Tourist Destination

Tourist Destination
Table of Contents






Introduction
Present assignment explores the tourist destination statistics for the particular destination in context. There are four tasks which would be accomplished in order to analyze particular tourist destination. First task would analyze the tourist destination in terms of generator of visitors, income generation and number etc. Further future trend for the visitors in given location would be predicted. Second task of the assignment would explore various features of a particular tourist destination such as physical, cultural and social elements and based on these factors a leading tourist destination would be compared with emerging destination. Third task of the assignment would compare two tourist destinations in terms of their appeal and would analyze factors which affect appeal of a tourist destination. Fourth task would analyze issues affecting popularity of the tourist destination and explore potential of responsible tourism to enhance host community.
TASK 1 
P 1.1 In your information you have to analyze the main tourist destinations for each country e.g. UK or worldwide country and to research the main generators in the world in terms of visitor numbers and income generation. For example by identifying the number of visitors, nights and spending by purpose and by country of visit in recent data available
Tourist receiver is a country which tourists would like to visit, for example if tourist likes to visit Japan then it’s a tourist receiver country. Generally France is considered as the major tourist receiving country. While tourist generator is a country from which tourist comes from, for example if tourist are coming from USA then it would be considered as tourist generator (Butler & Pearce, 1999). In general UK is biggest tourist generating country. Below table provides the statistics for tourist receiving countries:
Rank
Country
Regional market
Number visited in 2010
Number visited in 2009
% change
1
France
Europe
76.8 M
76.8 M
0.0%
2
United States
America
59.6 M
54.9 M
+8.6%
3
China
Asia
55.6 M
50.8 M
+9.4%
4
Spain
Europe
52.6 M
55.1 M
+1.0%
5
Italy
Europe
43.5 M
43.1 M
+0.9%
6
United Kingdom
Europe
28.0 M
28.1 M
-0.2%
7
Turkey
Europe
27.1 M
25.6 M
+5.9%
8
Germany
Europe
26.9 M
24.1 M
+10.9%
9
Malaysia
Asia
24.5 M
23.7 M
+3.8%
10
Mexico
America
22.3 M
21.4 M
+4.3%
Table 1: Showing the rank wise comparison of different countries as tourist receiver
Analyzing the generated income for receiving countries below table provide the generated income and giving comparison for United States
Rank
Country
Regional market
Generated income in USD
1
United States
America
$103.4 billion
2
France
Europe
$46.3 billion
3
Spain
Europe
$52.5 billion
4
China
Asia
$45.7 billion
5
Germany
Europe
$34.0 billion
6
United Kingdom
Europe
$30.4 billion
7
Australia
Oceania
$30.0 billion
8
Hong Kong
Asia
$23.2 billion
Table 2: Showing income generation data for different countries
France continues to lead the table for arrival of tourist and rank third in income generation which is mainly due to the reason that UK is among one of the biggest generator country for tourist and it is cheap & easy to travel to France from UK. Another factor for high receipt of tourist in France is low crime rate which is 8 murder per million. Physical environment such as presence of Eiffel tower in France is another reason for the popularity of France along with use of same currency with Europe (Gartner, 1996).
P 1.2 In that pack you have to analyse statistics to determine tourism destination trends and predict future trends
The present task would look at the trend of tourism in France & UK and would provide future prediction of the trends for tourism in these countries. France is considered as the leading tourist destination in world tourism industry. The major reason behind this is presence of several attractions in France such as mountains, beaches and historic monuments etc. France is emerging as the best tourist destination for visitors and it is predicted that France would continue to attract much higher number of tourist in the country in coming years. Another factor for increasing tourism trend in France is due to falling prices for Euro as tourist would get better exchange rate.
Tourism industry in Ireland gains lot of revenue through tourist in France and it is expected that tourism revenue would increase at a rate of 15% from year 2010 to 2014. Revenue generated through French tourist in year 2010 was €177m. Tourism industry in France has impacted negatively by the financial crisis but there was strong recovery in comparison to other industrial sector in the country. Tourism industry in France is considered to be a major source for job creation and growth in the economic development of France (Saayman & Saayman, 2006). There is stiff competition offered by other tourist destination such as China, Italy, India and Brazil. In coming years there would be lot of challenges faced by France such as environmental impact and globalization. In order to deal with the issues French government has started the plan named “Strategie Destination France 2010-2020”.   
