others so as to motivate them surpass their usual performance goals." This type of leadership motivates subordinates rising their creativity, responsibility, as well as team-working spirit to enhance the performance capacity and quality.
However, according to Bass and Steidlmeier (1999), one should distinguish between authentic and pseudo transformational leadership. Pseudo-transformational leaders do things that will benefit their own interests rather than the good of all organization. Pseudo-transformational leaders use the symbol of authority to gain self benefit, which might even lead their subordinates to a disastrous outcome. The subordinates, who are led by an authentic transformational leader, might have higher own expectation and greater willingness to face up challenges and to overcome difficulties. The relationship between a transformational leader and his/her employee requires more flexible than that of transactional leadership. A transformational leader needs to show his/her concern for subordinate's worries, listens their willingness, and to treat them with respect. This does not necessarily mean that the transformational leader never resorts to punishment or negative feedback. When these behaviors are used, they are perceived or may be interpreted as exceptional and required for completing the present task (Schwarzwald, Koslowsky, Agassi, 2001). Within last two decades, it has been reported that numerous organizations had succeeded with the use of transformational leadership models (Chan, 2005).
Leadership characteristics
These concepts of leadership theories were developed later to encompass the "full range model of leadership" (Bass, 1985; Avolio and Bass, 1991; Bass and Avolio, 1993). It is suggested that the leadership should contain basic qualities that form a leader. Consequently, in a research on the identification of transformational leadership qualities, Coetsier, Geit, and Lievens (1997) have defined four important characteristics of a leader as inspirational motivation, intellectual stimulation, individual consideration and idealised influence.
- Inspirational motivation: “is defined as inspiring and empowering followers to enthusiastically accept and pursue challenging goals and a mission.” It means that subordinates can achieve a better goal with a good motivation. To motive the subordinates leaders have to convince them by a strong sense of purpose as well as provide them meaning for the task. Purpose and meaning gives the energy which drives a group of subordinates and leaders forward. If the subordinates are encouraged and optimistic about the future and believe in their abilities, they are willing to challenge higher standard and to invest more effort in their tasks.
- Intellectual stimulation: “leaders who consider old problems in new ways, articulate these new ideas, and encourage followers to rethink their conventional practice and ideas are said to be intellectually stimulating.” Leaders with this style stimulate and encourage creativity in their followers. They provoke and develop people who think and rethink independently with new innovating ideas. For such a leader, learning is a value and unexpected situations are seen as opportunities to learn. Numerous researches have shown that intellectual stimulation leads to amplified individual independence between subordinates which encourage them to ask questions, think deeply about things and figure out better ways to execute their tasks. (Graham 1987, Coad and Berry 1998 and McClelland 1975).
- Individual consideration: “consists of behaviours such as communicating personal respect to followers by giving them specialized attention, by treating each one individually, and by recognizing each one’s unique needs.” The leader gives empathy and support, keeps communication open and places challenges before the followers. This also encompasses the need for respect and celebrates the individual contribution that each follower can make to the team. The followers have a will and aspirations for self development and have intrinsic motivation for their tasks.
- Idealized influence: “is shown by leaders who act as role models, create a sense of identification with a shared vision, and instill pride and faith in followers by overcoming obstacles.” This dimension is also known as charismatic leadership.
Leadership ethics
One must be agreed that the role of ethics in leadership is very important in organization. Any decision made by leaders that will not only affect them, but also other people. And that is why the best leaders must think about how the other people will be affected and make known their values and their ethics in every single decision. “It consists of communicating complete and accurate information, where there is a personal, professional, ethical, or legal obligation to do so” (McQueeney, 2006). Leadership ethics give you the respect and admiration of employees, with the satisfaction of knowing you did the right thing.
Unethical actions in the workplace can be anything from giving incorrect information, hiding information, taking personal phone calls while at your desk, using office supplies for your private purposes, cheating working time for your personal businesses ... In fact, most organizations have their own ethical regulations. An ethical regulation might contain rules that define what behaviors are right and what are wrong, and is used to improve the ethical values of employees in the organizations such as, teamwork, ambition, honesty, efficiency, quality, accomplishment, and dedication.
Job satisfaction Theory
Background of job satisfaction
Job satisfaction is one of the most widely investigated job attitude, as well as one of the most extensively researched subjects in industrial- Organizational – Psychology (Judge & Church, 2000). Job satisfaction was first indicated from Hawthrone test of Mayo, Roethisberger, and Whitehead (1927-1932). The result pointed out that emotion of employees may affect their work behavior, and employee’s sociological and psychological factors are the actual determinant of job satisfaction. Because these factors are not fixed so that different job can have different level of satisfaction, i.e. people at a higher position always have a higher demand for job satisfaction.
According to Griffin and Bateman (1986), job satisfaction is determined by factors such as: goal setting, job design, demographic profile, rewards, leadership and individual differences.
After many researches and studies, many evidences prove that job satisfaction has been linked to absenteeism, mental health, productivity, motivation and general life satisfaction (Landy, 1978). Similarity, Okpara (2006) researches also indicates the consequences of job dissatisfaction include high turnover, absenteeism, lateness, poor performance and low productivity, which bring a common idea that to some extent, the emotional state of an individual is affected by interactions with their work environment.
In order to have a better employee understands for better human resource management, the research about job satisfaction and related topic is always considered as important topic among organization’s research.
Job satisfaction definition
There are several definition of “job satisfaction” and some of the most commonly cited definition of job satisfaction are analyzed in the text that follows.
According to Robin and De Cenzo (1998), job satisfaction reflects an employee’s general attitude toward their job. In specific, people with high level of job satisfaction have positive attitudes towards the jobs, while people who are dissatisfied with their job have the negative attitudes toward it. This statement also has been agreed by Avey, Carter and Buerkley (1991) by the conclusion that job satisfaction is an attitude involves specific beliefs about the job, behavior with respect to it, and feeling about it.
The research of Spector (1985) pointed that employee is tend to satisfy with the job they feel is fulfilling and rewarding more than others. Later, in another research, he considered job satisfaction as a global feeling or attitude of employees about various aspect or facets of the job (Spector, 1997).
