Describe the Importance of Quality Leadership and the Difference Between Leadership and Management Within a Health and Social Care Environment, and Explain the Ethical Value Framework Leaders of Services Should Adhere to

Describe the Importance of Quality Leadership and the Difference Between Leadership and Management Within a Health and Social Care Environment, and Explain the Ethical Value Framework Leaders of Services Should Adhere to

FOUNDATION DEGREE IN HEALTH AND SOCIAL CARE MANAGEMENTETHICS, LEADERSHIP AND INTERPROFESSIONAL WORKING IN HEALTH AND SOCIAL CAREHS4501-40Describe The Importance Of Quality Leadership And The Difference Between Leadership And Management Within A Health And Social Care Environment, And Explain The Ethical Value Framework Leaders Of Services Should Adhere To STUDENT ID: 213599 06/05/2011 WORD COUNT 3,606 |
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Describe The Importance Of Quality Leadership And The Difference Between Leadership And Management Within A Health And Social Care Environment, And Explain The Ethical Value Framework Leaders Of Services Should Adhere To |
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This essay will discuss the importance of quality leadership, the diversities between leadership and management within health and social care and explain the ethical frame work leaders of services should adhere to. Every organization strives to be successful regardless of the type of business it conducts; no organization can be fully successful and productive without good quality leadership. Haris and Ogbonna (2000) discovered that although leadership may not completely affect the organisations achievement, the quality of leadership does affect the workers of the organisation who in turn have a substantial affect on the organiation. (cited in Haracre, et al 2011) If workers are contented and without stress in their work they will be more likely to be enthuiastic about their work and deliver an enhanced quality of work in contrast to those who are discontented or stressed in their work. Hogan et al (1990) imply that the principle root of stress in the work environment is the ‘boss’, concluding that quality leadership creates decent working teams with lower stress and a greater quality of client care. (cited in Haracre, et al 2011) In health and social care the attitude and temperament of care workers often has a direct effect on clients temperament and health. If care workers are in low mood and portray negativity to clients the low mood and negativity may rub off on the client. In the same way if care workers portray a positive mood this hopefully encouarges a good temperament in clients. Corrigan (2000) “Found that team leadership ratings independently accounted for 40% of the total variance in client satisfaction amongst mental health patients.” (cited in Haracre, et al 2011). The majority of organisations aspire to be in business on a long term basis. For this to happen there has to be enthusiasm, long term planning and vision. Choi and Behling (1997) suggest that transactional leaders demonstrate achieving immeidate goals and development converging on present success where as good transformational leadership inspires and develops long term success. (cited in Haracre, et al 2011) To discourage unsafe or inadequate quality practice quality leaders will aid their teams to overcome hindrances, encouarge them to learn from mistakes and focus on opportunities rather than failures. Bennis (Undated) proposes that quality leaders present an image of prominence that instigates to subordinates that they are accessible at all times. This encourages and urges workers to come forward and confess any blunders or mistakes and allow lessons to be learnt to stop the same errors happening in future. Edmondson’s (1996) study into error reporting found “repressive and dictatorial regimes are almost bound to produce data which are less than accurate, because staff are less inclined to admit mistakes” (cited in Haracre, et al 2011). Concealing errors and mistakes does not allow lessons to be learnt and a growth in unsafe and poor practice. Davis (2010) concludes that there are 10 behaviours an effective leader must have to enable themselves to be a successful leader. These are: Wisdom – Leaders will have a profound knowledge and comprehension of the business, the businesses goals and of the people whom work for the business. Will – Leaders will be responsible for their own providence willing triumphs to happen. Executive maturity – Leaders will be aware of their own emotional responses and will utilize them to guide others. Integrity – Leaders set aside personal ambitions to support others to succeed, they will be honourable and reliable, giving their best to helping other people and will lead based on their own values. In addition to this leaders lead by example conducting themselves in a positive and consistant way reflecting the businesses objectives which presents a model behaviour for others to follow. Social judgement – Leaders will have the capacity to concentrate on single tasks that they are doing whilst knowing and understanding what is going on around them. Leaders will also consider their personal achievments and failures whilst attempting to read others. Presence – Leaders will display a sence of presence and approachability without their presence being too overpowering. Self-insight – Leaders have an understanding of their own individual difficulites and have the knowhow to overcome them. Self efficacy – Leaders have confidence in their expertise and knowledge and the skills to use them to govern situations. Fortitude – A leaders level of accomplishment will emerge from their potency of dealing with challenges. Fallibility - A good leader will admit and take responsibility for their own mistakes. According to the NHS effective leaders have an elevated level of self-awareness and understanding