Unit 5:Emerging Technology

Unit 5:Emerging Technology


Internet is a global system of interconnected computer networks that use the standard Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to serve several billion users worldwide. It is a network of networks that consists of millions of private, public, academic, business, and government networks, of local to global scope, that are linked by a broad array of electronic, wireless and optical networking technologies. The Internet carries an extensive range of information resources and services, such as the inter-linked hypertextdocuments of the World Wide Web (WWW), the infrastructure to support email, and peer-to-peer networks. Most traditional communications media including telephone, music, film, and television are being reshaped or redefined by the Internet, giving birth to new services such as voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) and Internet Protocol television (IPTV). Newspaper, book and other print publishing are adapting to website technology, or are reshaped into blogging and web feeds. The Internet has enabled and accelerated new forms of human interactions through instant messaging, Internet forums, and social networking. Online shopping has boomed both for major retail outlets and small artisans and traders. Business-to-business and financial services on the Internet affectsupply chains across entire industries. The origins of the Internet reach back to research commissioned by the United States government in the 1960s to build robust, fault-tolerant communication via computer networks. While this work together with work in the United Kingdom and France lead to important precursor networks, they were not the Internet. There is no consensus on the exact date when the modern Internet came into being, but sometime in the early to mid-1980s is considered reasonable. The funding of a new U.S. backbone by the National Science Foundation in the 1980s, as well as private funding for other commercial backbones, led to worldwide participation in the development of new networking technologies, and the merger of many networks. Though the Internet has been widely used by academia since the 1980s, the commercialization of what was by the 1990s an international network resulted in its popularization and incorporation into virtually every aspect of modern human life. As of June 2012, more than 2.4 billion people—over a third of the world's human population—have used the services of the Internet; approximately 100 times more people than were using it in 1995.[1][2] The Internet has no centralized governance in either technological implementation or policies for access and usage; each constituent network sets its own policies. Only the overreaching definitions of the two principal name spaces in the Internet, the Internet Protocol address space and the Domain Name System, are directed by a maintainer organization, the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN). The technical underpinning and standardization of the core protocols (IPv4 and IPv6) is an activity of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), a non-profit organization of loosely affiliated international participants that anyone may associate with by contributing technical expertise

Emerging technologies, that contains some the most prominent ongoing developments, advances,and innovations in various field of modern technology. I would like to explain three new technologies that are currently developing and will be developed over the next 10 to 20 years. These include information technology, biomedical technology and robotics technology. The technology involved with the transmission and storage information, especially development, installation, implementation, and the management of computer systems within companies, and organizations. There are several industries are associated with information technology, such as computer hardware, software, electronics, internet, mobile technology, e-business, and computer services. The responsibilities of those working in the field include network administration, software development and installation, and the planning and management of an organization's technology life cycle, by which hardware and software is maintained, upgraded and replaced. The internet is the one part of information technology that is a worldwide computer network system. It uses IP address to connect billions of people around the world. The main characteristics of internet is creating network with millions of private, public, business, academic, and government network. It carries a huge range of information and service such as hypertext document, infrastructure to support email, and social network. Most traditional media such as music, film, telephone, and television are available in the internet. Voice over internet protocol, and internet protocol television are the new innovation for the generation. Newspaper, book, and other publishing are adapting to website technology. The internet has accelerated new idea of human interactions through instant messaging and social networking. Retail outlet and small business is boomed by blessing of online shopping. The Internet is a worldwide computer network system. It uses internet protocol address to connect billions of people around the world. The main charactersistics of internet is creating network with millions of private, public, business, academic, and government network. The benefits of internet is huge. It carries a huge range of information and service such as hypertext document, infrastructure to support email, and social network. Most traditional media such as music, film, telephone, and television are available in the internet. Voice over internet protocol, and internet protocol television are the new innovation for the generation. Newspaper, book, and other publishing are adapting to website technology. The internet has accelerated new idea of human interactions through instant messaging and social networking. Retail outlet and small business is boomed by blessing of online shopping. Information technology (IT) is the application of computers and telecommunications equipment to store, retrieve, transmit and manipulate data,[1] often in the context of a business or other enterprise.[2] The term is commonly used as a synonym for computers and computer networks, but it also encompasses other information distribution technologies such as television and telephones. Severalindustries are associated with information technology, such as computer hardware, software, electronics, semiconductors, internet,telecom equipment, e-commerce and computer services (Chandler, Daniel; Munday, Rod, "Information technology", A Dictionary of Media and Communication(first ed.), Oxford University Press, retrieved 1 August 2012 )  the Information Technology Association of America has defined information technology as "the study, design, development, application, implementation, support or management of computer-based information systems".[5] The responsibilities of those working in the field include network administration, software development and installation, and the planning and management of an organization's technology life cycle, by which hardware and software is maintained, upgraded and replaced.