Mottaz (1988) insisted job satisfaction as an effective response resulting from an evaluation of the work situation. Individuals may satisfy with some aspect of their works and and dissatisfy with some others, but if they feel or think positively, about relatively more aspects, it may be deducted that there is a factor that can be labeled job satisfaction (Theron, 1999)
Besides, the most widely accepted explanations of job satisfaction was presented by Locke (1976) who defined job satisfaction as “a pleasurable or positive emotional state resulting from the appraisal of one’s job or job experiences” (p. 1304). Additionally, job satisfaction also considered as emotional, cognitive and behavioral components (Bernstein & Nash, 2008). Emotional components referrers regarding the job, such as anxiety, excitement and boredom.   Job satisfaction is a complex and multi facets concept with can mean different things to different people. As usually, job satisfaction always linked to Motivation but the nature of the concept is not cleat because, not like motivation, job satisfaction is more than just an attitude, it represent the inner’s state of an employee.
Intrinsic and Extrinsic of job satisfaction
There are two components make up job satisfaction Kalleberg (1977). They are intrinsic which refers to “the work itself” and extrinsic which refers to facet of the job external to the job itself.
Extrinsic job satisfaction is the one most study and can be understand as employee‘s overall feeling about their job (Muller & Kim, 2008) while intrinsic job satisfaction refers to the feeling about aspects of a specific job such as the payment, benefits, and the relationship with employee’s co-workers (Muller & Kim,2008).
In another research of Dawis (1992), he proved that intrinsic job satisfaction is when workers consider only “the kind of work” they do, the tasks that make up the job while extrinsic job satisfaction is when workers consider “the conditions of work” such as their pay, their benefit and co-workers and supervisor. Therefore, the understanding of the job facets including intrinsic and extrinsic may be helpful in identifying which aspects of a job require to change or improvements. The result may be one of the key factor aid organizations in improving overall job satisfaction, improving productivity and employee commitment or explaining high employee’s turnover and other issues within the organization or (Kerber and Campbell, 1987).
Factors of job satisfaction
Christen, Iyer and Sobeman (2006) provide a model of job satisfaction presented as below including those components:
1. Job related factors
2. Role perceptions
3. Job performance
4. Firm performance
FIGURE 1 – CHRISTEN, IYER AND SOBERMAN MODEL OF JOB SATISFACTION (2006)
Locke and Latham (1990) provide different model of job satisfaction. They assumed that the very first elements of job satisfaction are their own expectations for success in work and the successful itself is the key element of job satisfaction. Figure below present their finding:
FIGURE 2 - LOCKE AND LATHAM MODEL OF JOB SATISFACTION (1990)
Job satisfaction is influences by series of organizational facets. The research of Rue and Byars provide the full picture of factors determining employee’s job satisfaction, what will be presented in the figure below:
FIGURE 3 – DETERMINANT OF SATISFACTION AND DISSATISFACTION
(RUE AND BYARS, 2003)
Approaches of job satisfaction
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs theory
We are motivated by our needs. Our common basic needs are inborn and having evolved over tens of thousands of years. According to Fincham and Rohdes (1999), similar set of needs can be attributed to all individuals. Along time ago, Abraham Maslow (1943) proposed The Hierarchy of needs theory as a means of determining what motivates people to do certain things and to behave in certain ways. He also identified five categories of needs that people are motivated for satisfaction. The finding in this theory can adapt to everyone in any region and remains valid today for understanding human motivation and personal development. These needs are sequential – starting with the most basic needs and busing up to more complicated. See the Figure below for better understanding of Maslow hierarchy of needs
FIGURE 4 – MASLOW’S HIERARCHY OF NEEDS (Alan Chapman, 2001-4)
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs conclude that we have to follow the pyramid step by step, starting with the first which are most common needs for survival itself. Just when lower order needs of physical and emotional needs are fulfilled, we will concern with the higher order needs of influences and personal development. It also means that if the things that satisfy our lower order needs are taken away, we are not keen on the maintenance of our higher order needs.
Herzberg’s Motivation – Hygiene Theor
In 1959, Herzberg published his two-factor theory of work’s motivation. The theory provided that job satisfaction and dissatisfaction are affected by two main factors. Hence, satisfaction and dissatisfaction have to measure on different contrivances.
Herzberg’s finding claimed that certain facets of a job are consistently related to job satisfaction, while different facets are leading to job dissatisfaction. The Figure 5 below showing in detail all possible facets of a jobs and its consequences:
FIGURE 5 – HERZBERG MOTIVATION – HYGIENE THEORY MODEL (1964)
According to Herzberg, the factors leading to job satisfaction and job dissatisfaction are distinct and separate. Therefore, managerial need to adopt a two stage process to motivate their workforce. Firstly, they need to eliminate the available dissatisfaction employee are facing and secondly, help them to find satisfaction. If managerial want to reduce dissatisfying factors, they may create more job commitment, increase salary but not necessarily enhance performance. This heal their workforce instead of motivating them when they need to improve their performance. The elements that associated with job dissatisfaction are called as “Hygiene factors”. If managerial want to increase satisfaction factors, they have to focus mainly on “Motivation factors” like achievement, recognition and responsibility etc.
Research study on the relation between leadership styles on job satisfaction
Lashbrook (1997) stated that leadership style play an importance factors effecting employee’s job satisfaction. Many agreed that different leadership style will create different working environment and directly affect to emotion and behavior of the employees (Bogler, 2001, 2002; Heller,1993; McKee,1991; Timothy & Ronald, 2004). According to Bass (1985), “transformational leadership might intrinsically foster more job satisfaction, given its ability to impart a sense of mission and intellectual stimulation”. The accordant leaders should encourage and motivate their followers to get more responsibility and autonomy in return, therefrom enhancing their employee’s job satisfaction. Also according to Bass (1990) Leadership styles have been largely linked to positive consequence within the organization. Castaneda and Nahavandi (1991) indicated that when employee perceive their supervisors as exhibiting both relational and task oriented behaviors, they are more satisfied.
