
Unit 39: 
Electronic Principles 


Unit code:

J/601/1448



QCF level:

5



Credit value:

15






• Aim
This unit aims to further develop learners’ understanding of analogue
electronics and their applications across the engineering sector.
• Unit abstract
In this
unit, learners will examine the use of current manufacturers’ data and support,
apply current circuit analyses and design, implement and then test the created
applications.
Although faultfinding skills are not the main emphasis of the unit they
will form an integral part in the later development, in terms of testing.
• Learning outcomes
On successful completion of this unit a
learner will:
1 Be able to apply testing procedures for
semiconductor devices and circuits
2 Understand the characteristics and operation
of amplifier circuits
3 Understand the types and effects of feedback
on circuit performance
4 Understand the operation and applications of
sine wave oscillators.
Unit content
1 Be able to apply testing procedures for
semiconductor devices and circuits
Circuits and testing: half and full wave rectifying; zener regulator;
switching and amplifier circuits for transistors; IC voltage regulators
instruments eg CRO, probes, signal generators, multimeter, logic
Devices: semiconductor devices eg diodes (rectifier
characteristics including forward/reverse bias modes, zener, LED,
photodiode, thyristor, triac), transistors (bipolar, unipolar and fieldeffect,
including characteristics and switch and amplifier modes), phototransistors,
optocouplers, integrated circuits (741 operational amplifier applications
including filters, comparators, power supplies and oscillators), IC voltage
regulator, ‘specialist’ ICs (analogue and digital)
Literature: manufacturers’ specifications; manuals; characteristics; circuit
diagrams and support (online and offline)
2 Understand the characteristics and operation
of amplifier circuits
Amplifier
characteristics: ideal
(gain, bandwidth, input/output impedance, noise, thermal drift); common
notation; DC/AC behaviour; opamp basic circuits; limitations (DC, AC,
nonlinear, power); common applications; internal circuitry of 741
(differential, voltage and output amplifier)
Analyse operation and performance: use of quantitative methods; equivalent
circuits; computer modelling; consideration of frequency response;
voltage gain; bandwidth; output power; distortion; input and output impedance
Types and
benefits of amplifier: power eg
singleended Class A, complementary symmetrical Class B, Class AB;
tuned; smallsignal; operational amplifiers eg inverting, noninverting,
voltage follower, differential, summing, integrator, differentiator,
comparator, instrumentation, Schmitt trigger; active filters (highpass,
lowpass, band (pass, reject), notch)
Modify
circuit designs: using
manufacturers’ data; circuit calculations; to meet revised specifications
using alternative components to achieve lower cost or to improve performance
3 Understand the types and effects of feedback
on circuit performance
Types and
effects of feedback: types eg
voltage, current, series, shunt; effects eg closed loop gain of a system
with feedback, feedback in single and multistage circuits
Circuit performance: effect of feedback on gain, bandwidth, distortion,
noise, gain stability, input and output impedance
Circuits: singlestage transistor amplifier;
operational amplifier
Investigate: circuit design and build, practical
measurement; computer simulation
4 Understand the operation and applications of
sine wave oscillators
Circuit requirements: circuit conditions eg 1Î²A = 0 at only one frequency,
gainphase relationship in the circuit; frequency determining elements
Build and evaluate: to a
given specification a typical circuit configuration eg Wien Bridge, TwinT,
threesection RC ladder, LC coupled, transistor or operational amplifier
Specification: factors eg frequency, stability, frequency drift, distortion; need for
amplitude stabilisation
Crystal
oscillators: advantages of crystal
controlled oscillator circuits eg frequency accuracy and stability;
equivalent circuit of a quartz crystal; fundamental and overtone circuits
Learning outcomes and assessment criteria

Learning outcomes

Assessment criteria for pass




On successful completion of

The learner can:




this unit a learner will:












LO1 Be able to apply testing


1.1

apply testing procedures to a range of
semiconductor



procedures
for



devices and circuits



semiconductor
devices and


1.2

use relevant literature for testing
semiconductor devices



circuits







and circuits
















LO2 Understand the


2.1

analyse the operation of different types of
amplifier



characteristics and operation


2.2

evaluate the actual performance of
different types of



of
amplifier circuits







amplifier












2.3

compare the analysis with the measured
results





2.4

modify circuit designs to meet revised
specifications









LO3 Understand the types and


3.1

describe types of feedback and determine
the effects on



effects of
feedback on circuit



circuit performance when feedback is
applied



performance


3.2

design a circuit employing negative
feedback










3.3

investigate the effects of applying
feedback to single and






multistage circuits









LO4 Understand the operation


4.1

describe the circuit conditions and the
methods used to



and applications
of sine



achieve sinusoidal oscillation



wave
oscillators


4.2

build and evaluate a sine wave oscillator
to a given











specification





4.3

explain the advantages of
crystalcontrolled oscillator






circuits.








Guidance
Links
This unit
may be linked to Unit 1: Analytical Methods for Engineers and Unit 5:
Electrical and Electronic Principles.
Essential requirements
Centres must
ensure that learners have access to appropriate laboratory test equipment (eg
signal generators, oscilloscopes, digital frequency meters, audio power meters
and test meters).
Employer engagement and vocational contexts
The delivery
of this unit will benefit from centres establishing strong links with employers
willing to contribute to the delivery of teaching, workbased placements and/or
detailed case study materials.
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