United Kingdom has remained among one of the popular destinations among tourist and a big source of income generation in the entire economy of the country. Below table provide the trend of tourist visit in UK along with rank of different cities with the country:
Rank
City
2007
2008
2009
2010
Total
1
London
15341
14752
14210
14705
59010
2
Edinburg
1330
1190
1323
1314
5156
3
Manchester
970
890
799
812
3471
4
Birmingham
699
764
710
739
2912
5
Glasgow
754
630
624
550
2558
6
Liverpool
543
554
457
453
2007
7
Dk Towns
480
454
433
437
1804
8
Bristol
469
493
422
376
1761
Table 3: Showing ranking for cities in London for number of tourist visited
As shown above London has topped the ranking for highest number of tourist which is mainly due to high number of tourist attractions in London. Some of the most popular for which London is most visited city include The London eye, British museum, Buckingham palace and The Tower of London etc (Du Plessis et al, 2005). Edinburg continues its second place which is mainly due to the reason that it is one of the famous city and capital of Scotland. Some of the popular tourist attractions in Edinburg include Arthur’s seat, Cove, Royal Yacht Britannia and National museum of Scotland etc. Manchester secures third place in UK due to presence of famous Cathedral, shopping exhibitions and craft & design centres etc. Birmingham is considered at 4th place in England due to several attractions such as Aston hall, millennium point and Birmingham botanical garden etc.
Future tourism in United Kingdom is considered to boom due to some of the below mentioned factors:
1. Olympics in year 2012 and Paralympics games will give London biggest chance in order to enhance number of tourist inflow in the country
2. Presence of online promotional media in tourism industry is playing a major role where in sites such as visitbritain.com promotes Britain as a major conference destination. It has been revealed that a business visitor spends £200 per trip which is double as compared to the spending made by holiday maker.
3. UK government has its focus to develop the coastal resort in order to enhance domestic as well as international tourist in the country.
4. Several ecotourism organizations are promoting UK as ecotourism place, thereby enhancing number of tourist in the country
TASK 2   
P2.1 Analyse the cultural, social and physical features of the worldwide tourist destination selected by you explaining their appeal to tourists
For the present task London has been selected as the tourist destination for which analysis of cultural, social and physical features would be done to understand the appeal made by these factors for the tourist visiting London. London at present holds the title for most visited tourist destination in UK and consist of several attraction places for which tourist from domestic as well as international origin visit London. Looking at the economic significance of London for tourism it can be stated that more than 59000 tourist has visited London in last year contributing to a total of 12 billion dollar towards economy in United Kingdom. Hence tourism in London is considered as one of the major factor in its economic development. Further economic significance for the tourism in London does not limit itself to the contribution of revenue through shopping, exhibition and other sources but also provide employment opportunity for more than 0.02 million people. Further economic impacts of tourism are not immediate as development of more tourist spot in London in recent time or expenditure made by government for the online advertisement to promote London as tourist destination would yield benefits in future (Mbaiwa, 2004).
Social benefits of tourism can’t be ignored and thus tourism in London is also beneficial from the social perspective as well. Social factor has appeal to the tourist visiting a particular destination, for example tourism in London is a source of peace and cultural understanding. Tourism involves exchange of peace process along with understanding culture of the tourist country so that tourist can understand the culture developing better understanding. Tourism industry proves reward for the local community and local community also proud on their achievement by the development of tourism in the local area by their efforts. Tourism industry would also supports the local business as most of the industries in London such as construction, apparel and food industry are backed by the revenue generated through tourism industry.
Another socio-culture benefit for the tourism industry is offering seasonal employment for the people in host country which might be beneficial for the student but would spoil the lifestyle for people looking for a permanent job position. In order to sole issue of temporary job attracting people for various purposes such as education, convention, business and leisure would be a probable solution for which around the year tourist would visit London and there would not be seasonal inflow of tourist in London.
