HND Business Human resource management


HND Business Human resource management


Difference between Human Resources and Personnel management(1.1)Personnel Management Personnel Management is essentially an administrative record-keeping function,at the ground level. Personnel Management professionally manages employee’sactivities for individual departments for example in Bhs you will have apersonal manger for customer services. It is assumed that the outcomes fromproviding justice and achieving efficiency in the management of personnelactivities will result ultimately in achieving organizational success. HumanResource Development –Human resource management is concerned with the Training, promotion developmentand implementation of people strategies, which are incorporated with businessstrategies, and guarantees that the culture, values and structure of theorganization, and the quality, incentives and commitment of its memberscontribute fully to the achievement of its goals.Human Resources Management is focused with carrying such task as, job analysis,recruitment and selection, employee relations, performance management, employeeappraisals, compensation management, training and development. But, the HumanResources method performs these functions in distinct way, when compared withPersonnel management. Personnel management is about the continuance ofpersonnel and administrative systems, Human Resources Management is about theanticipation of organizational needs, the continual monitoring and adjustmentof personnel systems to meet current and future requirements, and themanagement of change.Differences between Personnel management and Human Resources management Personnel management is more workforces focused, aimed mainly at theorganization’s employees; such as, arranging for them to be paid, andjustifying management’s actions etc. Whereas, Human Resources management ismore resource centered, Personnel Management is fundamentally an operationalfunction, concerned principally with carrying out the day to day peoplemanagement activities. While on the other hand, Human Resources Management isstrategic in nature, that is, being concerned with directly assisting anorganization to gain competitive advantage. HRM is a more strategic andproactive form whereas personnel management is a reactive.Human Resources Management has been considered as the strategic and logicalapproach to the management of an organization's most valued.The personnel management has functions which are conventional and systematicwhereas HRM deals with innovative ideas and are committed to enforcing betterbusiness conditions. Personnel management has evolved from being an independentfunction of the company to human recourses management which is an integral partof the company.20 Points of Difference between Personnel Management & HRDDimensionPersonnel ManagementHuman Resource DevelopmentBeliefs & Assumptions1. ContractCareful delineation of written contractsAim to go ‘beyond contracts’2. RulesImportance of devising clear rules‘Can-do’ outlook; impatience with ‘rule’3. Guide to management ActionProceduresBusiness – need4. Behaviour Referentcustom & practiceValues/Mission5. Managerial Task vis-à-vis LabourMonitoringNurturing6. ConflictInstitutionalizedDe-emphasizedSTRATEGIC ASPECTS7. Key RelationsLabour ManagementCustomer8. Corporate PlanMarginal to Central to9. Speed of DecisionSlowFastLINE MANAGEMENT10. Management RoleTransactionalTransformational leadership11. Key ManagersPersonnel/IR SpecialistsGeneral/business/line managers12. CommunicationIndirectDirect13. StandardisationHigh (e.g. ‘parity’ an issue)Low (e.g. ‘parity’ not seen as relevant)14. Prized management skillsNegotiationFacilitationKEY LEVERS15. SelectionSeparate, marginal taskIntegrated, key task16. PayJob Evaluation (fixed grades)Performance – related17. Labour ManagementCollective bargaining contractsTowards individual contracts18. Job categories & gradesManyFew19. CommunicationRestricted flowIncreased flow20. Job DesignDivision of LabourTeamworkAC1.2 The Role of Human Resource Management in OrganizationsManagers in the Human Resources profession have the essential job of organizingpeople so that they can effectively perform their job description. Humanresources professionals work together to develop employees' skills. Forexample, HR professionals advise managers and supervisors how to assignemployees to different roles in the organization, thereby helping theorganization adapt successfully to its environment. In a flexible organization,employees are shifted around to different business functions based on businesspriorities and employee preferences. Human resources professionals also suggeststrategies for increasing employee commitment to the organization. This beginswith using the recruiting process or matching employees with the rightpositions according to their qualifications. Human resources management teamhelps a business develop a competitive advantage, which involves building theability of the company so it can offer a unique set of goods or services to