Unit 18 Advanced Machine Tools


 

Unit 18:

Advanced Machine Tools


Unit code:
M/601/1539

QCF level:
5


Credit value:
15






Aim

This unit introduces the theory of safe and efficient production of components on computer numeric control (CNC) machine tools. It also provides a broad knowledge about automated and flexible manufacturing.

Unit abstract

This unit introduces learners to the types of CNC machine tools commonly used in industry and typical applications of such equipment. Learners will develop an understanding of the design and build of advanced machine tools and the economics of production on CNC plant. The concept of cellular manufacture is introduced and is supported by the programming of programmable logic controllers (PLCs). Workholding and tooling issues for CNC are covered and reference is made to the special needs of high-speed machining. The application of probes for work and tool setting is discussed. Safe use of equipment will be a constant theme throughout the unit.

The unit is intended to lead the learner towards an understanding of machine tool technology and its utilisation through the study of theory and practical application.

Learning outcomes

On successful completion of this unit a learner will:

1     Be able to determine the cost of producing simple components on CNC equipment

2       Understand the design and construction of CNC machine tools

3       Understand the use of tool management in automated environments

4       Understand the requirements of a flexible manufacturing cell (FMC) and the uses of programmable logic controllers (PLCs).





Unit content

1      Be able to determine the cost of producing simple components on CNC equipment

Economics of production on CNC equipment: advantages and disadvantages of CNC; comparison of CNC and manual machine tools eg impacts on productivity, quality and flexibility; comparison of costs of simple components produced manually and by CNC; determination of cost of producing specific components on CNC machine tools based on machine utilisation; hourly machine rates, labour rates and other overheads


2      Understand the design and construction of CNC machine tools

Design and construction of CNC machine tools: history of machine tools; axis conventions; horizontal and vertical lathes; horizontal and vertical milling machines; multi-axis machine tools – 4, 5, and 6 axis milling machines and machining centres, 3 and 4 axis turning centres and millturn centres; special considerations for high speed machining; special purpose machine tools; cast versus fabricated bases; modular designs; typical configurations; requirement of machine tools – rigidity, power requirements, cost of construction

Control systems: relationship between CNC controller and machine control unit (MCU); closed-loop control and feedback systems; types of positional encoders

3      Understand the use of tool management in automated environments

Tool management in automated environments: tool libraries; data requirements; geometry and offsets; feeds and speeds; control of maximum depth of cut; updating; linking tool libraries with bill of materials (BOM)

Tool life management: sister tooling; adaptive control for tool wear monitoring; probing systems for tool setting and tool wear detection; tool wear compensation by workpiece probing

Tool delivery: tool pre-setting and storage; automated tool stores; automated tool delivery and loading

4      Understand the requirements of a flexible manufacturing cell (FMC) and the uses of programmable logic controllers (PLCs)

Flexible manufacturing: requirements of FMCs (group technology (GT) and just-in-time (JIT) manufacturing); typical cell configurations

Automated materials handling: use of robots for machine loading/unloading; multi-pallet systems for milling; bar feeding systems for turning

Applications of PLCs: PLC programming using ladder logic; handshaking and communication between key elements of the cell





Learning outcomes and assessment criteria




Learning outcomes
Assessment criteria for pass


On successful completion of
The learner can:


this unit a learner will:










LO1 Be able to determine the

1.1
determine the economics of producing a simple


cost of producing simple


component on CNC equipment


components on CNC

1.2
determine the relative merits of manual and CNC


equipment





machine tools













LO2 Understand the design and

2.1
assess typical configurations of CNC machine tools and


construction of CNC


relevant axis conventions


machine tools

2.2
explain the relationships between the main design









features of CNC machine tools




2.3
examine the use of control systems applied to CNC





equipment







LO3 Understand the use of tool

3.1
review the requirements of an automated tool


management in automated


management system


environments

3.2
illustrate the uses of adaptive control and sister tooling









for tool life management and the use of probing systems





for tool setting and tool wear compensation




3.3
analyse the requirements of an automated tool delivery





system







LO4 Understand the

4.1
explain the requirements of a flexible manufacturing cell


requirements of a flexible

4.2
discuss the uses of automated material handling


manufacturing cell (FMC) and





systems within the FMC environment


the uses of programmable









logic controllers (PLCs)

4.3
outline simple programs for applications of PLC cell





control.











Guidance
Links

This unit may be linked with Unit 13: Application of Machine Tools and Unit 12: Material Handling Systems.

Essential requirements

Learners will need access to appropriate machine tools and properly trained support staff.


Employer engagement and vocational contexts

Liaison with employers can help provide access to suitable machine tools and equipment. Visits to the learner’s workplace or other appropriate industrial facilities, will help foster employer cooperation and help set the focus for the delivery and assessment that have relevance and are of benefit to the whole cohort.


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