of their own personal strengths and weaknesses. Decent leaders will attain opportunities from mistakes and failures and learn from them. Leaders are conscious of the impression and influence they have on members of their team especially when they are under duress. Leaders are required to have sound self-management and be capable of pacing themselves when dealing with progressive difficult situations whilst focusing on organizational limitations to succeed. A health and social care leader must be inspired by making positive differences to individual’s health through the delivery of excellent service and creating advances to the service rather than concentrating on their own ego and personal objectives. Good health and social care leaders have confidence in the values of the organization and those resulting from personal life experience and will consider them within all of their work. Leaders preserve an optimistic ‘can do’ attitude which empowers them to become leaders of others rather than a follower. Leigh, (2009) suggests that health and social care managers tell subordinates what is needed to be done directing instructions on the set task in contrast to a health and social care leader who is more interested in what is the right thing to do for clients and team members incorporating values, direction and stimulating individuals. Instead of setting orders for individuals and teams a leader will try to influence them into doing things the correct way. They do this by showing that they care about people and trying to get the utmost from them by finding out individual’s qualities, learning style and uniqueness and using these acknowledgements to assist the individual to oppress weaknesses and deliver results. Within the health and social care environment there are aspects of working which many individuals would not want to do if given the choice such as sanitizing clients incontinence or vomit. This area of work can be seen as demoralizing although very important for clients. Leaders will demonstrate the model behavior they expect from their team, this may be done by the leader working with subordinates at their level and doing the work that the leader expects them to do as opposed to a manager who works with a ‘do as I say’ attitude who expects subordinates to carry out tasks they would not personally do themselves. Managers with this way of thinking tend to care more about the tasks than the people and will not get the best from their team. Kay, (2009) states that “Managers and supervisors who have not been trained for the man-management responsibilities they have been given often assume a stereotype of how they think a manager should behave. Being ‘incharge’ is more important to them than the development and motivation of others.” An example of this is in the nursing home I am employed at registered nurses are classed as managers for the unit they are working on and they manage the nursing care assistants whom work on the unit. Although the registered nurses have sound nursing experience prior to working for the home they do not necessarily have management experience or training. Because of this they often focus on the immeidiate task ahead and not the bigger picture. Tasks are sometimes given to nursing care assistants which are then expected too be completed without any further input or inspriation causing nursing care assistants to lack interest or motivation in what they are doing. Leigh, (2009) also proposes that respectable leaders take personal accountability for decisions they have made even if they transpire to be made in error, the leader will assume responsibility when things do not go to plan whereas a task orientated manager seeks credit for success and obscures from mistakes and failures, often blaming others. A good leader will incorporate the ideas of colleagues of all levels into tasks and objectives and emphasize on opportunities rather than problems whereas a task orientated manager will spend more time trying to fix minor problems than celebrate opportunities. Managers will tend to focus on these problems at meetings with subordinates and dictate to them how he/she thinks the problems should be resolved where as a quality leader would lead more creative meetings inviting all subordinates to offer feedback and ideas of what needs to be done as well as incorporating work sessions into meetings to teach and motivate subordinates. Management is considered to be more about the task whereas leadership is believed to operate beyond tasks and emphases on relationships. Lansdale (2002) proposes that indiviuals will work together towards consistent goals and objectives in identicle manners through choice when influenced by an effective leader. (cited in Barr & Dowding, 2008) In my professional experience of working within a nursing home where the nurses are classed as managers, the nurses who have good working relations with nursing care assistants and other staff below them within the organizations staff structure get better results from workers compared to nurses who concentrate on imiediate tasks and not their relationships with workers. According to Fiedler’s Contingency Model (1964) a team’s performance is determined by these factors;- a leader’s rapport with their followers, how much the leader is favoured and followed, how well structured appointed tasks are, if objectives and practices are well-defined and the leader’s capability to govern followers by the way of incentives and fair reprimand. Fiedler proposes that the greater these factors situations will be more constructive for all. Fiedler also expresses that leaders are more operational in reasonable constructive situations whereas task orientated managers can be most effective when the situation is extremely constructive or unconstructive. (cited University of Edinburgh, 1997) Fiedler’s contingency theory of leadership has helped me to understand the different