itscustomers. They can do this by hiring the right individuals but it’s not justabout hiring talent; it is about keeping people and helping them grow and staycommitted over the long term.The Human resources team has to identify needs of the employees regardingcareer goals and work upon them to make the employees feel important andmotivated by providing them with training related to their field of interest.If the employee does not feel their skills are being utilized fully towardsperforming their duties they will start to underperform due to lack of motivation.Human resources duties also concern understanding and defining the overallobjectives of the organization, its mission as well as vision. It does not onlyinclude the present organization requirements but also forecasting the futureneeds and making strategies for fulfilling them. Human resources team is alsoresponsible for ensuring the availability for training the employees. Humanresources management team understand that if the employees are properly trainedand developed, it can prove to be the best investment made by the company whichwill definitely furnish quality returns in future. Human resources team isresponsible for selecting the best workforce from the prospective employees byusing the recruitment options like, Personal interviews and group interviewsTrial etc.Human resources team is responsible for ensuring employee health and safety byabiding to the employee health and safety regulations and managinggrievances and ensuring provisions benefits to keep employees motivated. Humanresources team keep a record of the employee profiles and database so that itcan be readily available at the time of recruitment and staffing and alsoensuring its confidentiality.AC1.3The role of line managers in HR ResourceThe Line managers are managers to whom individual or teams of employeesdirectly report to and who have responsibility to a higher level of managementfor those employees or teams. Line Managers are authorized to direct the workof subordinates and are responsible for accomplishing the organization’s tasks.Typically the management responsibilities carried out by line managers mightinclude: Employee managementManaging operational costsProviding technical expertiseOrganisation of work allocation and rotasMonitoring work processesChecking qualityDealing with customers/clientsMeasuring operational performance.Line managers also carry out activities that such as providing coaching andguidance, undertaking performance appraisals and dealing with discipline andgrievances. Line Managers are responsible for: ensuring that any staffexperiencing performance difficulties are managed appropriately and workingwith the employee to identify measures that could be used to improveperformance. Ensuring the staff member has a full understanding of theconsequences of not improving, Setting realistic and measurable standards ofperformance and an action plan incorporating targets, standards, deadlines.Line managers manage operational functions that are crucial for the company’ssurvival. Line Manager Responsibility1. Ensuring that any staff experiencing performance difficulties are managedappropriately 2. Ensuring the staff member has a full understanding of theconsequences of not improving 3. Placing the right employee on the right job4. Starting new employees in the organization5. Training employees for jobs that are new to them6. Improving the job performance of each person1.4Impact of the legal and regulatory framework on HRMBritish legislations have employment laws, affecting topics such asemployee criminal record checks, preventing offenders from working incertain professions these legislations are supposed to protect vulnerablepeople like children or stop unwonted people from obtaining the job,National minimum wage Act was brought into force to ensure that employees aregetting a fair wage in relation to their work. Wage and Hourly rates Thenational minimum wage establishes the amount of the minimum wage an employeereceives per hour. Human resources managers should continuously verify theaccuracy of the amount paid to employeesRace Relations Act 1976 Prevents discrimination because of race in employment.The impact this has in the workplace is a Varity of different culturalbackgrounds in the work place and this can have a really positive effect ifmanaged effectively Anti-discrimination Sex Discrimination Act 1975 Protects men and women fromdiscrimination because of sex in the workplace, this legislation is about equalopportunities in the work place across the sexes men and women in the workplaceshould be treated equally.Disability Discrimination Act 1995 Prevents discrimination against peoplebecause of disabilities in employment. The impact this Act will have in theworkplace would be there would be a few more disabled individuals in theworkplace which will benefit the economy with leEqual Pay Act (1970) Aspect of the Sex Discrimination LawGives the right for men and women to be paid the same rate of pay, for thesame, or equivalent, work Gives individuals the right