Unit 4 Physiology Principle in health and social care





 Unit 4
Physiology Principle in health and social care













INTRODUCTION
Human body is an overall structure of different range of elements that are inter-related and connected with each other to perform all the vital life functions. There are different organs for performing different functions and such organs consist of many tissues (C. Zimmer, 2004). The present chapter of study focuses on studying the different aspects of human anatomical features. The understanding developed in current research study would achieve the below mentioned learning outcomes.
LO1 Know the structure and functioning of human body
LO2 Understand the relationship between body functioning and relevant detailed anatomy and physiology
LO3 Understand how routine data collected in health and social care informs the planning of care for individuals
LO4 Be able to relate routine variations in body structure and functioning to care received by individuals









TASK-1 Know the structure and functioning of the human body
a) The first thing you do for your student is to put together a handout explaining in simple, yet still professional, terms the relationship between the physiological terms listed below:
I. Gross Bodily features
II. The skeletal structure
III. Soft tissues
IV. Body Organs
The gross bodily features comprised of those body parts that are visible from naked eyes. For studying gross bodily features, scientific study of gross anatomy is considered. Gross anatomy comprises of two approaches: Regional approach and Systematic approach. The study of gross bodily features shows that there are various organ systems in body which includes skeletal system, nervous system, muscular system, endocrine system, respiratory system,   digestive system, cardiovascular system and urinary system (J. Weiss, 2011). The whole skeletal structure comes under the study of gross bodily features. The overall shape of human body is framed by skeletal structure. The skeletal structure supports the weight of the body. Apart from supporting, the bones and muscles in the skeletal structure maintain body position and provide protection and motion to other body features such as soft parts of body system i.e. respiratory system , nervous system, digestive system, cardiovascular system (N. R. Carlson, 2013). The skeletal structure comprises of muscle, fat tissues and various hormones that help in framing the body shape. Fatty tissues produce red blood cells and other immune system cells which are found inside bones. Human body’s skeletal system comprises of bones, ligaments and various connective tissue. All the structures and organs of body are connected and surrounded by different soft tissues such as ligaments, skin, fibrous tissues and synovial membranes which are connective tissues while blood vessels, nerves are not connective. Moreover, the skeletal system consisting of bones supports the weight of overall body and thus bones maintain the body position by working together with muscles (D. Stein, 2012). The muscular system helps in body movement. The human body consists of many organs and every part/organ consists of different types of cell. The several organs of human body work in coordination with each other. In order to perform well, organs need support of each other and thus the organs system is developed. The various systems of body perform in coordination with the organs. The entire body comprises of many elements such as calcium, phosphorus and carbon (E.P. Widmaier et al, 2008). The different organs of body help in blood transportation throughout the body as such blood is transported through veins and arteries to the heart for pumping. The veins help in carrying in waste or unprocessed products away from cells and also transfer blood in heart which is then pumped into lungs for purpose of picking oxygen and eliminating carbon dioxide.
b) Discuss for the benefit of our student the body systems set out below focusing on how they interact to maintain life and how they contribute to bodily growth:
I. Cardiovascular/respiratory
Respiratory system is a vital system for maintaining life as carbon dioxide is emitted out of the body through this system. This system performs the ventilation process. The most important aspect of respiratory system is breathing which plays a vital role in maintaining pH and in regulating gas exchange (E. Bianconi and A. Piovesin, 2013). It helps in contributing toward life of the human body through maintaining normal levels of oxygen and carbon dioxide in all the tissues of body. In addition to these vital roles, respiratory system helps in maintaining body healthy and functional despite having internal & external stresses. The major functioning organs of respiratory system are nose, lungs and trachea (B. Raincoast, 2004). In the process of breathing in oxygen and breathing out carbon dioxide air passes through a long tube which is called trachea. Trachea is then separated in two bronchial tubes. The bronchial tubes also have small bronchial tubes which are called bronchioles and bronchioles end in air sacs. Oxygen passes through air sacs and mixes in blood stream.
II. Digestive/excretory
It is the digestive system in body that protects body from foreign invasion. A balanced digestive system is the key to a healthy and long life. The main responsibility of this system is proper digestion and absorption of nutrients in the body for providing energy and to stimulate body for growth. Digestive system contribute much in bodily growth through digestion process in which food is break down in different nutrients and then the broken food is processed when going through esophagus (K.L. Moore, 1992). From there the broken food travels to small intestine where it is further transferred so as to mix in bloodstream. The different organs of digestive system help in digestion process so as to provide energy, repair and growth to the body. In digestion process, the food that can’t be digested by body is eliminated as waste from the body.   