Gaps in the Literature review
In relation to the theoretical foundation of leadership skills and theory of job satisfaction, showed several relationships need males do to prove as: leadership style would fit with a research organization that aims to improve the efficiency of research and work. The theory also has not made it clear about the relationship between leadership style with the organizational culture. So, the question is academic development " The influences of leadership style on employee’s job satisfaction in Vietnam’s young science and engineering workforce– A case of VAST organization. "
Chapter 3 Methodology
Research approach
Research question and research target
Research Methodology in this chapter will focus on clarifying gaps defined in Chapter 2 (Literature review). The identification approach to clarify the relationship of components of leadership skills will be relevant to point out the job satisfaction of employees. This study focused on clarifying the influence of leadership styles and job satisfaction of employees in the organization and academic questions is defined "The influences of leadership style on employee’s job satisfaction in Vietnam’s young science and engineering workforce – A case of VAST organization "
Quantitative and qualitative approach
Characteristic of Quantitative and qualitative
Research is a process of finding the generalized knowledge to be applied in a variety of explanations for the phenomenon (Collis and Hussey, 2009). To do this the researchers to identify the "source" which could collect relevant data. Once the source has been identified, researchers must choose data collection techniques allow harvest data best. In the ideal case, researchers must use any appropriate method by which data collected reliable. However, in practice, the use of experimental methods to depend upon the type of data needs to be collected. When to quantitative information, the quantitative methods are most appropriate. If data is to be collected qualitative researchers have used qualitative methods.
Mix-method approach
Qualitative research is an approach that seeks to describe and analyze the characteristics and culture of human behavior and group of people from the perspective of researchers. Qualitative research provides comprehensive information on the characteristics of the social environment where the study was conducted. Social life is seen as a sequence of events closely associated with each other but should be sufficiently descriptive to reflect actual daily life (Arora and Stoner, 2009). Qualitative research is based on a flexible research strategy and dialectical. This method allows detection of important topics that researchers can
have not been previously covered. In qualitative and quantitative research, a number of research questions and methods of gathering information to be prepared in advance, but they can be adjusted to suit the new information appears in the collection process. It is one of the fundamental differences between the qualitative and quantitative methods (Arora and Stoner, 2009).
Using both of qualitative and quantitative approach can help this research define exactly relation between leadership style and job satisfaction. Questionnaire and interview which are two methods can help collect data and useful for analyze in the research.
Data collection
Questionnaire
The questionnaire is a system of questions arranged on the basis of the principle that psychology, logic, and according to certain content in order to facilitate the respondents express their views on the issues of the research subjects and researchers acquired the unique information first meet the requirements and objectives of the research study (Cooper and Schindler, 2008).
Typically, a set of questionnaires to the two following requirements: Must meet the objectives of the investigation and must conform to the psychological level and the respondents.
The role of questionnaires in management research is an important tool in empirical perception. It is shown outside of the research program. Questionnaire to be considered as a means to store information: Information recorded on the individual questionnaire, a questionnaire so that facilities for the existence of information. Information can be stored for use again in the future research. Questionnaire as a bridge between the research and the answers (Cooper and Schindler, 2008). On the one hand, under the impact of the introduction of the research problem, the research objectives. On the other hand, it is also influenced by the respondent (how to objectively answer). The gathering of information, if not to use the questionnaire would be arbitrary, not orderly, consistent lack of content, or information collected will not fit the theme and objective research (Cooper and Schindler, 2008).
Questionnaire structure
Based on the form of the question presented, can be classified into 3 types (close - open - combined)
Closed question: the question is already answered plans. Question closing options: Respondents select one option only when answering. Question closing options: The respondents can choose multiple options as answers.
Questionnaire types
* Closed questions can be divided into
+ Type 1: Bipolar Question (Yes - No)
+ Type 2: Question intensity (rank): To avoid bias, it is more likely to set the intensity of the phenomenon or opinions, respondents were selected according to different levels. (This type of question usually provides the ability to choose 3 or 5 answers surrounding medium)
* Open Question: is not available the question answers, respondents can provide the most appropriate opinion of themselves to fill the questionnaire. Open-ended questions are used. At the start of the study so that decision making of appropriate questions to determine the content and research is needed.
+ Use open-ended questions to increase people's positive response: Use the interview to be natural for the driver information to be collected.
+ Used to diagnose and examine the respondents' perception: diagnosis engine, comported reasons, personal concerns, problems exist, desires and aspirations ...
* The advantages of open-ended questions
+ Obtained information depth in nature, such as thoughts, aspirations, emotional, motor, views ...
+ Information obtained reliable, accurate and objective than closed questions.
 * The main disadvantage of open questions:
+ Difficult to collect information. Respondents had to answer the new thinking.
+ Difficult for information processing problems: As classified information, the general consensus is not to be together. Time constraints and cost: not many people use synthetic, if many people must work together to unify the code.
* Question combinations: Combination of closed questions and open questions. This type is used
for all schemes not find expression in closed questions, which required respondents to express more.
* Based on the use of questions, can be divided into 2 categories: Question content and functionality questions.
- Question content: Find out what issues should be studied (there are 3 types: Event - knowledge - attitude, perspective, motors)
+ Event Question: Is the question of identity, occupation, age, gender, family composition, social status, activities of ... (These are the questions used in the beginning to ask , to get acquainted, or pauses between questions and comments engine. information obtained from these questions are highly reliable, so often used to perform additional functions and quality control )
+ Knowledge Question: to determine whether the respondents have a firm grip on what matters? Or assess the level of knowledge about the issues raised.
+ Question attitudes, opinions, engine: To gather information about the opinions and attitudes as well as the intensity of the respondents views on the issues raised.
Interview
Interview is a method of gathering information on the basis of the verbal communication taking place purposes. In the interview, the interviewer stated the question as a dc program set rules based on the basis of large number of mathematics. Data collected from interview will use to define and find new gaps in the literature review. The type of interview for this research which focus on individual manager – group of managers.
Interview structure
- Individual interviews:
+ Interview with standardization: The role of the investigator is the only rational explanation for the study of the ongoing investigation, and questioning as intact as it was presented earlier.
* Advantages:
The data collected can be compared directly with each other. Easy to integrate with the hypothesis test.
* Disadvantage: Requires sequential seldom confined to psychological investigation. On the other hand: Requires the construction of questions, ordering of questions, as well as how to proceed must be tightly regulated.