to the same pay andbenefits as a person of the opposite sex in the same employment where the manand woman are doing; 1. Same grade work2. Work rated as equivalent under a job evaluation study3. Work that is proved to be of equal valueDeveloping policies Human resources develop policies to make sure that managers and employees areaware of how these legal restrictions and how to deal with potential violationsAC 4.1 There are many reasons for termination. Employee termination also can bevoluntary, when an employee decides to leave a company for some reason. Reasonscan include unacceptable performance or as a result of a change in businessconditions for example a recession.Termination with just causeIn law, termination with just cause means that an action or error by theemployee has irreparably damaged the employment relationship between theemployer and the employee. Usually, termination with cause occurs when anemployee is dismissed for a serious reason related to the employee's conduct.There are seven main Examples of misconduct. 1. Theft and dishonesty 2. Violence 3. Drug and alcohol abuse4. Breach of confidence 5. Insubordination 6. Absenteeism 7. Misconduct outside of the workplace Some common grounds used in termination with cause are:1. Fraudulence - stealing or fraud by the employee that is serious enoughto authorise dismissal from organisation. 2. Noncompliance - anemployee frequently breaks organizational policies and discipline has notresulted in a change in behaviour 3. Incompetence - an employee isincompetent at their job and performance has not improved even though theemployee has been given the direction, foundations, training and time needed toimprove. Incompetent Job PerformanceEmployee’s contracts may get cut because the person is unable to perform someor all of the necessary aspects of the job. Before dismissal the employer,should point out their deficiencies during a performance evaluation andprovide counselling to help her improve. If they show little or no improvement,consider moving them to a more suitable position, if possible. When employees are hired to work for a company, they are given a jobdescription that outlines the duties they're expected to fulfill. Whenemployees fall short in achieving their goals, managers are faced with decidingwhether or not an employee's performance warrants his termination. Poorperformance can include everything from not hitting target sales goals andoverlooking project details to not missing deadlines. Employees may also beterminated because they lack the knowledge and skills needed to fulfillassigned tasks. Business ConditionsUnfavourable business conditions may force you to lay off employees foreconomic reasons as opposed to poor performance. The layoff may be permanent,or the employee may be called back to work if business conditions improve Merger/BuyoutA merger or a buy-out usually requires changes within the Company’s’ structure,which might affect employment. Although the employer is not legallyrequired to do so, some employers offer a severance package to employeesterminated under these circumstances.Layoffs if there is a lack of work, or the company is undergoing financialproblems the company might lay off employees. The employer must ensure thelayoff is fair and legal. Employers must give employees advance notice ofclosings and mass layoffs. This gives the employees and their families’ time toadjust to loss of employment and to seek alternative support.Unacceptable Behaviours / for cause You may need to fire an employee due to unacceptable behaviour; actions caninclude stealing company property, or verbally or physically threateninganother employee. The employee may also display a pattern of disrespectful orinsubordinate behaviour directed toward you or your supervisors that results ina disruption of your work environment.AbsenteeismAn employee who misses work frequently or is habitually late negatively affectsyour business's productivity and can place an unfair burden on your otherworkers. Chronic absenteeism could be a sign that the employee is dealingwith job dissatisfaction. Voluntary redundancy In a voluntary termination, an employee hands in their notice from theirjob. Reasons for resignations have that included: a new job, returning to fulltime education, and retirement. If a contract isn’t renewedThis is considered to be a dismissal, and if the employee has 2 years’ servicethe employer needs to show that there’s a reasonable reason for not renewing thecontract Workers have the right: not to be unfairly dismissed after two years’Dismissal when your employer ends your employment - they don’t always have togive you notice. If you’re dismissed, your employer must show they have a validreason that they can justify and also that they have acted reasonably in thecircumstances They must also: be consistent - not dismiss you for doingsomething that they let other employees do Fair and unfair dismissalA dismissal is fair or unfair depending on the reason forit and how the employer acted during the dismissal process. Constructive