III. Nervous/sensory
The nervous system of human body is the regulating and controlling system for body. Its main work is to coordinate other body systems which is very vital for maintain life in the human body. It plays a very vital role of detecting and responding to the various internal and external conditions of human body (B. K. Bridget and V. Fuster, 2010). It helps in transmitting signals to different body parts through brain and coordinates all the actions of body. Nervous system is made up of various cells that are called neurons. Basically, nervous system is divided in two parts, CNS (Central nervous system) and PNS (Peripheral nervous system). Brain and spinal cord are included in CNS while PNS comprises of nerves. Brain as a part of central system acts as an information centre for body and comprises of billions of neurons (K.L. Moore et al, 2010). It is the brain which helps in responding and reacting to the information and messages that are provided by senses.   
TASK-2 Understand the relationship between body functioning and relevant detailed anatomy and physiology:
a) Explain giving practical examples which would be meaningful to a student of health and social care bodily reactions to:
I. A sudden shock
A sudden shock reaction by a human can be of different types such as anaphylactic shock. Such shock can be caused due to some allergy, swelling, low blood pressure or dilated blood vessels. Such shock happens due to development of a specific allergen fighting antibody in immune system that leads to an exaggerated reaction toward the specified food substance. Apart from this, there are different types of shocks that can occur in a human body. Happening of a sudden shock depend on the circumstances around the person (S. Mendis et al, 2011). Sometimes, causes may be emotional distress or due to a sudden response to a traumatic situation. According to medical terms, shock occurs due to less blood circulation throughout the body. In many cases, there are chances of death too. The sudden drop in blood circulation results in less oxygen supply to vital body organs like heart, lungs and brain which causes health complications.  
II. Eating too quickly or eating too much
A habit of eating fast and excessive eating have large affects on body. For instance, while consuming a cake, people often consume it very fast which has adverse affects on the internal system of body. As cake is composed of simple sugars so it is digested quickly as sugars need fewer breakdowns (J.T. Garland and P.A. Carter, 1994). A huge and fast consumption of cake would result in high glucose generation in the digestion process which rush in blood and also extra insulin is released by pancreas which converts glucose in glycogen in the process and transferred to liver and muscles. Due to rush of high glucose in blood streams, the person’s blood level drops down and stress hormones are released then. Moreover, after transferring the required glycogen released in the process to liver, the left over glycogen turns into fat and which may cause obesity (B, Evgeni et al, 1989).  
III. Strenuous physical activity
Physical activities have many health benefits such as sporting, exercising etc. but strenuous and hard physical activities have reverse biological effects on the body (M.E. Feder, 1987). The muscles start contradicting and moving more and for that more oxygen is needed by the body which increases breathing and pumping more blood to muscles.  
b) Now you want to extend your student’s understanding of the body and of bodily responses to external influences. So basing your answers on your responses to task 2a & covering the same three examples, you discuss how body responses are explained by cellular and tissue structure and physiology
·         A shock like anaphylactic shock caused due to emergence of antibodies such as immunoglobulin E. In the initial exposure to the specific food, body may not react but antibodies are produced with later exposures. Afterwards with later exposure, the allergens bind together to the antibodies that lead to presence of histamine (a protein) in very large amount in the body cellular structure and consequently body respond in shocking manner in further exposures to the substance. In case of other shock responses by body, the blood pressure drops down and this may be fatal too. The situation requires constricting of blood vessels. Shock situation results in release of adrenaline in the bloodstream. 
·         Eating too much or too fast may lead to hard working for the heart and the cardiovascular functioning is affected a lot. Eating too much would derive more energy. Excess energy consumption would lead to shut down of insulin signaling. It happen as due to excessive eating fat tissue enlarges and other tissues are exposed to more energy. Thus cells would be forced to protect the other tissues thereby reducing insulin sensitivity. Moreover, various studies on this topic have confirmed that people with excessive eating habits has more possibilities of having memory loss.
·         Difficult and hard physical activity affects the overall respiratory system of body as ventilation is increased during exercising while during resting time, PCO2 and ph level fell down. Energy is release while exercising and have direct affect on static muscles making them short or large. During strenuous physical activities, enzyme activities probably decrease by revealing oxidative and consequently may lead to muscle hypertrophy. Despite enhancement of glycogen storage capacity, in response to profound physical hardship by the body, the enzyme activities that are reflected by aerobic metabolism are not able to augment. Also, the cardiovascular control is impacted by exercise, as strenuous physical activity results in uneven oxygen consumption by the body and a linear augment is developed so as to attain the maximum oxygen consumption as required by the body. Long and hard physical activity makes breathing slower and deeper unlike in normal situations, such breathing allows the person in inhaling 10 milliliter air per Kg.