+ Non-standardized interviews (interviews freedom):
Only question is the fixed frame, and the probing questions can be changed to suit the context of respondents and implementation.
* Advantage: Creating psychological comfort for the investigator and the investigated.
* Disadvantage: Requires the investigator to have higher levels of education, said talk and drive in accordance with the direction the story.
+ Standard interviews: a question of crucial standardized, while other questions may speak up specific situation.
* Advantage: the interviewer can explain to the interviewee about the purpose of the interview, the content of the question .. thereby raising the spirit is ready to answer correctly the interviewees.
+ Function of the test questions work better
+ Interviewer has the ability to create a variety of important additional information to assess respondents.
* Disadvantage:
+ In a certain period, the interviewer can only interview a limited number of people surveyed. When the number of respondents increases, costs will rise and time will be lengthened.
+ To interview: The interviewer must be trained and master interviewing techniques. Therefore, the cost to train them also quite expensive.
+ In these cases, lack of skillful interviewing led to contradictory attitude, not the person agrees to be interviewed. From that makes them refuse to answer or wrong answer incorrectly.
+ In contrast, the interviewer may have implications for strong hint to the answer being right is not the dominant opinion of themselves.
+ Information processing complex, costly.
+ In-depth interview: the interview expert opinion or insight into a political issue or economic, social conundrum that.
+ Interview team: a group of people interviewed in the same time and place in order to clarify a certain topic. Should understand and be fluent in three principles: the art of asking questions - listen art - art interview turned into a creative inquiry.
Some rules for the interviews.
 - Selection of the interviews: gender, occupation, education level ...
- Choose the right context standardized interview: Try to ensure that the environment is relatively uniform, with an atmosphere of trust, honesty, serious, fun ...
- Need to study the characteristics of the language of communication, ability to deal with a situation sparks?
- Need to study content includes interviews: Prepare separate question or answer written questions ... to organize and present the content in a scientific way so that at the highest effective information .
Ethical considerations
A good research cannot adhere to the ethical principles when implemented, moral principles are directed to this study is the information collected and the data collected by questionnaires and interviews (Saunders et al., 2009). Therefore, this study will comply with the regulations to protect people detained in the course of the study, to avoid any damage to the honor and confidential personal information of participants. In addition to privacy issues, to be able to get the consent of research participants, researchers will need a full text of information and the purpose of the study, which will help participants in understanding the purpose and commitment to confidentiality of participant information. Information and data of the study will be used and stored will be announced to the participants to get the cooperation and trust. From the foregoing, in research ethics is an issue of primary concern in this study.
Validity and reliability of the study
From theory defined in chapter 2 (literature review) and the research methodology is set out the questionnaire and interview mistakes and research information in the wrong direction will not happen. The information collected from the participants will significantly strengthen the research and a practical and useful way. The value of the information collected is accurate thanks to the design of the data collection is consistent with the number of participants and answering interview questions. With these research questions in the table will serve to create an analysis and the results of quantitative and qualitative analysis and in-depth. The authenticity of the study will be clarified thanks to the selection of a suitable organization with the appropriate staff involved for retrieving data. The objective of the study is feasible and necessary to highlight the problem also lies in the ability to analyze the study.
Limitation of methodology
Research has shown these factors in relation to the environment of the young scientists, in particular the relationship between leadership style and level of job satisfaction of employees. Besides the results obtained from the research, it still exist limitations and shortcomings in the sampling process and interviews. Small research scope will not allow researchers a comprehensive view on the issue. Research should be expanded in the future to strengthen the results and find out what factors influence the attitudes and satisfaction in the work of young scientists.
Chapter 4 Analyzing Data
Analyzing data from 200 employees of Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology (VAST)
Contingency leadership, external-internal factor, management and recognition
Contingency leadership in management
Data analysis and SPSS software based on the results obtained from the questionnaire showed that the relationship between age and contingency leadership in the process of working in the organization. The results shown in the tables, the rate can result Slightly unimportant 5.5%, 3.5% neither, 28% Slightly Important and 63% very important.
Table 4.1 Contingency leadership |
Contingency_leadership | Frequency | Percent | Valid Percent | Cumulative Percent |
Valid | Slightly unimportant | 11 | 5.5 | 5.5 | 5.5 |
| Neither | 7 | 3.5 | 3.5 | 9.0 |
| Slightly Important | 56 | 28.0 | 28.0 | 37.0 |
| Very important | 126 | 63.0 | 63.0 | 100.0 |
| Total | 200 | 100.0 | 100.0 | |
Figure 4.1 Contingency leadership
Based on result which showed that employees have age ranks 1 (16-25 years old), 2 (26-35 years old) see contingency leadership is slightly important. Employees have age ranks 3 (36-45 years old), 4 (46-55 years old) see is very important.
Table 4.2 age-rank * Contingency leadership |
Contingency leadership | Slightly unimportant | Neither | Slightly Important | Very important | Total |
age-rank | 1 | 0 | 7 | 11 | 31 | 49 |
| 2 | 11 | 0 | 14 | 27 | 52 |
| 3 | 0 | 0 | 23 | 44 | 67 |
| 4 | 0 | 0 | 8 | 24 | 32 |
Total | 11 | 7 | 56 | 126 | 200 |
Figure 4.2 age-rank * Contingency leadership
External-internal factor in management
Data analysis and SPSS software based on the results obtained from the questionnaire showed that the relationship between age and External-internal factor in management in the process of working in the organization. The results shown in the tables, the rate can result Slightly unimportant 3 %, 27 % neither, 42 % Slightly Important and 28 % very important.
Table 4.3 External_internal_factors |
| External_internal_factors | Frequency | Percent | Valid Percent | Cumulative Percent |
Valid | Slightly unimportant | 6 | 3.0 | 3.0 | 3.0 |
| Neither | 54 | 27.0 | 27.0 | 30.0 |
| Slightly Important | 84 | 42.0 | 42.0 | 72.0 |
| Very important | 56 | 28.0 | 28.0 | 100.0 |
| Total | 200 | 100.0 | 100.0 | |
Figure 4.3 External_internal_factors
Based on result which showed that employees have age ranks 1 (16-25 years old), 2 (26-35 years old) see contingency leadership is slightly important. Employees have age ranks 3 (36-45 years old), 4 (46-55 years old) see is very important and neither result equally from 1-4 aged rank.