As a cultural impact of the tourism in London craft & design market would grow and this would enhance cultural aspects of London worldwide. Along with the design & craft cultural factors such as dressing and behavioural values would be known by domestic as well as tourism in international origins as well. Environmental impacts of the tourism industry in London are both positive as well as negative. Positive impacts of tourism in London include development of the infrastructure such as roads, water drains and maintenance of historical monuments which are repaired and maintained in order to enhance number of tourist visiting London. Along with this there can be negative impact on the environmental factors in London such as soil erosion, pollution, waste discharge etc. Physical factors of the tourism destination place such as London include presence of several attraction destinations like The Tower of London, The London eye and Buckingham palace etc (Harrington et al, 2003). Mix of such attractive destination in London appeal highly to the tourist in order to make multiple visits in London.
P.2.2 Compare features of a tourist destination in a developing country and leading tourist Destinations.
Some of the major features which can be compared between a developing country and leading tourist destination include infrastructure, branding, purpose of tourism and management of the historic tourist destinations. For the present task two tourist destinations, i.e. one in developing country and other in developed country would be compared. India has been selected as the developing country where in tourist destination such as Taj Mahal, Agra is considered as tourist destination and this would be compared with London which is a tourist destination of the current developed countries. Comparing the two in terms of infrastructure it can be said that supporting infrastructure elements such as roads, airline industry, travel industry and construction industry are having much better support to the tourist destination in London as compared to Agra.
Similar in terms of branding London has been promoted by government and other stakeholders in tourism industry in UK as a conference city so those business tourists come to London and make heavy spending. Further with the help of online as well as offline promotional activities awareness about heritage & cultural elements are imparted among the potential tourist. Websites such as Visitbritain.com are branding London through online media. Though Indian government has also made several attempts to promote their tourist destinations and Taj Mahal is among one of the most promoted tourist destination in India. But comparing the two it can be said that branding efforts are much better through British media which are resulting in heavy tourist inflow for London.
Purpose of tourism is another factor which is affecting tourism in developed and developing countries (Pizam, 2002). Tourism in India is mainly for leisure which brings seasonality in Indian tourism industry while in London there are several purposes of tourism such as education, heritage, leisure and business which makes it a perfect destination for around the year visit. In terms of management of historic monuments London has high focus in order to preserve the historic monument and managing tourism industry while there are higher levels of effort required in India so as to preserve their historic monuments.      
TASK 3 
P3.1 Compare the appeal of current leading tourist destinations with that of currently developing tourist destinations
For the present context to compare appeal of current leading tourist destination with that of currently developing tourist destination, Tourist destination of United Kingdom and Costa Rica have been considered. Though the two tourist destinations are having different characteristics but in present context comparison would be made based on their appeal to tourists. United Kingdom is among top 10 tourist destination in world with 28.1 million tourist arrival every year while Costa Rica is located in Central America and ranked at fifth place in terms of environmental sustainability. Some of the most popular tourist destination in Costa Rica includes Monteverde cloud forest reserve which is a forest containing more than 300 species for animals & plants, Corcovado national park, Drake Bay, Manuel Antonio national park, Arenal volcano and Dominical beach.
Comparing the two destinations it can be said that both Costa Rica and United Kingdom are having unique landscape and great biodiversity. But the difference between two can be considered as Costa Rica is a favorite tourist destination for people who want to visit an exotic country with beautiful beaches and great variety of flora & fauna. While United Kingdom is home for the tourist who are interested in amazing physical features such as Lake district, The British Isles and Scottish mountains etc (Deloitte, 2008). In terms of culture, Costa Rica is having original Spanish culture while United Kingdom introduces new chapter for human kind with wide literature of Shakespeare, Byron & Milton etc, home for classical music such as Royal Albert hall, Royal opera house, theatre in United Kingdom are old tradition and attracts customers. In addition to this museum, library and historic architecture are some of the major attractions for the tourist visiting United Kingdom.