c) Following on again from your response to the previous task, you explain in form of clear explanatory notes for your student, how the body coordinates and regulates its internal activities
Regulation of internal body activities
For the purpose of functioning effectively, human body needs a consistent setting of the entire internal system. For this setting, body requires to do numerous adjustments. The regulation of internal activities is termed as homeostatic functions regulations. This regulation process assures that body is retaining a stable internal temperature. Blood volume is sustained by a functioning kidney and the detrimental wastes are also confiscated by kidney. Moreover, kidney adjusts the ph level of various substances that are present in blood such as ions, water, salts and acids. A well functioning lung sustains homeostasis through excreting Carbon dioxide and water and also, the ph level of blood is maintained by respiratory system. Thus, the homeostatic functions helps in preserving water balance, in excreting metabolic wastes from the body and in regulating different chemicals which are released within the body.   
Coordination of internal body activities
There must be proper coordination among all the internal systems of body so as to ensure appropriate functioning of body. Endocrine system, Autonomic Nervous system and central nervous system must function in correlation with each other. The Endocrine system releases hormones in body which are the major factors for body growth, development and reproduction. Also, hormones are the chief progressive chemicals, whose functions include mobilization of body functions to resist stress, cellular metabolism monitoring, maintaining energy equilibrium in the body and also water, electrolytes and nutrient balance present in blood are safeguarded by hormones. There are numerous vital hormones that are component of endocrine system which have a direct affect on growth of human body. Insulin, calcitriol, thyroid hormones, and reproductive hormones are some of the examples of vital body growth hormones. While hormonal affects are controlled by endocrine system, autonomic nervous system controls many other factors of body such as breathing and heart beat rates, metabolism, body temperature, blood pressure, urination, digestion and balancing of water and electrolytes in body. Also, production of body fluids, like sweat, saliva, tears is controlled by autonomic nervous system. Its main function is to supply to all the internal body organs which includes stomach, kidney, blood vessels, lungs, heart, digestive glands and liver. The role of central nervous system in body coordination is to integrate sensory information and then generate responses. Brain as a part of CNS acts as the main coordinator of all body functions, even complex functions of body related to thinking and homeostasis regulation are performed by brain. Spinal cord as another part of CNS acts as a mediator to transfer messages/signals between brain and other body organs. Hence, it is evident from the study that in order to regulate and coordinate internal activities of body, different systems of body function together and coordinates the entire body mechanism through their inter-relation. 
TASK-3 Understand how routine data collected in health and social care informs the planning of care for individuals:
a) Still in your role as a team leader in a residential care home, you are asked to imagine that the manager of the home has asked you to make a presentation to the full group of students on the collection and use of routine data in the care home. Your presentation should cover:
I. What measures are routinely taken/why and by whom are they taken
II. How the data gathered are recorded
III. What they are used for.
I)                    In present context of a residential care home, the major standard precautions considered by them are minimum infection prevention practices and such care apply to all patients of care home. Apart from this, routine data that are collected and measured on the patients includes observation of vision, measurement of weight, height, measurement of pulse rate, blood pressure, and respiration rate. Moreover, glucose indicator tests of urine, fluid intake, food intake, fluid output etc. are also measured and recorded on routine basis. Such measures are taken according to the patients such as measurement of weight is very necessary in infants and newly born children. Such measurements and recordings are collected by health care team for preparation of a suitable care plan for the patients accordingly. The health care homes understand the necessity to perform measurement functions for delivering primary health care to the patients. These care practices are designed and followed on routine basis so as to monitor and prevent the patients from diseases.  Physicians play the significant role of collecting and interpreting data regarding patents health issues. The professionals consider dignity and privacy of the patients while recording the measurements. 
II)                  The purpose of collecting data is to easily identify the problems a patient may have or to categorize subgroups within the patient’s population. Narrative data in the form of a person’s description of his illness is gathered and recorded as text in medical record for future reference. Other data including parameters like laboratory tests, measurements taken are recorded as numeric information, machine generated tracings of analog signals or as hand drawn sketches. The data so recorded can be converted in graphical or chart presentation or in tabular form for better interpretation and also for comparative analysis of a person’s health check-up over a specific period of time.
III)                The medical data is used for making medical recommendations to the patient and to support suitable care of patient by knowing the current status of their body. Such data is also used for preventing them from diseases that the patients may possibly get. Further, the aggregation and analysis of data about population of individuals can be used to contribute for the benefit of society too.
b) The first phase of your presentation has been completed, discussion has taken place and your students have had a break so you move on with your explanation of routine measures and their use. The second phase of your presentation is an assessment of the way that routine measures provide the kind of information about body functioning which is essential to the delivery of appropriate care. You should assess the measure listed below in relation to reliability and validity.
