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LO1 Understand the operational and economic characteristics of hospitality operations Nature of hospitality
 products and services: product and service areas eg food and beverages, rooms division, conference and banqueting; tangible and intangible elements; perishability; marketing and sales; plant; equipment; supplies and commodities Patterns of demand: patterns eg opening hours, seasonality, time of day/week, sociological influences, healthy eating and drinking patterns, food and fashion trends, accommodation trends, cultural, regional and ethnic influences, pricing and economic factors, elasticity of demand Customer profile: characteristics eg spending power, types of hospitality business, menu/accommodation range, pricing considerations, expectations and requirements, the meal experience Management issues: issues eg integrated planning and resourcing, business and operational plans, staffing, finance, decision-making (gathering information and data, analysing and evaluating data, reaching decisions, forecasting), operating procedures and systems, control systems, technical and procedural standards, service standards, quality systems, team working and team leading, scheduling, training
LO2 Understand product development within hospitality environments
Stages in product development: stages to include market research, market segmentation, idea evaluation, concept development, product development, advertising objectives eg persuade, create desire, create awareness, sell, increase market share, develop brand loyalty, customer awareness Opportunities and constraints: types eg brand image, nutrition and dietary requirements, disabled access and provision – accommodation facilities, restaurant access; availability of resources (human, financial, physical), standardisation, style of service, space utilisation Hospitality advertising: businesses eg pubs, restaurants, hotels, conference centres; products, types of media Merchandising objectives: objectives eg promote consumer/brand awareness, encourage consumer/brand loyalty, develop product image; support materials eg brochures, websites, posters, floor stands, tent cards, wall displays, table displays, menus, flyers, vouchers, promotions, clothing (tee-shirts, sweatshirts, baseball caps), free samples
LO3 Understand pricing and profitability concepts within hospitality operations
Methods of pricing: methods eg cost-oriented, market-oriented; additional pricing considerations eg service charge, cover charge, minimum charge Factors affecting revenue generation: factors eg sales mix, customer turnover, average spending power (ASP) Factors affecting profitability: factors eg labour intensity, shelf-life, elasticity of demand, standardisation, portion-control
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LO4 Be able to use appraisal techniques to analyse and improve operational performance
Approaches to appraisal: techniques eg fundamentals of appraisal, basis for effective operational appraisal, use of budgets, industry norms, information analysis, developing qualitative and quantitative data, analysing and evaluating data Appraising revenue, costs and profits: measures eg financial measurement techniques, price and volume data, interpreting calculations, price changes and inflation, comparing like-withlike and over time, identifying and measuring costs, apportioning costs, sales mix analysis, menu engineering, profitability measures, gross profit and gross profit percentages, net profit and operating profit, stakeholder interests Appraising the operation: measures eg appraising the product, appraising operational performance measurement techniques, levels of consideration, when and how, quantitative, qualitative evaluation, external comparisons, quality management Proposal for action: proposals eg forecasting future business requirements, levels of strategy, assessing organisational capability, strategic analysis and planning, implementation and managing change

Learning outcomes and assessment criteria
Learning outcomes
On successful completion of this unit a learner will:
LO1 Understand the operational and economic characteristics of hospitality operations

Assessment criteria for pass
The learner can:
1.1 analyse the nature of different hospitality product and service areas
1.2 evaluate the different influences affecting patterns of demand within hospitality operations

 1.3 compare customer profiles and their differing expectations and requirements in respect of hospitality provision
1.4 analyse factors affecting average spending power in hospitality businesses

LO2 Understand product development within hospitality environments

2.1 evaluate the key stages in product and service development applied within a hospitality operation
 2.2 analyse the features which contribute towards the customers’ perception of products and services
2.3 assess the opportunities and constraints affecting product and service development within a hospitality environment
2.4 evaluate different merchandising opportunities for hospitality products and services
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LO3 Understand pricing and profitability concepts within hospitality operations

3.1 evaluate different methods of pricing taking into account additional pricing considerations
 3.2 assess the factors which affect revenue generation and profitability in hospitality operations
LO4 Be able to use appraisal techniques to analyse and improve operational performance

4.1 apply different performance measures and appraisal techniques to individual aspects of hospitality operations, the product and the whole operation
 4.2 determine the effectiveness of different quantitative and qualitative appraisal techniques and their application to hospitality operations

 4.3 apply approaches to business analysis, evaluation and planning appropriate to hospitality operations, making proposals for action

This unit can be linked successfully with:
Unit 1: The Contemporary Hospitality Industry Unit 2: Finance in the Hospitality Industry Unit 5: Food and Beverage Operations Management Unit 6: Rooms Division Operations Management Unit 8: Marketing in Hospitality Unit 10: Work-based Experience.This unit links to the following Management NVQ units:
B1: Develop and implement operational plans for your area of responsibility
B2: Map the environment in which your organisation operates
 B8: Ensure compliance with legal, regulatory, ethical and social requirements
 B9: Develop the culture of your organisation
B10: Manage risk
B11: Promote diversity in your area of responsibility
 C1: Encourage innovation in your team
C2: Encourage innovation in your area of responsibility
C3: Encourage innovation in your organisation
E1: Manage a budget
E4: Promote the use of technology within your organisation
F4: Develop and review a framework for marketing
F8: Work with others to improve customer service
 F9: Build your organisation’s understanding of its market and customers
 F10: Develop a customer focused organisation
F11: Manage the achievement of customer satisfaction
F12: Improve organisational performance.
Essential requirements
Tutors must ensure that learners understand the separation between operational and management issues. The relevance of this unit will be greatly improved if it is delivered following a period of industrial work experience where learners have worked in a food and beverage environment. Tutors must maximise the contribution made by learners based on their own experiences in food and beverage operations. This will add relevance and vocational realism to group discussions and may contribute to a wide range of issues, enabling learners to focus on matters which regularly face managers in industry.
Employer engagement and vocational contexts
Tutors must ensure that learners have adequate access to industry, either through visits or through presentations by visiting speakers, to support the development of knowledge and understanding through ‘theory in practice’. It will be useful for learners to link with an individual commercial operation, and use that business as a context in which to assess current practice, apply theory and observe in a reflective way. These individual experiences can then be fed back into a group-learning context.
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