dismissalThis is when an employee resigns because you’ve breached their employmentcontract. This could be a single serious event or a series of less seriousevents. An employee could claim constructive dismissal if you:cut their wages without agreementunlawfully demote themallow them to be harassed, bullied or discriminated againstWrongful dismissalThis is where you break the terms of an employee’s contract in the dismissalprocess, eg dismissing someone without giving them proper notice.AC 4.2 describe the employment exit procedures used by two organisations Theexit procedures of ASDA Step One, Resignation handed to personnel manager Step Two Personal manager informs human resources department. Step ThreeEmployee has to return the companies possession of equipment and supplies.Human Resources team is responsible for initiating and following through withthe exit process. If the resignation is voluntary HRM invites employee toattend an exit Interview to gather information and improve quality of worklife at the organization. The secondary reason is to provide closure to theseparating employee The exit interview Primary Purpose is to gather informationto improve employee relations practices Spot developing trendsIdentify areas of weaknessIdentify areas of strengthExit interviews are also used to understand, and try to identify patterns in,reasons for resignation they are conducted face -to-face, by telephone, or as asurvey. Focus is on reasons for leaving, reflections on the positive andnegative aspects of the organization, level of satisfaction with variousaspects of the organization.Processing a Resignation NHS West MidlandsStep one The Line Manager gives notice to the HumanResources department upon receipt of a resignation.Step two the Line Manager recognizes resignation in writingand forwards the letter of resignation tothe Human Resources department.Step Three Line Manager forwards confirmation of employee’slast working day and details of any otherrelevantinformation to the Human Resources department. The  Human  Resources  department  prepares  a Termination  Form  on  the  basis  of the information  provided  by  the  Line  Manager and  ensures  it  is  forwarded  to  the Payroll department in time to meet the monthly deadlineStep Four the HumanResources Department writes to the employee offeringthem Anexit Interview and enclosing an exit Interview Questionnaire for them to Complete in preparation for the interview.The Human Resources Department forwards the Line Manager aconfirmationof Service Proforma to complete and return. The completed proforma will be retained on the employee’s personnel file and will providethe basis for any employment references given by the BoardInterview is conducted by an appropriate member of the Human Resources team.All  information  collected  remains  confidential and  is  stored  in  line  with  the Data  Protection Act 1998.4.3AC 2.1 analyse the reasons for human resource planning in organisationsHuman Resource (HR) Planning is the practice of determining and analyzing therequirement for and supply of workforce in order to achieve the organization’sgoals and objectives, fulfill its mission and reach its vision (Mathis &Jackson, 2000).Human resource department know that planning is of paramount of importance toachieving an organizations objective. This part of my assignment will discussthe importance of HR planning and the six steps of HR planning which consist of1. Forecasting;2. inventory audit,3. HR Resource Plan;4. Implementation of Plan; 5. Monitoring6. Control. HR Planning involves gathering information, making objectives, and makingdecisions to enable the organization achieve its objectives types of questionsHRM may consider1. How many staff does the Organization have?2. What type of employees as far as skills and abilities does the Company have?3. How should the Organization best utilize the available resources? 4. How canthe Company keep its employees?The most important reason why HR Planning should be managed and implemented isthe costs involved. Because costs forms an important part of any Organizationsbudget. Whenever there are staff shortages, the organization should be in aposition to utilize the skills of employees available more readily. HRM planning determines future employment needs by analyzing current businessconditions and current trends within the business, for example over the Christmasperiod most big high street retailers will employ more short term staff becausethe demand for goods over the Christmas period. Identifying these trends andplanning for them will let the business be in a more positive position to beconducting business. HRP is also concerned with employee turnover within thebusiness as management needs the right employees at the right place to make aprofit and benefit the organization.