Table 4.4 External internal factor
External- internal | Slightly unimportant | Neither | Slightly Important | Very important | Total |
age-rank | 1 | 0 | 17 | 14 | 18 | 49 |
| 2 | 6 | 22 | 15 | 9 | 52 |
| 3 | 0 | 15 | 31 | 21 | 67 |
| 4 | 0 | 0 | 24 | 8 | 32 |
Total | 6 | 54 | 84 | 56 | 200 |
Figure 4.4 External internal factor
Management and recognition
Data analysis and SPSS software based on the results obtained from the questionnaire showed that the relationship between age and management-recognition factor in management in the process of working in the organization. The results shown in the tables, the rate can result strongly disagree 5.5 %, 9.5 % disagreed, 34.5 % undecided and 29 % agreed, 21.5% strongly agreed .
Table 4.5 Management- recognition |
| Recognition | Frequency | Percent | Valid Percent | Cumulative Percent |
Valid | strongly disagree | 11 | 5.5 | 5.5 | 5.5 |
| disagree | 19 | 9.5 | 9.5 | 15.0 |
| undecided | 69 | 34.5 | 34.5 | 49.5 |
| agree | 58 | 29.0 | 29.0 | 78.5 |
| strongly agree | 43 | 21.5 | 21.5 | 100.0 |
| Total | 200 | 100.0 | 100.0 | |
Figure 4.5 Management- recognition
Based on result which showed that employees have age ranks 1 (16-25 years old), 2 (26-35 years old) see recognition and management is slightly important and strongly agreed. Employees have age ranks 3 (36-45 years old), 4 (46-55 years old) see is neither and undecided. Result equally from 1-4 aged rank.
Table 4.6 Recognition |
Recognition | strongly disagree | disagree | undecided | Agree | strongly agree | Total |
age-rank | 1 | 0 | 0 | 1 | 18 | 30 | 49 |
| 2 | 0 | 0 | 10 | 29 | 13 | 52 |
| 3 | 11 | 19 | 26 | 11 | 0 | 67 |
| 4 | 0 | 0 | 32 | 0 | 0 | 32 |
Total | 11 | 19 | 69 | 58 | 43 | 200 |
Figure 4.6 Recognition
Transaction and transformational leadership in management
Promotion and relationship
Data analysis and SPSS software based on the results obtained from the questionnaire showed that the relationship between age and promotion in organization factor in management in the process of working in the organization. The results shown in the tables, the rate can result 3 % disagreed, 27 % undecided and 42 % agreed, 56 % strongly agreed .
Table 4.7 Promotion |
| Promotion | Frequency | Percent | Valid Percent | Cumulative Percent |
Valid | Disagree | 6 | 3.0 | 3.0 | 3.0 |
| Undicided | 54 | 27.0 | 27.0 | 30.0 |
| Agree | 84 | 42.0 | 42.0 | 72.0 |
| strongly agree | 56 | 28.0 | 28.0 | 100.0 |
| Total | 200 | 100.0 | 100.0 | |
Figure 4.7 Promotion
Based on result which showed that employees have age ranks 1 (16-25 years old), 2 (26-35 years old) see promotion in organization is slightly important and strongly agreed and agreed. Employees have age ranks 3 (36-45 years old), 4 (46-55 years old) see is agreed and strongly agreed. Result equally from 1-4 aged rank.
Table 4.8 Age-rank * Promotion |
Promotion | disagree | undicided | Agree | strongly agree | Total |
age-rank | 1 | 0 | 17 | 14 | 18 | 49 |
| 2 | 6 | 22 | 15 | 9 | 52 |
| 3 | 0 | 15 | 31 | 21 | 67 |
| 4 | 0 | 0 | 24 | 8 | 32 |
Total | 6 | 54 | 84 | 56 | 200 |
Figure 4.8 Age-rank * Promotion
Data analysis and SPSS software based on the results obtained from the questionnaire showed that the relationship between age and relationship in management in the organization. The results shown in the tables, the rate can result 10% strongly disagreed, 20 % disagreed, 16 % undecided and 23 % agreed, 31 % strongly agreed .
Table 4.9 Relationship |
| Relationship | Frequency | Percent | Valid Percent | Cumulative Percent |
Valid | strong disagree | 20 | 10.0 | 10.0 | 10.0 |
| Disagree | 40 | 20.0 | 20.0 | 30.0 |
| Undicided | 32 | 16.0 | 16.0 | 46.0 |
| Agree | 46 | 23.0 | 23.0 | 69.0 |
| strongly agree | 62 | 31.0 | 31.0 | 100.0 |
| Total | 200 | 100.0 | 100.0 | |
Figure 4.9 Relationship
Based on result which showed that employees have age ranks 1 (16-25 years old), 2 (26-35 years old) see relationship in organization is slightly important and strongly agreed and agreed. Employees have age ranks 3 (36-45 years old), 4 (46-55 years old) see is agreed and strongly agreed. Result equally from 1-4 aged rank.
Table 4.10: Age-rank * Relationship |
Relationship | strong disagree | disagree | undicided | agree | strongly agree | Total |
age-rank | 1 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 49 | 49 |
| 2 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 39 | 13 | 52 |
| 3 | 10 | 18 | 32 | 7 | 0 | 67 |
| 4 | 10 | 22 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 32 |
Total | 20 | 40 | 32 | 46 | 62 | 200 |
Figure 4.10 Age-rank * Relationship
Creativity, responsibility – supportive environment and team working spirit
Data analysis and SPSS software based on the results obtained from the questionnaire showed that the relationship between age and creativity in organization factor in management in the process of working in the organization. The results shown in the tables, the rate can result 3.5% strongly disagreed, 10.5 % disagreed, 28.5 % undecided and 40 % agreed, 17.5 % strongly agreed .