Comparing the transport in two tourist destination, Costa Rica only has national roads which are also in poor condition and overall public transport system in undeveloped in Costa Rica. United Kingdom on other hand has one of the finest public transport systems with airports, underground trains and buses. Crime rate is low for both the countries but Britain has impressive taskforce which is not present in Costa Rica. In terms of environmental protection which is a major appealing factor for the tourist United Kingdom is ranked at 9th place while Costa Rica is ranked at 5th place in world ranking. Hence it can be said that developed countries are having unique features for their tourist destination which appeal to the domestic as well as international tourist in comparison to the features of developing nations.         
P3.2- Evaluate how characteristics of a tourist destination affect its appeal
In order to compare the characteristics of a tourist destination which affect its appeal to the tourist visiting that particular place below mentioned factors needs to be considered:
§  Publicity and sales promotions is one of the vital factors which can have positive as well as negative impact on the tourism industry in the country. For example, Olympic 2012 coverage had positive impact on the tourism in London
§  Crime rate decide tourist flow in present age and United Kingdom is among safest country in terms of crime. But pick pockets target tourist in London at places such as Oxford Street, Brighton resort and Bournemouth resort etc.
§  In order to enhance product life cycle in United Kingdom there is high level of involvement for the authorities to provide better services to tourist such as information centre, maps and current locations etc (World Trade Organisation, 2012).
§  Economic elements can make negative impact on the tourism industry in UK as increasing inflation, adverse exchange rates and ever increasing cost of infrastructure would reduce their investment in key areas such as healthcare and education
§  Political instability, terrorism attacks and riots are among major threats in UK which may lead to lower level of growth in tourism industry
§  Over commercialization for the resorts and other buildings in London may lead to negative impact on tourism industry in United Kingdom
Hence overall it can be said that at present UK is adequately managing its appeal in order to attract large number of tourist worldwide and by avoiding enclave tourism and tourism leakage it would be easy for UK to maintain it in top 10 tourist destinations worldwide (Yale University, 2012).  
TASK 4 
P4.1 Analyze issues that affects the popularity of tourist destinations
There are several issues affecting the popularity of tourist destination in context i.e. United Kingdom and can be given as under:
§  Tourism leakage has negative economic impact on tourism industry as more than 80% of the tourism revenue goes to airline and hotels and does add to the local business. Average import leakage in United Kingdom is considered at 40 to 50% as all the goods & services demanded by tourism are not available within the host country.
§  Another factor affecting UK tourism industry is enclave tourism as all inclusive packages affect the local businesses such as pubs. Bar and coffee shops. Such type of packages designed for the tourist would also be over expensive for the tourist in United Kingdom.
§  Increasing inflation and adverse exchange rate which is affecting tourism in UK negatively as strong pound would make foreign currencies lower hence lower spending would be made by international tourism visiting in United Kingdom
§  Social riots is another factor which leads to political instability and social riots in year 2011 in London caused by economic crisis lead to the bad image among the potential tourist for United Kingdom (Hall, 2012)
§  Increasing tourism attacks in United Kingdom such as in year 2005 and year 2011 are threat to safety of tourism in United Kingdom and would affect arrival of tourists in UK negatively
§  Environmental impact is made by tourism industry as well, high inflow of tourist result in high pollution rate as it has been observed that during peak time in London emission of Co2 is very high which lead to impact on the environmental factors
§  Heavy investment in infrastructure such as repair, maintenance of historic monuments and development of supporting infrastructure for tourism may have significant impact on the government investment policy on other crucial areas such as health & education.
Overall despite of above mentioned factors in United Kingdom it has managed its tourism appeal into efficient manner due to which there is heavy inflow of tourist in the country. Further government need to focus on above mentioned factors so that appeal of United Kingdom as one of the top tourist destination can be managed and tourism inflow can be enhanced in coming years.
P4.2 Discuss the potential for responsible tourism to enhance the host community at the worldwide tourist destination selected by you.