(2.2) Steps in HR PlanningForecasting HR Planning requires that we gather data on the Organizational goalsobjectives. One should understand where the Organization wants to go and how itwants to get to that point. The needs of the employees are derived from thecorporate objectives of the Organization. They stern from shorter and mediumterm objectives Therefore, the HR Plan should have a mechanism to expressplanned Company strategies into planned results and budgets so that these canbe converted in terms of numbers and skills required.Inventory After knowing what human resources are required in the Organization, the nextstep is to take stock of the current employees in the Organization. The HRinventory should not only relate to data concerning numbers, ages, but also ananalysis of individuals and skills. Skills inventory provides valid informationon professional and technical skills and other qualifications provided in thefirm. It reveals what skills are immediately available when compared to theforecasted HR requirements.Audit HR inventory calls for collection of data; the HR audit requires systematicexamination and analysis of this data. The Audit looks at what had occurred inthe past and at present in terms of labor turn over, age and sex groupings,training costs and absence. Based on this information, one can then be able topredict what will happen to HR in the future in the Organization.HR resource plan Here we look at career Planning and HR plans. People are the greatest assertsin any Organization. The Organization is at liberty to develop its staff at fullpace in the way ideally suited to their individual capacities. The main reasonis that the Organization’s objectives should be aligned as near as possible, ormatched, in order to give optimum scope for the developing potential of itsemployees. Therefore, career planning may also be referred to as HR Planning orsuccession planning.The questions that should concern us are:a) Are we making use of the available talent we have in the Organization?b) Are employees satisfied with our care of their growth in terms of advancingtheir career? Actioning of PlanThere are three fundamentals necessary for this first step.1) Know where you are going.2) There must be acceptance and backing from top management for the planning.3) There must be knowledge of the available resources Monitoring and Control.This is the last stage of HR planning in the Organization. Once the programmehas been accepted and implementation launched, it has to be controlled. HRdepartment has to make a follow up to see what is happening in terms of theavailable resources. The idea is to make sure that we make use of all theavailable talents that are at our disposal failure of which we continue tostruggle to get to the top.2.3 Recruitment and selection process.Recruitment is the process of approximating the available vacanciesand making suitable arrangements for their selection andappointment. Recruitment is understood as the process of searching for andobtaining applicants for the jobs, from among whom the right people can beselected.  The result is a feweligible applicants from which new employees are selectedThe difference between recruitment and selection:Recruitment is identifying and encouraging potentialemployees to apply for a job. And Selection is selecting the right candidatefrom the collection of applicants. Goals of selection are to select a candidatethat will be successful in performing the tasks and meeting theresponsibilities of the position.Selection processSelection process involves a number of steps. Thebasic ideais to solicit maximum possible information about thecandidatesto ascertain their suitability for employment1).Screening of ApplicationsProspective employees have to fill in some sort of application forms. Theseforms have information about the applicants like their achievements,experience.2) Selection TestsSelection tests to know more about the candidates or to reject the candidateswho cannot be called for interview.4) Interview The basic idea here is to find out overall suitability ofcandidates for the jobs. It alsoprovides opportunity to give relevant information about theorganization to the candidates5) Approval by appropriate AuthoritySuitable candidates are recommended for selection bythe selection committee or personnel department. Functionalheads concerned may be approving authority. When theapproval is received, the candidates are informed about their selection andasked to report for duty to specified persons.6) PlacementAfter all the formalities are completed, the candidates are placed on theirjobs initially on probation period may range from three months to twoyears. During this period, they are observed keenly, and when theycomplete this period successfully, they become the permanent employees of theorganization.Recruitment and selection process at Tata Having received the applications, the next step is toevaluate applicants experience and qualifications andmake a selection.Screening purpose is to evaluate the application andeliminate applicants whose profiles do not match the job requirements,Short-listing of CVs received from various sources are screened by the HRfunction within a week of commencement of sourcing activity.Knowledge and aptitude test is conducted for all trainees