UNIT 38: SUSTAINABLE TOURISM DEVELOPMENT

UNIT 38: SUSTAINABLE TOURISM DEVELOPMENT
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LO1 Understand the rationale for planning in the travel and tourism industry
 Rationale: to achieve the determined objectives eg improved employment opportunities, protection and conservation of wildlife, landscape, co-ordination between public/private partners, to maximise benefits, provide infrastructure, co-ordinate development, consumer protection; involvement of stakeholders eg developers, tourism industry, tourists and host community; public/private partnerships and advantages/disadvantages of; effective use of resources eg infrastructure; natural, cultural, heritage, human resources
LO2 Understand different approaches to tourism planning and development
Planning: environmental; economic; social; international; national; regional; local; strategic; short term; qualitative; quantitative; methods of measuring tourism impact eg Cambridge Economic Impact Model (STEAM), Environmental Impact Studies, Pro Poor Tourism; Responsible Tourism, interactive planning systems and processes Development: preservation, conservation, new build
LO3 Understand the need for planning for sustainable tourism Sustainable
tourism: definitions eg Brundtland Report (1987), Triple Bottom Line, World Travel and Tourism Council (WTTC) Principles for Sustainable Development (1995) Principles: planning considerations, benefits to the environment, the host community, the tourism industry, the visitor; factors of supply of facilities and resource weighed against demand; proposed developments eg infrastructure required; interdependence eg of society, economy and the natural environment; citizenship eg rights and responsibilities, participation and cooperation; future generations; sustainable change eg development
LO4 Understand current issues related to tourism development planning Current
 issues: conflict eg tension between the planner, tour operator, tourist, government, developer, local community, guest-host relationship; impacts eg economic, social, environmental; access eg balance of supply and demand, imposition of limits, pressure on finite resources; enclave tourism eg advantages and disadvantages to the local community, moral and ethical issues of enclave tourism
UNIT 38: SUSTAINABLE TOURISM DEVELOPMENT
LO5 Understand the socio-cultural, environmental and economic impacts of tourism in developing countries and emerging destinations
Socio-cultural: social change, changing values, crime and gambling, moral behaviour, change in family structure and roles, tourist/host/relationships, provision of social services, commercialisation of culture and art, revitalisation of customs and art forms, destruction and preservation of heritage Environmental: types of conservation and pollution eg air, visual, noise etc, land use, ecological disruption, pressures on infrastructure and finite resources, erosion, preservation of environment eg national parks, drainage, irrigation Economic: generation of employment, provision of foreign exchange, multiplier effect of tourism as contribution to the balance of payments, economic leakage, development of the private sector, foreign ownership and management Developing countries: countries eg India, Thailand, Jordan Emerging destinations: destinations for medical tourism eg India, Thailand, Hungary; other destinations eg Bulgaria, Qatar, Shanghai
UNIT 38: SUSTAINABLE TOURISM DEVELOPMENT
Learning outcomes and assessment criteria
Learning outcomes
On successful completion of this unit a learner will:
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LO1 Understand the rationale for planning in the travel and tourism industry

Assessment criteria for pass
The learner can:
1.1 discuss how stakeholders can benefit from planning of tourism developments with reference to a current case study
1.2 discuss the advantages and disadvantages of public/private sector tourism planning partnerships drawing on a current example
LO2 Understand different approaches to tourism planning and development

2.1 analyse features of tourism development planning at different levels
 2.2 evaluate the significance of interactive planning systems and processes in tourism developments
2.3 evaluate different methods available to measure tourist impact
LO3 Understand the need for planning for sustainable tourism

3.1 justify the introduction of the concept of sustainability in tourism development
 3.2 analyse factors that may prevent/hinder sustainable tourism development
3.3 analyse different stages in planning for sustainability
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LO4 Understand current issues related to tourism development planning

4.1 evaluate methods of resolving a conflict of interests to ensure the future well-being of a developing tourism destination
4.2 analyse the implications of balancing supply and demand
4.3 evaluate the moral and ethical issues of enclave tourism
LO5 Understand the sociocultural, environmental and economic impacts of tourism in developing countries and emerging destinations
5.1 compare current issues associated with tourism development in a developing country and an emerging destination where the impacts of tourism are different
5.2 evaluate, with recommendations, the future development of tourism in these destinations

UNIT 38: SUSTAINABLE TOURISM DEVELOPMENT
Guidance
Links
This unit has links with:
Unit 4: Research Project Unit 37: The Travel and Tourism Sector Unit 39: Tourist Destinations.
This unit maps to the following Management NVQ units:
B1: Develop and implement operational plans for your area of responsibility
B2: Map the environment in which your organisation operates.
Essential requirements
Tutors must make considerable use of case studies (educational, TV current affairs and travel videos) and texts to bring the planning issues to life. Learners must be strongly encouraged to become familiar with the Brundtland Report and with various definitions of ‘sustainable tourism’ and ‘responsible tourism’. Tutors must make use of local case studies and guest speakers from interested/involved organisations. There are a number of examples throughout the UK of planned urban regeneration schemes, new hotel/country club/health club developments, airport extensions and upgrades, new tourism attractions have benefited from interactive planning processes, public/private partnerships and the adoption of sustainable principles. These must be studied as examples of best practice and will support the theoretical study of tourism planning processes, systems, models and techniques. Learners will need to analyse different stages in planning for sustainability and apply the stages to a case study/destination that has been through such a planning process.
Employer engagement and vocational contexts
A team of employers could be identified to support the different units. Employers could help tutors, for example, with the planning of programmes of learning, or provision of visits, guest speakers and mentors. They could also help to design assessment activities. The delivery of this unit would be enhanced by employer engagement involving, for example, local travel agencies, tourist attractions and particularly the local tourist board. Learners could, for example, meet with employers from a local travel agency to learn about current issues related to tourism development planning. Sustained links with the travel agency may support further units as well as work placement opportunities. A talk by a representative of the local tourist board would help learners’ understanding of different approaches to tourism planning and development, the need for planning for sustainable tourism and the socio-cultural, environmental and economic impacts of tourism in developing countries and emerging destinations. Where possible, learners should undertake visits to relevant destinations in the UK and abroad.
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