I. BMI
II. Heart rate
III. Blood pressure
First of all in order to assure validity and reliability of all the measures taken, it should be ensured that there should be no chances of error, hyper values must be eliminated from the measurement and a normal range must be used to accurately record the measures.
BMI i.e. Body Mass Index is used to measure obesity i.e. the overall fat reservation by human body. However, it is not much reliable and accurate measure of obesity as in this measurement there is no distinguish between bone mass, muscles mass and body fat. Moreover, BMI does not count in the circumference of belly fat and waist circumference which is essential in evaluating obesity and other health risks. So, it’s not much useful for muscular people and people having athletic body.
The pulse recording and blood pressure recordings are accurate and reliable measures as the recording units are highly valid and reliable to record systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Such polygraph recordings are accurate and reliable as they are recorded before recovery and after recovery, thus, comparison is made easily in the pulse rate. The ECG machines being used for heart rate recordings measurements directly interface with the patient’s body condition and provide reliable ratings, however, in cases of physical exercise or after jogging, the heart rates recorded by the devices are not reliable. Heart rate measurement would be accurate if it is measured in regular intervals between successive heartbeats. For more reliable results, the heart rate variability must be analyzed in the interval between consecutive heart beats instead of heart rate per sec. However, such measurement are reliable only in ideal conditions, in cases of motion artifacts, the results may be less reliable due to its vulnerability.   
c) The final phase of your presentation examines the ways in which information about body functioning may be used to inform care planning for the individual service users in your care home. Your focus here should be on the use of routine measures in long term, continuing care. You also round off your presentations by pulling together some of the most important points from all 3 phases i.e. you emphasize the most important points for student to remember.
Medical record plays a vital role in the world of modern medicine, as it supports the teams of health professionals to put emphasis on the care of patients in a more specialized manner. The various measures such as BMI, heart rate recording, over-under weight observation, diabetic stability measurement, and blood pressure recording are used to monitor disorders and other health diseases (A. Faller et al, 2004). The medical data gathered from patients serve as interventions so as to prevent common or serious disorders. Medical data seems very important as it provides screening for all risk factors associated to a person’s health. Also, by using such data, physicians derive preventive measures such as diet, medication or exercise to their patients.            Relevant measures are taken for thorough observation of the root causes of problems and such measures form the basis for generating precautionary care plans for the care home patients. For instance, BMI’s recordings can be used to check the fluid intake the nutritional intake as per the energy requirement of body. All these measurements serve as an effective tool in care planning by the care homes (C. Fell and P.F. Griffith, 2007).  Such measures are taken on routine basis due to variations in measures over time and serve as a prevention measure the patient from possible diseases, like hydrations, peak flow, and infection. All data collected are reported to the care professionals for further analysis of patent’s health. Even professionals follow the ethical considerations by maintaining the privacy of data recorded, by following individual rights while taking measurements. It is necessary for the care homes to check accuracy and validity of the derived measures for making more accurate and reliable recommendations to the patients.
LO4 Be able to relate routine variations in body structure and functioning to care received by individuals.
The residential home in which you are a team leader provides long term care for elderly individuals, many of whom are dementia sufferers so you set out to provide some useful, practical guidance for your students.
a) You make a comparison of structural and functional body changes between your adulthood later life and old age.
Due to aging, a human body faces so many changes as transformation occurs in all organs and in individual body cells. These changes are of both functional and structural nature. Due to aging, muscles lose volume with the increase in fat tissues and the spine vaults consequently the height of vertebral body decreases (G Aist et al, 2002). This is the cause of stable height after a certain age and bent spinal of old age people. Pneumonia is one such disease that affects the people of old age or people having viral infections problem.  For patients having visceral diseases and for old age people, pneumonia acts as danger to their life. One more example of dementia disease can be taken, which is caused due to damage of nerve cells in the brain. Generally, dementia develops after age 60 and people having difficulty in thinking & concentration, in body movement are more prone to this disease.    
With aging cells also age and their functioning become slow, even old cells die with the change in age. It is normal functional change in human body as new cells can only be created after the old cells die. Body organs functioning is based on their cells and whenever some cells die in a body organ, it results in less functions of that organ too and thus failure of one organ affects the functioning of other body organs as well (J. Goudreau, 2012). For instance, due to any disorder or aging, there are more chances of loss of nerve cells in old people which result in memory loss and other problems in old age people as compare to younger counterparts. Due to old age blood vessels and heart functioning becomes stiffer consequently leading to high blood pressure as blood is filled in heart more slowly. Also, due to aging the diaphragm, muscle used for breathing, weakens resulting in less absorption of oxygen to breathe in. With aging blood vessels become less elastic. So such changes make routine activities such as exercising by old age people more difficult as compare to young people.
b) You make an assessment of the impact that the common age related disorders listed below may have on body structure & functioning. You must give practical examples of age related impacts.