and laterals recruits.The resultof test will be criteria for short listing /screening candidates for the purpose of interview.Psychometric Test is done to find out the “CRISP” fit.While hiring at Tata, they look for the followingattributes C - Customer Focus R - Result OrientationI - Initiative and SpeedS - Self ConfidenceP - Passion for achievementInterview This is powerful technique used to assess thecapabilities/skills of the candidate and to understandthe softer aspects that a difficult to measure from resumes.After finalizing a date and time, short-listedcandidates are invited for an interviewSelection Process and interviews for Tata motor cars Duration of written/online tests and interviews1) Aptitude Test0-30 Minutes     Aptitude Test2) Technical Test30-60 Minutes     Technical Written3) Psychometric Test4) Group Discussion5) HR Interview0-30 Minutes      HR Interview6) Technical Interview0-30 Minutes Technical InterviewTechnical subjects to study for written test Theory of Machines, Automobileengineering, Fluid Dynamics and Machinery. The Psychometric test questions thetest the way you handle situations under different circumstances. Recruitmentat AsdaPhase one Applications are registered through Asda’s online recruitment system,Asda’s HR team then shortlist appropriate candidates for interview or anassessment centre. Two documents are vital here: a job description and apersonal specification.  These inform applicants and help managers selectthe candidates that best match the requirements for the position. Step two attend the assessment centre known as either ‘Asda Reality’ thisprovides an opportunity for candidates to demonstrate their strengths whichalign to Asda’s culture, beliefs and way of working. Step three interview onceselected, the final part of the recruitment process involves providingappropriate training. At Asda, each new colleague is put into a specifictraining plan designed for their role.  (2.4)The first phase of recruitment at Asda is automated you can upload yourcurriculum vitae and edit your personal details on line, this way it makes itsimper for the recruiters to narrow down the employees they would like. Asda’sonline recruitment process has improved the speed and efficiency ofrecruitment, making applications easier for candidates and selection faster formanagement. On the second phase is really about meeting your potential employerand selling your skills and experience to see if you could fit in with theorganisations overall vision. The recruitment and selection at Tata is far more complicated than that at Asdathis is because of the more highly skilled aspects of the work. Phase one isbased on receiving applications for the vacant position. Phase twoevaluate applicants experience and qualifications andmake a selection.Screening purpose is to evaluate the application andeliminate applicants, whose profiles do not match the job requirements,Phase three are tests to test the competence of potential employees theses testconsist of technical and written aspects Phase four is the Human resourcesinterview and phase five is the technical interview. L03Appraisals and rewards system at Tata Motors are based on key results area.There are reviews at regular intervals, promotions are based on performance,and productivity and rewards comes in the form of profit linked incentivesschemes. Positive appraisals can affect your career pathway with fast trackoptions for high performers and interviews for positions above manager’spositions. Tata motor company employees have appraisals twice a year wherebyemployees get feedback which gives them a chance to look at their approach ofworking, The necessary steps are also undertaken for employees who deviate fromtheir goalsTata motors have introduced a comprehensive system of quarterly appraisalswhereby each employee selects their own key results areas or goals and everyquarter they have the chance to go back and asses their own performance againstthe parameters. For many front line employees these performance relatedquarterly payouts designed to reward them with incentives for theirperformance. Tata Motors have midterm reviews for all employees that have hadpositive appraisals creating an expectation of a salary rise twice a year ifthey perform well. At Tata employees and supervisors can set up jointparticipations goals this method often leads to employee commitment along withsmart goals Specific - precise and detailed Measurable – with criteria for determing progress and success Achievable -attainableRealistic – RelevantTime related – Grounded in a time frame This system is commonly known as 90 degree appraisal system. Performance ratingProcess at Tata MotorsExceptional contributor Significant contributor Performs consistently and substancly above all exceptions in all areas Performsexceptionally well in all areas.Achieves a final score of greater than or equal to 115%Achieves final score between 100-114%Consistently delivers on stretch targetsVersatile in their area ProactiveLittle or no supervisionSpots and anticipates