Table 4.11 Creativity responsibility |
| Creativity | Frequency | Percent | Valid Percent | Cumulative Percent |
Valid | strongly disagree | 7 | 3.5 | 3.5 | 3.5 |
| disagree | 21 | 10.5 | 10.5 | 14.0 |
| undicided | 57 | 28.5 | 28.5 | 42.5 |
| agree | 80 | 40.0 | 40.0 | 82.5 |
| strongly agree | 35 | 17.5 | 17.5 | 100.0 |
| Total | 200 | 100.0 | 100.0 | |
Figure 4.11 Creativity
Based on result which showed that employees have age ranks 1 (16-25 years old), 2 (26-35 years old) see creativity in organization is slightly important and strongly agreed and agreed. Employees have age ranks 3 (36-45 years old), 4 (46-55 years old) see is agreed and strongly agreed. Result equally from 1-4 aged rank.
Table 4.12 Age-rank * Creativity_responsibility |
Creativity | strongly disagree | disagree | undicided | agree | strongly agree | total |
age-rank | 1 | 7 | 10 | 32 | 0 | 0 | 49 |
| 2 | 0 | 11 | 25 | 16 | 0 | 52 |
| 3 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 57 | 10 | 67 |
| 4 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 7 | 25 | 32 |
Total | 7 | 21 | 57 | 80 | 35 | 200 |
Figure 4.12 Age-rank * Creativity_responsibility
Data analysis and SPSS software based on the results obtained from the questionnaire showed that the relationship between age and supportive environment in organization factor in management in the process of working in the organization. The results shown in the tables, the rate can result 5.5% strongly disagreed, 9.5 % disagreed, 34.5 % undecided and 29 % agreed, 21.5 % strongly agreed.
Table 4.13 Supportive_environment |
| Supportive | Frequency | Percent | Valid Percent | Cumulative Percent |
Valid | strongly disagree | 11 | 5.5 | 5.5 | 5.5 |
| disagree | 19 | 9.5 | 9.5 | 15.0 |
| undecided | 69 | 34.5 | 34.5 | 49.5 |
| agree | 58 | 29.0 | 29.0 | 78.5 |
| strongly agree | 43 | 21.5 | 21.5 | 100.0 |
| Total | 200 | 100.0 | 100.0 | |
Figure 4.13 Supportive_environment
Based on result which showed that employees have age ranks 1 (16-25 years old), 2 (26-35 years old) see creativity in organization is slightly important and strongly agreed and agreed. Employees have age ranks 3 (36-45 years old), 4 (46-55 years old) see is agreed and strongly agreed. Result equally from 1-4 aged rank.
Table 4.14 Age-rank * Supportive_environment Crosstabulation |
Supportive environment | strongly disagree | disagree | undecided | Agree | strongly agree | total |
age-rank | 1 | 0 | 0 | 1 | 18 | 30 | 49 |
| 2 | 0 | 0 | 10 | 29 | 13 | 52 |
| 3 | 11 | 19 | 26 | 11 | 0 | 67 |
| 4 | 0 | 0 | 32 | 0 | 0 | 32 |
Total | 11 | 19 | 69 | 58 | 43 | 200 |
Figure 4.14 Age-rank * Supportive_environment Crosstabulation
Data analysis and SPSS software based on the results obtained from the questionnaire showed that the relationship between age and team work spirit in organization factor in management in the process of working in the organization. The results shown in the tables, the rate can result 5.5% strongly disagreed, 9.5 % disagreed, 34.5 % undecided and 29 % agreed, 21.5 % strongly agreed.
Table 4.15 Team_working_spirit |
| Team work | Frequency | Percent | Valid Percent | Cumulative Percent |
Valid | strongly disagree | 7 | 3.5 | 3.5 | 3.5 |
| Disagree | 21 | 10.5 | 10.5 | 14.0 |
| Undicided | 57 | 28.5 | 28.5 | 42.5 |
| Agree | 80 | 40.0 | 40.0 | 82.5 |
| strongly agree | 35 | 17.5 | 17.5 | 100.0 |
| Total | 200 | 100.0 | 100.0 | |
Figure 4.15 Team work spirit
Based on result which showed that employees have age ranks 1 (16-25 years old), 2 (26-35 years old) see creativity in organization is slightly important and strongly agreed and agreed. Employees have age ranks 3 (36-45 years old), 4 (46-55 years old) see is agreed and strongly agreed. Result equally from 1-4 aged rank.
Table 4.16 Age-rank * Team_working_spirit |
Team work spirit | strongly disagree | disagree | undicided | agree | strongly agree | Total |
age-rank | 1 | 7 | 10 | 32 | 0 | 0 | 49 |
| 2 | 0 | 11 | 25 | 16 | 0 | 52 |
| 3 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 57 | 10 | 67 |
| 4 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 7 | 25 | 32 |
Total | 7 | 21 | 57 | 80 | 35 | 200 |
Figure 4.16 Age-rank * Team_working_spirit
Analyzing data from managers of Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology (VAST)
Summarizing of managers answers in VAST, they tend to answer the definition of leadership skill they own through experiences and joining some courses about leadership. They explained Leadership is a quality you need to learn and practice . The best way to learn is from your own experience . Leadership is developed through practical experience , through friction , challenging daily work . As with everything else in life , the more time exploring leadership fact , the more you reap a lot from it . From the theoretical background , ideas and experience of predecessors which provide topical , combined with the experience of yourself , you will gradually discover the leadership of the school itself as well as ask the skills , qualities required of a leader who made ​​them .
Going in to detail with questions come from interview about Leadership in case. Managers of VAST tend to answer in fields:
What is situational leadership ? You are a manager ? You are my options for a perfect management style to apply to all your employees ? Do not waste public , there is no best style . In fact , the effective management requires different management styles .
- Leaders of the situation including the use of four different management styles :
* Management style guide
* Management style advice
* Management style support
Style of leadership in VAST and decentralized authorization in research in organization
    1 . Management style guide
The manager will instruct staff how to get the job done , close examination of the activities and employees themselves make most decisions . This style is best suited to manage new employees on the job or on the job well done. However, if managers only use this style would become trifles , arbitrary .