Stem Cell therapy another emerging technology in Biomedical field that has large impact for the next generation. Stem cells are undifferentiated or blank cells found in the human body that have potential to develop into many different cell type. When a stem cell divides, each new cell has the potential either to remain a stem cell or become another type of cell with a more specialized function, such as a muscle cell, a red blood cell, or a brain cell. The benefit of stem cell therapy that replaces new stem cells into damaged tissue to treat disease or injury. Stem cell technology gives hope of effective treatment for a variety of malignant and non-malignant diseases. Stem cells are distinguished from other cell types by two important characteristics. First, they are unspecialized cells capable of renewing themselves through cell division, sometimes after long periods of inactivity. Second, under certain physiologic or experimental conditions, they can be induced to become tissue- or organ-specific cells with special functions. In some organs, such as the gut and bone marrow, stem cells regularly divide to repair and replace worn out or damaged tissues. In other organs, however, such as the pancreas and the heart, stem cells only divide under special conditions. There are number of stem cell therapies exist, but most are at experimental stages, costly, or controversial. Most of the medical researcher forcasted that adult stem cell and embryonic stem cells will soon be able to treat cancer, type I diabetes, parkinson’s disease, huntington’s disease, cardiac failure, muscle damage, and neurological disorders and many others.

Stem Cell therapy is another emerging technology in biomedical field. It is an intervention strategy that replaces new stem cells into damaged tissue to treat disease or injury. Stem cell technology gives hope of effective treatment for a variety of malignant and non-malignant diseases. By the researchers believe that the ability of stem cells to self renew and give rise to subsequent generations with variable degrees of differentiation capacities, significant potential for gerenration of tissues that can potentially replaced diseased and damaged area in the body, with minimum risk of rejection and side effects. Stem cells survive well and show steady division in culture which then causes them the ideal targets for vitro manipulation. There are number of stem cell therapies exist, but most are at experimental stages, costly, or controversial. Most of the medical researcher forcasted that adult stem cell and embryonic stem cells will soon be able to treat cancer, type I diabetes, parkinson’s disease, huntington’s disease, cardiac failure, muscle damage, and neurological disorders and many others. Stem cells have the remarkable potential to develop into many different cell types in the body during early life and growth. In addition, in many tissues they serve as a sort of internal repair system, dividing essentially without limit to replenish other cells as long as the person or animal is still alive. When a stem cell divides, each new cell has the potential either to remain a stem cell or become another type of cell with a more specialized function, such as a muscle cell, a red blood cell, or a brain cell. Stem cells are distinguished from other cell types by two important characteristics. First, they are unspecialized cells capable of renewing themselves through cell division, sometimes after long periods of inactivity. Second, under certain physiologic or experimental conditions, they can be induced to become tissue- or organ-specific cells with special functions. In some organs, such as the gut and bone marrow, stem cells regularly divide to repair and replace worn out or damaged tissues. In other organs, however, such as the pancreas and the heart, stem cells only divide under special conditions. Human embryonic and adult stem cells each have advantages and disadvantages regarding potential use for cell-based regenerative therapies. One major difference between adult and embryonic stem cells is their different abilities in the number and type of differentiated cell types they can become. Embryonic stem cells can become all cell types of the body because they are pluripotent. Adult stem cells are thought to be limited to differentiating into different cell types of their tissue of origin. Embryonic stem cells can be grown relatively easily in culture. Adult stem cells are rare in mature tissues, so isolating these cells from an adult tissue is challenging, and methods to expand their numbers in cell culture have not yet been worked out. This is an important distinction, as large numbers of cells are needed for stem cell replacement therapies.

Perhaps the most important potential application of human stem cells is the generation of cells and tissues that could be used for cell-based therapies. Today, donated organs and tissues are often used to replace ailing or destroyed tissue, but the need for transplantable tissues and organs far outweighs the available supply. Stem cells, directed to differentiate into specific cell types, offer the possibility of a renewable source of replacement cells and tissues to treat diseases including Alzheimer's diseases, spinal cord injury, stroke, burns, heart disease, diabetes, osteoarthritis, and rheumatoid arthritis. (http://stemcells.nih.gov/info/basics/pages/basics6.aspx)