I. Autoimmune related
II. Cardiovascular disease
III. Impairment of pulmonary tissues
I.                    Autoimmune related disorders affect the body’s immune system which then produces antibodies which are harmful for person’s own organs and tissues. These disorders can affect people of all age but young to middle age people are the most affected by it. Such disorders can occur during childhood, adolescence or in later stage of life. But genes play a vital role in reviewing appearance of most common autoimmune diseases with age at onset such as multiple sclerosis, type 1 diabetes mellitus and autoimmune thyroid. Although there is no fixed time of occurrence of any disease but normally, disorders of type 1 diabetes appear in childhood (between age 5 and 9)and adolescence (between age 10 and 14) while multiple sclerosis has very rare chances to occur in adolescence and it primarily occurs between age 20 and 40 (R. Inglehart, 2000). Autoimmune thyroid is mostly seen in adults and this disease can also appear in childhood too.
II.                  Cardiovascular disease includes obesity as an important determinant. The problem of obesity highly depends on weight gain during childhood versus younger and older adult life. The psychological effects of obesity is hypertension, low confidence and other social effects and physical effects include impaired functioning of body tissues, body organs etc (E. Goldfinger, 1991). Obesity as a cardiovascular disease is mainly prevalent in children and the associated risk of this disease includes elevated blood pressure & elevated cholesterol. Moreover, for old age people, due to years of heart strain and cholesterol accumulation in blood vessels, various heart and circulatory problems arises and trouble their internal and external body functioning.  
III.                 Occurrence of pulmonary diseases affects various parameters of lung functions which include ventilation, compliance and gas distribution and pulmonary defense mechanism. Young people body systems have more reserve capacity while with aging the capacity of all pulmonary functions reduces (W. Richard, 2009). Due to aging, say after age of 40, the diameter of respiratory system reduces, blood vessels loss elasticity and the respiratory muscles start weakening which eventually result in dilated alveolar ducts, collapsing of small distal airways. Apart from these problems, the chest wall becomes stiffer with change in age which causes many other problems in whole body system. 
c) Finally, for the benefit of your student, you make links between the effects of the types of common disorders you explored above and the care routinely given to individuals who are affection by them. You also consider the risks and effects of infection.
The above study regarding the functional and structural changes in human body with passage of age shows that various disorders and health diseases are more likely to occur in old age or after adulthood. The most common disorders that occur due to aging are diabetes, autoimmune related diseases, cardiovascular diseases, and pulmonary diseases, congenital or inherited disorders (L. Sherwood, 2010). The care home take steps to reduce risk of occurrence of these disorders. Proper vaccination and proper observation of the patients is needed to control emergence of these diseases. These disorders needed to be controlled in time as they may have many physical effects on body functioning as well as body structure of the patient such as degeneration of body structure, like cartilage in osteo-arthritis, bone in osteoporosis, occurrence of neural tissue in Parkinson’s disease. Such changes that take place in body after a certain age or in old age leads to many psychological effects on the person such as there would be loss of cognitive abilities, hyper-tension, low confidence etc. Also, people have to face social isolation, loss of mobility and autonomy due to occurrence of disorders at later stage of life (D.C. Daniel, 2012).   The care home professionals ensure to keep the affected patients away from other people so as to avoid infection.
Infection is the process in which a susceptible body is attacked by germs and results in disease. Infection can occur in a body through open wounds, through urinary tracts or through respiratory tracts. The main causes of occurrence of infections can be age for example; newly born child has more probability to get infection. The other influencing factors can be nutritional status of a body so as to deal with the germs i.e. immunity level or status of underlying disease or immune-suppression during cancer therapy. Generally, human body has white blood cells as the infection fighting cells in immune system of body. But if the WBC counts fall down, then there are risks of getting infection (J. Saddleback, 2008). In order to prevent the body from getting infected, utmost care must be practiced in routine activities of daily living, like frequent hand--washing etc. Even drugs or infection control therapy are used by care homes overcome the problem of getting infected. Care home uses painkillers, they develop antibiotics and cell-mediated immunity against the infected virus and thus a very robust immunity cover is provided to the infected patients. They take care to maintain oxygen status and blood pressure of the affected person. Additionally, professional advice regarding use of proper antibiotics must be considered for prevention and cure from infection.
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