leadership styles of managers who I work with and how to improve relationships whilst work alongside them. There is one specific registered nurse who I and other workers find challenging to work with, however being considerate of the fact that she is task orientated (discovered by scoring her on Fiedler’s test) instead of relationship orientated I have learnt to focus on the task we are doing rather than the personal relationship. I have passed this conception on to other workers and although the registered nurse is still not the easiest individual to work with, although understanding her leadership style has a positive effect on working relationships. According to Northouse there are five principles of ethical leadership. The five principles deliver a basis for positive ethical leadership. Northouse believed that to be a decent ethical leader an individual must follow these principles. The first principle is that ethical leaders respect others. Immanual Kant identified that if an individual wants to be respected then they must have respect for others and that the individual should treat others how they wish others to treat them. Kant also stated that people should be treated with respect for the sake of being respected and not for the personal gain of any individual or organisation. (Schneewind, 2001) As an ethical leader within a health and social care setting this should be applied to all workers at all levels, clients and all visitors. A sound ethical leader must maintain other people’s confidence. If they are told something in confidence then it should be kept that way (unless it poses a risk to someone or something) and not used as idle gossip. In my professional experience I once worked for a manager who if was told something in confidence by a member of staff, the rest of the team would also know all of the details before the end of the day. Because of this very few people trusted or respected this particular manager. Leaders should reward subordinates for their ideas and efforts which in turn will give the subordinates more confidence and a greater feeling of value within the organisation. Great leaders are conscious of subordinate’s basic needs and what is required of them as a leader to assist subordinates to complete required tasks and be happy in their work. Leaders need to be able to show empathy and understanding towards subordinates, listen to their views and ideas and be prepared to try them even if they do not match their own opinions. (Gill, 2006) The second principle is ethical leaders serves others. Greenleaf (1977) put forward “Great leaders serve others according to the theory of ‘Servant Leadership’”. (Cited Gill, 2006) Leadership and serving others incorporates managing and meeting subordinates needs, delivering and performing own duties to enable subordinates to be able to fulfil their duties. Serving others as a leader is about focusing on the working relationships with subordinates and not just on the tasks you are asking them to carry put. Ethical leaders make themselves readily available to subordinates when the subordinates need them and not just when it suits the leader to be available. Leaders serve subordinates by training them and demonstrating the skills needed and by putting the needs of the subordinates first before their own. The third principle is ethical leaders are just. Ethical leaders must be fair and not judgemental and all decisions that are made should be made without any prejudice. Ethical leaders must treat everyone as equals whilst seeing each as an individual and offer equal opportunities to all. Incentives are to be available to all subordinates based on their merits and not because of any favouritism. Equally as should the same reprimands be given out for the same errors. All tasks and workloads should be distributed equally and fairly and not the same people receiving the easier and better jobs and the same people constantly receiving the same worse or messy jobs. A poor example of this I have witnessed in my career is a manager who favoured certain members of their team, these particular favoured subordinates would always be given the nice, quick and easy jobs to do, would have longer breaks and would go without reprimand for bullying other subordinates, whereas the other subordinates would be given the long messy jobs that no one else wanted to do and would be reprimanded daily quite often for no reason. This often continued until the subordinates could no longer tolerate this kind of behaviour and would leave the organisation. The fourth principle is ethical leaders are honest. Ethical leaders deliver honesty as well as expecting it from their subordinates. Ethical leaders will make decisions based on truth and decency and will keep all promises they have made to their teams. If for a legit reason promises could not be kept, then ethical leaders will give an open and honest explanation as to why. Being honest and reliable builds good relationships with the team and therefor a good and healthy working environment. Ethical leaders will encourage subordinates to be honest and will take others people’s feelings into account when making any decisions. Ethical leaders will be honest in relation to any errors that have been made on their part and will not pass on the ideas of their subordinates as their own, instead will give praise to the subordinates who deserve it. The fifth principle is ethical leaders build community. Ethical leaders will use the organisations policies and build on them, setting the direction and the way forward whilst working together motivating and inspiring subordinates to reach a shared ambitions and targets. A strong ethical leader will have sound moral values and will incorporate theses into their every day practices. They will put others peoples ambitions first and work alongside their team rather than in a hierarchy role, sharing their skills and knowledge with