    2 . Management style advice
Managers constantly giving direction and force employees to join and problem solving involved in the decision process. To do this, pull the employee's comments , answer questions , and yet expressed interest in discussing each individual work . This style is appropriate when an employee is no longer new to the job but also their inability or confidence in ability to perform his job .
    3 . Management style support
Managers use this style when his staff has the ability to perform assigned work , but a lack of confidence. In this style , where managers to employees raised concerns and to discuss the difficulties .
However, instead of solving household managers they support only . Doing so will enhance the independence and confidence of staff .
4. Style or decentralized authorization
Use for both staff skills and confidence in handling work. However, if you use this style before your people ready for work , they will probably feel that you've abandoned them . The requirements for leadership situations:  Continuous change management style to suit the development of skills , experience and confidence of staff . If not will that employees cannot be developed. Ready to use different styles by the same people as he can be confident and have the ability to perform a job, a new job is assigned to him would require a different management style. Always made ​​with the goal of management is to make your employees develop skills and increase independence
Leaders of the situation has become a common approach and become an effective leadership skill by it as of the difference between the employees. Learn how this approach will work more smoothly because your employees will learn to govern themselves.
Chapter 5 Finding and Addressing
Summary of data analysis
Based on the results obtained from the questionnaire showed that the relationship between age and contingency leadership in the process of working in the organization.
The results shown in the tables, the rate can result slightly unimportant 5.5%, 3.5% neither, 28% Slightly Important and 63% very important. External-internal factors in management in the process of working in the organization. The results shown in the tables, the rate can result Slightly unimportant 3 %, 27 % neither, 42 % Slightly Important and 28 % very important.
Management-recognition factors in management in the process of working in the organization. The results shown in the tables, the rate can result strongly disagree 5.5 %, 9.5 % disagreed, 34.5 % undecided and 29 % agreed, 21.5% strongly agreed
Promotion in organization’s factor in management is the process of working in the organization. The results shown in the tables, the rate can result 3 % disagreed, 27 % undecided and 42 % agreed, 56 % strongly agreed.
Relationship in the organization, the results shown in the tables, the rate can result 10% strongly disagreed, 20 % disagreed, 16 % undecided and 23 % agreed, 31 % strongly agreed .
Creativity in organization. The results shown in the tables, the rate can result 3.5% strongly disagreed, 10.5 % disagreed, 28.5 % undecided and 40 % agreed, 17.5 % strongly agreed .
Supportive environment in management. The results shown in the tables, the rate can result 5.5% strongly disagreed, 9.5 % disagreed, 34.5 % undecided and 29 % agreed, 21.5 % strongly agreed.
Team work spirit in organization the organization. The results shown in the tables, the rate can result 5.5% strongly disagreed, 9.5 % disagreed, 34.5 % undecided and 29 % agreed, 21.5 % strongly agreed.
Leadership style focus on transformational leadership
Leadership is not only management The great leader is a "visionary " and likely to lead employees to reach that vision with passion intense work . Therefore, leaders should not too tight management staff , which should make them a true owner of the company by enabling them to participate in solving problems . Any employee may also be entitled to the leadership as long as they have innovative ideas and can inspire and enthusiasm to others .
Comparing with literature in chapter 2, Even though transactional leadership is good and has been applied in many organizations there is another theory, the so-called transformational leadership, which has been believed to be better. Unlikely the transactional style, a transformational leadership is not based on “give and take” relationship. It is the leader's ability to inspire his/her subordinates to rise above their own expectation for a greater good organization (Bass, 1985). Schwarzwald, Koslowsky, and Agassi (2001) state that "Transformational leaders go beyond transactional leadership and are characterized as visionary, articulate, assured, and able to engender confidence in others so as to motivate them surpass their usual performance goals." This type of leadership motivates subordinates rising their creativity, responsibility, as well as team-working spirit to enhance the performance capacity and quality. Solution showed that:
Creating a work atmosphere of intimacy, the leader should develop a friendly working atmosphere in the company. Intimacy will help people come up with more creative ideas . Such an atmosphere can be created in many ways , such as allowing employees to dress comfortably when you do , encourage employees to present their ideas , organize meetings or unofficial organization regular outings .
Reform workflow The workflow is a complicated form of the disease " cancer " of the organization . They slow down the decision-making process , causing serious waste and companies lose competitive advantage . The " cure " the disease definitely not easy , but every employee can improve the situation by removing the excess work in process and work closely with colleagues to accelerate decision-making process .
Dare to face the fact. However, leader has received a number of potential risks in that success . Instead of her illusion or that things will gradually improve , he decided to face reality and carry out reforms . In general , successful leaders always accept the truth and are willing to change strategies and business plans to suit the actual circumstances .
"Downsize" workplace business is not what " sublime " or complex . The new simplicity to help organizations operate more efficiently . The leader should be a pioneer in the " simplicity " work such as removing messages and letters from " nuisance " internally.
Openness to change Good leaders are expected to trend movements of the world , to make employees understand that change is inevitable and growth opportunities , or at least a challenge can be overcome if we the preparation .
Inspiring employees Leader did not like leadership style " boss is always right " . According to him , leaders need to inspire employees to work for them by listening point presentation and expressed his appreciation for their efforts .
Breaking the old working style what is true in the past is not necessarily true in the future, therefore coming to power in organization , leader need break the long tradition of the group to find a new direction . He often held meetings to try to resolve the problem as best to consult employees as to carry out a significant change in the company .
Create a learning environment in the company The leader should create a learning environment in which everyone actively improve their knowledge and find new ideas . The idea must be created and shared at all levels in the company . When you find good ideas , leaders should reward the "author " and put into practice immediately .
Increased employee performance Due to competition in the market increasingly fierce , only those who are new dynamic seized the opportunity . Leaders should " practice " for staff working attitude and ability to expeditiously decide quickly .
Uphold the core values ​​of the organization As a leader it is naturally very interested in value of research and performance of employees. However, not so that he "forgot " the core values ​​of organization as always considered common goal is king , thoroughly remove cumbersome administrative procedures , thinking at the global level and always ready welcome new ideas . In general , leaders should uphold the core values ​​, contributing to the " corporate culture " and do not focus on the financial indicators when evaluating the results .