In responsible tourism activities it is important to reduce harmful impacts of tourism on economy, culture and social life so that benefits sought through tourism industry can be maximized. It is worth to note that 1 out of 12 people is directly or indirectly employed in tourism industry and these impacts of tourism industry are sustainable in nature. Several heritage organizations are funded through tourism industry leading to preservation of cultural and natural heritage of a country (Lawton & Weaver, 2006). Role of responsible tourism in London is to make positive impact on economy thereby creating more employment opportunities and developing local businesses through higher purchases. United world tourism organizations promote tourism as an instrument to reduce poverty and impose global ethics in tourism industry. Responsible tourism in United Kingdom focuses on some of the emerging issues in tourism such as drugs and child sex tourism etc. Ecotourism is another responsible tourism and some of the major factors which need to be considered in ecotourism include positive experience for tourist, building environmental awareness, promoting financial support for conservation and extending financial benefits to local community. UK has 28 cultural and natural UNESCO world heritage sites which are committed towards responsible tourism in country such as:
§  Business scheme for green tourism
§  The New Forest
§  UNESCO world heritage site
§  Association of independent tour operators
§  Green Dragon
Though UK is leading towards responsible tourism but there is need to promote its natural beauty and maintain discipline in tourism industry so that ethics can be sustained in tourism industry leading to higher level of responsibility being imposed in the tourism industry in United Kingdom.
Conclusion
In the present paper four tasks have been analyzed, in the first task it was found out that in terms of revenue USA is the first destination while France is prime tourist destination leading in number of tourist visited. Further analyzing tourism future trend in UK reason for increasing tourism inflow in UK was analyzed along with inflow of tourist in different cities in UK. London has been identified as the major source of tourist inflow for UK due to its heritage and cultural significance. In second task physical, cultural and environmental factors for tourist destination was analyzed and it was found out that these factors in developed tourist destination such as UK are much supporting in comparison to the developing nations. In third task appeal for tourist destination in UK was analyzed and factors affecting appeal of tourist destination in UK were analyzed. Fourth task lead to the analysis of issues affecting tourism in UK such as economic, political and social factors. Also role of tourism industry in United Kingdom to promote responsible tourism activities were understood where in United Kingdom promotes responsible tourism through development of several organizations for the responsible tourism and avoiding some of the major limitations in present age tourism industry such as child sex tourism and drugs. Overall tourist destination management is an important task and stakeholders involved in tourism industry should suitably manage the tourist destination as to develop its appeal to the tourist.
References
§  Lawton, L & Weaver, D 2006, Tourism Management, 3rd edn, John Wiley & Sons Australia, Milton, QLD, pp 238-303 
§  Hall, C.M 2012, Introduction to Tourism: Dimensions and Issues, 4th edn, Pearson Education Australia, Frenchs Forest, NSW, pp.235-319, 425 
§  Butler, R.W & Pearce, D.G 1999, Contemporary Issues in Tourism Development, Routledge, Fetter Lane, London, pp.232-257 
§  Gartner, W.C 1996, Tourism Development: Principles, processes, and policies, Thomson Publishing Company, USA, pp.63-187
§  Saayman, A & Saayman, M 2006, ‘Estimating the Economic Contribution of Visitor Spending in the Kruger National Park to the Regional Economy’, Journal of Sustainable Tourism, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 67-81 
§  Du Plessis, C. Saayman, A & Saayman, M 2005, ‘Analysis of spending patterns of visitors of three World Cup Cricket matches in Potchefstroom, South Africa.’, Journal of Sport Tourism, vol. 10, no. 1, pp.211-221 
§  Mbaiwa, J.E 2004, ‘The Socio-cultural impacts of Tourism Development in the Okavango Delta, Botswana’, Journal of Tourism and Cultural Change, vol. 2, no. 3, pp.163-184 
§  Harrington, J. Pickering, C.M & Worboys, G 2003, ‘Environmental Impacts of Tourism on the Australian Alps Protected Areas’, Mountain Research and Development, vol. 23, no. 3, pp.247-254 
§  Pizam, A 2002, ‘Tourism and crime: is there a relationship?’, Journal of Travel Research, vol. 20, no. 3, pp.7-10
§  Deloitte(2008), The economic case for the Visitor Economy[online], Available from: http://www.deloitte.com/assets/Dcom-UnitedKingdom/Local%20Assets/Documents/UK_THL_VisitorEconomy_Sept08.pdf 
§  World Trade Organisation(2012), [online], Available from: www.wto.org
§  Yale University(2012), Environmental Performance Index[online], Available from: http://epi.yale.edu/epi2012/rankings


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