problems, implements solutionsSets examples for others Sees and exploits opportunities. Take ownership of own development Delivers ahead of time Coaches otherSees wider impact across business Demonstrates business initiative Focuses on what’s good for the business Self motivated Herzberg motivation theory Frederick Herzberg in 1966 came up with a theory that job motivators wereclosely connected to job And the motivator’s appeared to produce motivatedbehavior whereas hygiene factors produced dissatisfaction From the way Tatamotors conducts its appraisals and gives incentives I can see they firmlybelieve in some key points Herzberg mentioned in 1966 regarding Achievement,recognition, advancement and growth, giving employees with good appraisalreports promotions and pay rises will motivate employees and lead to extremejob satisfaction Factors leading to extreme dissatisfactionHygiene FactorsFactors leading to extreme satisfactionMotivators Company-policy & administrationAchievementSupervision RecognitionRelationship with supervisorWork itselfWork conditionsResponsibilitySalaryAdvancementRelationship with peersGrowthPersonal lifeRelationship with subordinatesStatusSecurity Asda used 360 degree feedbacks for appraisal in this process employees areassessed based personal and professional skill sets, customer service andmultitasking skills to see if they can perform multiple tasks under pressure.For slightly senior employees they consider coaching skills to be an essentialpart of leadership skills. In this process they judge how a person can trainthe subordinates. Apart from that it also judges the counseling skills of thepeople that help them in guiding the subordinates in expanding responsibilityand capacity and delegate work according to their individual potential. Asdahas redesigned 360 degree program to develop the employee performance throughthe process like Individual bonus, programThe individual bonus factor is used to promote the best employee from theirperformance. This process aims the organisational objectives through theemployee performance. As the Result of this process, the employee surveyconducted in ASDA that shows the individual bonus process will be a greatsuccess through the high level of employee commitments and improvements throughthe self-motivation.In 1911 the engineer Frederick Taylor published one of the earliestmotivational theories. According to Taylor´s research, people worked purely formoney this approach of paying workers by results was good for the business. Theoutcome was greater production but gave little opportunity, encouragement ortime for employees to think for themselves or be creative in what they did.This limited people's development and their use within the companyPeer recognitionPeer recognition is the modern performance appraisal process also includes inthe 360 degree process. This process is to award and acknowledge an individualfor their outstanding performance in the company. This would be could be morenon-financial factors based which can motivate employees to improve theiroutput. One such factor may be the desire to serve people; others may be toimprove personal skills or achieve promotion. Employees are more motivated ifthey feel content in their work. This often happens when their employer createsa good working environment where employees feel valued, generally throughincreased communication and being asked for their opinions. Employee motivationis also likely to be higher if the organisation invests in its staff throughtraining and development. In turn this enhances their knowledge, skills andtheir sense of job satisfaction. Positive and negative reinforcement plays avital role in motivation in the work place in the form of 1. Praise for goodwork2. Encouragement 3. Constructive criticism The organisations leader should always communicate the organisations culture,values and beliefs to the group members. Performance feed backTeam leaders should constantly provide feedback to members on: 1. How they aredoing in their task and in the team2. How results are progressing in comparison to plans and standards set out forthem Feed back is essential both for motivational and for learning and developmentto adjust performance and bring it back in line where necessary to the originalplan. The manager should motivate his or her team, both individually andcollectively so that a productive work place is maintained and developed and atthe same time employees derive satisfaction from their jobs. .References Phillip, Harris. Managing the Knowledge Culture. Human ResourceDevelopment Press, March 2005.Johnston, John. Time to Rebuild Human Resources. Business Quarterly. Winter1996.Mathis, Robert L., and John H. Jackson. Human Resource Management. ThomsonSouth-Western, 2005Ulrich, Dave. Delivering Results: A New Mandate for HR Professionals.Harvard Business School Press, 1998.Gary, Dessler. Human resource management, Eleventh Edition 2005Subba, rao. Essentials of HR Management and Industrial Relations, FourthEdition 2007 

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