subordinates to achieve better results. An ethical leader will be available to their subordinates at all times and will support them through difficult times. An ethical leader will not look down on their subordinates with the view that they are a better person than any of their subordinates as they are in a higher role. Immanuel Kant declared “let justice be done even if the heavens fall” meaning that the right thing should be done regardless of the consequences, this way of thinking is known as Deontology. This concept often occurs within health and social care within ethical leadership. There are often situations with different possible outcomes especially in relation to the care of clients in which the leader or manager will have to make the final decision. There may be many views and reasoning behind each view however the right decision is to always do what is right. There are a lot of differences between a manager and a leader, a manager will tell subordinates what to do and expect it to be done without any further input. A manager is very aware that they are in charge and will make sure that everyone else knows that this is so to. This is different to a leader who will guide subordinates through what is expected of them and will make themself known to be available for further input or advice. A leader is not typically interested in making such a big deal that they are in charge and will quite happily work at the same level as their subordinates doing the same work to show there is no hierarchy and that they wouldn’t ask a subordinate to do a task they would not do themselves. In general subordinates will have a greater respect and willingness to do the work that is being asked for them by a leader who gets involves on the same level as them rather than a manager who gives orders and locks themselves away in an office out of the way, out of the hard work. A leader who plays an active role within the team and within the work will have a great deal more of an understanding of how subordinates work together, what is going well and what is not going so well and can help to make changes to make the not so well get better. Leaders will inform subordinates of the importance of each of their individual roles within the company and how the organisations success depends on each individual and that their role is just as important as any other role within the organisation. This should increase each subordinates feeling of self-worth and encourage them to want to better themselves and in turn will produce a higher work standard. In contrast to a manager who spends most of their working day in an office or at management meetings who quite often do not know how their team work and if anything needs changing. The manager is likely to take all the praise of their department doing well and achieving good results rather than passing this back to the subordinates. Managers will tend to have a higher turnover of staff due to not knowing the needs of their team and so not fulfilling these needs. Subordinates are usually more afraid to turn to a manager in the event of something going wrong than a leader as for the fear of getting into trouble whereas a leader is more likely to work through what went wrong and assist the subordinate to prevent the same thing from happening again. A decent leader will act as a role model, will be authoritive when needed, will be strong willed and very knowledgeable within their area of work. They will also be an effective communicator, motivational and organised. They will be trustworthy, commited and supportive. They will have lots of ideas and will listen to others. They will have self control, intelligence, integrity and have self control. A good leader will adapt their management style to fit the circumstances and work well with others. An ethical leader will care about the right things in the right way and have positive and noble ideas that influence the way in which they support others. A worthy leader will be creative, diplomatic and tactful and socially skilled. They will be able to be flexible and adjust easily to new situations, will be able to deal with difficult situations and issues of conflict calmly and will be able to organise and co-ordinate people well. All managers and leaders within health and social care have to make sure they and their teams are working within the National Minimum Standards and the Care Standards Act and Safe Guarding Vulnerable Adults (used to be POVA) as well as other legislation such as the Mental Capacity Act (2005), Health and Safety Act (1974), Anti-Discrimination Act (2010) along with many more. If the standards and the Acts are not followed then the individual staff members involved, the manager and the organisation itself can be liable for prosecution and so having a mixture of management and leadership skills would assist any organisation to do well. ReferencingDavis, R. A. (2010) The Intangibles of Leadership: The 10 qualities of Superior Executive Performance. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons.Dowding, J. B. (2008) Leadership in Healthcare. London: Sage Publications.Gill, R. (2006) Theory and Practice of Leadership. London: Sage Publications.Haracre, J. C. (2011) Evidence: What's leadership got to do with it? London: Health Foundation.Kay, F. (2009) Understanding Communication...without the jargon. London: Kogan Page Ltd.Leigh, A. (2009) The Secrets of Success in Management. Dorset: Pearson Education.NHS. (n.d.). NHS Leadership Qualities [Online] [Accessed 13.04. 2011]Schneewind, J. .. (2001) Lectures on Ethics (The Cambridge Edition of thw Works of Immanual Kant in Translation). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.University of Edinburgh. (1997) Contingency Models [Online] Available from http://www.see.ed.ac.uk/~gerard/MENG/ME96/Documents/styles/conti.html#topic1 [Accessed 08.04.2011] |

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