Reduce the intensity of which increases management efficiency Leaders should reduce and supervision to employees more autonomy. Be confident in the ability of employees assigned to work for them and provide the necessary conditions to carry out the work. Then they bring the results will be better.
Leadership style build an organizational cultural
Leadership style appropriate to the period "birth" for a mature organization cultural, the results will be counterproductive, even contributing to accelerate the disintegration of the organization entirely.
Speaking of cultural organizations cannot separate the discussion of the role and function of leadership or corporate organizations. Researchers cultural organizations are divided into six main cultural model based on the leader's role:
1 - Culture and power: the main characteristic of this model is the head of the agency power is almost absolute. Attitude -oriented organizations often have power attack attitude towards other organizations, "light" is "buying" or" merger". The employees in this organization often expressed a desire for higher power, maybe even sacrifice economic benefits to be ... sitting on the galaxy.
2 - Culture model: the role of leadership in the organization model is an example for subordinates to follow. In other words, leadership is often a character caliber of talent and virtue, the people worshiped, respected. The staff often focuses on rules, norms, routine in every job.
3 - Culture tasks: the role of leadership is not so important as in the above two models. Position in the organization model based on assigned tasks rather than relying on the power distribution system. Employees working in distributed cross- functional groups depending on the project should not be higher sense of power.
4 - Culture and risk: the role of the leader is to encourage employees to work in the creative spirit , dare to take responsibility , brave enough to handle a problem -oriented right fit common interests of the organization have not received direct instructions from their superiors.
5 - Culture promote individual roles : in the research organization , have high scholarly , such as universities or departments in charge of research and product development ( R & D ) of large organization , role of individual autonomy is relatively high . Thus the role of the leader is skillful guidance -minded individuals in the creative organization's overall goals and attitude to flaunt their authority .
6 - Culture promote collective role : the role of the leader is dissolved and for a group of people sharing style tribal council elders , gang alliances ... Of course , knowing use of collective power to accomplish their own goals , leaders become " dictators " in the cultural patterns of power .
Can define "culture" of an organization by examining the most remarkable characteristics of the organization and are willing to accept mixed elements.
Summary of finding
From the results obtained and conclusions, have answered the questions and research aspects referring to the issue of the leadership style affects job satisfaction of staff working on research in science and engineering. The first problem is that transformational leadership styles leadership style should be done within the organization instead of the other leadership styles. Audit results the elements of leadership style as their creativity, responsibility, recognition, team work, promotion, ... gave the result that trend is transformational leadership style staff. The second problem is the problem of corporate culture created by the leadership style, this issue always open in the literature review, the clarification of the leadership factor influencing organizational culture and job satisfaction is something to be exploited, and in management research.
Chapter 6 Conclusion
Introduction
From the chapters presented above showed that the factors mentioned and find out about the relationship between leadership style and work satisfaction of staff in the organization. In this chapter will sum up the problem studied, learn and take out the limitations and future research solutions, expand research and development academic depth.
Addressing the research question
Leadership style and employee satisfaction are important concern for organizations. This study examined employee satisfaction with a particular focus on Leadership styles within the organization. As aforementioned, the aim of this work is to find a correlation between the leadership styles and the job satisfaction, particularly for Vietnamese young science and engineering workforce. This research is going to give a basic finding on the relevant theories and researches. The definitions of, for example, what leadership is, what leadership’s characteristics are, the differences and similarities in the various leadership style, what job satisfaction is and how it can be perceived. Methodology showed the quantitative and qualitative approach which were used for this research,
Discussion & Finding
The research question show the relationship between leadership style and job satisfaction, based on literature and data analysis showed: First, transformational style is suitable for VAST organization. Leaders of science organization should develop a friendly working atmosphere in the company. Intimacy will help people come up with more creative ideas. Such an atmosphere can be created in many ways , such as allowing employees to dress comfortably when you do , encourage employees to present their ideas , organize meetings or unofficial organization regular outings. Good leaders are expected to trend movements of the world , to make employees understand that change is inevitable and growth opportunities , or at least a challenge can be overcome if we the preparation .Inspiring employees Leader did not like leadership style " boss is always right " . According to findings, leaders need to inspire employees to work for them by listening point presentation and expressed his appreciation for their efforts .Breaking the old working style what is true in the past is not necessarily true in the future, therefore coming to power in organization , leader need break the long tradition of the group to find a new direction . He often held meetings to try to resolve the problem as best to consult employees as to carry out a significant change in the company. Secondly, Culture and power: the main characteristic of this model is the head of the agency power is almost absolute. Attitude -oriented organizations often have power attack attitude towards other organizations, "light" is "buying" or" merger". The employees in this organization often expressed a desire for higher power.
Limitation of research
In the course of research, the limitations as to the scope and number of participants interviewed were young, the number held only within an organization. Research focused on issues of leadership style and was just one factor affecting job satisfaction of employees, The organization's leader interview takes only a short time to clarify thoroughly about their leadership behavior in the organization. These limitations will need to be overcome to expand for future research
Future research
This study had clarified the elements of the leadership style affects job satisfaction of employees and build organizational culture based on leadership style. A few points have been clarified in this research paper, however the limitations in the studies also exist and should expand in the future, expanding research will focus on the number and scope of the study, the factors that lead should be read more closely in the process of researching the future, future research will show the relationship between job satisfaction and other factors such as salary, career development within the Organization,...
Conclusion
This study focuses on answering the question "research" has shown the relationship between leadership and employees within the organization. An overview of knowledge have shown the leadership style directly influences employee satisfaction. The satisfaction of employees in an organization is the most important element to remain active in the Organization, create value and achieve long-term goals. In this study, the relationship between leadership style and the staff have been clarified thanks to these elements have been clarified in the section above, the organizational culture is a problem has always been put on top of the head and operate businesses, however, besides the efforts of the staff, leadership skills also influence directly to this issue. Transformational leadership was proposed to change the style of leadership in VAST, according to the results collected from the questionnaires were raised this leadership trend was in line with the organization. Directions for future research are identified in order to limit the restrictions were spelled out and finding out new things in the issue of leadership in the organization.
References
Appendix
Appendix 1
Appendix 2
Appendix 3

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