Robotics technology is the third emerging technology that that deals with the design, construction, operation, and application of robots as well as computer systems for their control, sensory feedback, and information processing. These technologies deal with automated machines that can take the place of humans in dangerous environments or manufacturing processes, or resemble humans in appearance, behavior, and/or cognition. Today, robotics is a rapidly growing field, as technological advances continue, research, design, and building new robots serve various practical purposes, whether domestically, commercially, or militarily. Many robots do jobs that are hazardous to people such as defusing bombs, mines and exploring shipwrecks. One of the application is surgical robotics that holds significant promise. Robotic surgery is often heralded as the new revolution, and it is one of the most talked about subjects in surgery today. Up to this point in time, however, the drive to develop and obtain robotic devices has been largely driven by the market. There is no doubt that they will become an important tool in the surgical armamentarium, but the extent of their use is still evolving. Major advances aided by surgical robots have been remote surgery, minimally invasive surgery and unmanned surgery. Due to robotic use, the surgery is done with precision, miniaturization, smaller incisions, decreased blood loss, less pain, and quicker healing time. Articulation beyond normal manipulation and three-dimensional magnification helps resulting in improved ergonomics. Due to these techniques there is a reduced duration of hospital stays, blood loss, transfusions, and use of pain medication. There are several disadvantages to these systems. One of the potential disadvantages identified is a lack of compatible instruments and equipment. Also, robotic surgery is a new technology and its uses and efficacy have not yet been well established. However, time will most likely remedy these disadvantages. Robotics is the branch of technology that deals with the design, construction, operation, and application of robots,[1] as well as computer systems for their control, sensory feedback, and information processing. These technologies deal with automated machines that can take the place of humans in dangerous environments or manufacturing processes, or resemble humans in appearance, behavior, and/or cognition. Many of today's robots are inspired by nature contributing to the field of bio-inspired robotics. The concept of creating machines that can operate autonomously dates back to classical times, but research into the functionality and potential uses of robots did not grow substantially until the 20th century.[2] Throughout history, robotics has been often seen to mimic human behavior, and often manage tasks in a similar fashion. Today, robotics is a rapidly growing field, as technological advances continue, research, design, and building new robots serve various practical purposes, whether domestically, commercially, or militarily. Many robots do jobs that are hazardous to people such as defusing bombs, mines and exploring shipwrecks. There are vast application of robotic technology application. One of the benefit is robotic surgery. Surgical robotics is a new technology that holds significant promise. Robotic surgery is often heralded as the new revolution, and it is one of the most talked about subjects in surgery today. Up to this point in time, however, the drive to develop and obtain robotic devices has been largely driven by the market. There is no doubt that they will become an important tool in the surgical armamentarium, but the extent of their use is still evolving. Robotics is an essential component in many modern manufacturing environments. As factories increase their use of robots, the number of robotics–related jobs grow and have been observed to be steadily rising.[111]

Major advances aided by surgical robots have been remote surgery, minimally invasive surgery and unmanned surgery. Due to robotic use, the surgery is done with precision, miniaturization, smaller incisions, decreased blood loss, less pain, and quicker healing time. Articulation beyond normal manipulation and three-dimensional magnification helps resulting in improved ergonomics. Due to these techniques there is a reduced duration of hospital stays, blood loss, transfusions, and use of pain medication. (Estey, EP (2009). "Robotic prostatectomy: The new standard of care or a marketing success?". Canadian Urological Association Journal 3 (6): 488–90.PMC 2792423. PMID 20019980. Retrieved 25 June 2010.) Advantages of this technique are that the incisions are small and patient recovery is quick. In traditional open-heart surgery, the surgeon makes a ten to twelve-inch incision, then gains access to the heart by splitting the sternum (breast bone) and spreading open the rib cage. The patient is then placed on a heart-lung machine and the heart is stopped for a period of time during the operation. This approach can be associated with postoperative infection and pain, and prolonged time to complete recovery. Because patient recovery after robot-assisted heart surgery is quicker, the hospital stay is shorter. On average patients leave the hospital two to five days earlier than patients who have undergone traditional open-heart surgery and return to work and normal activity 50% more quickly.[citation needed] Reduced recovery times are not only better for the patient, they also reduce the number of staff needed during surgery, nursing care required after surgery, and, therefore, the overall cost of hospital stays. Compared with other minimally invasive surgery approaches, robot-assisted surgery gives the surgeon better control over the surgical instruments and a better view of the surgical site. In addition, surgeons no longer have to stand throughout the surgery and do not tire as quickly. Naturally occurring hand tremors are filtered out by the robot’s computer software. Finally, the surgical robot can continuously be used by rotating surgery teams (Gerhardus, D (July-August 2003). "Robot-assisted surgery: the future is here". Journal of Healthcare Management 48 (4): 242–251. PMID 12908224.) There are several disadvantages to these systems. First of all, robotic surgery is a new technology and its uses and efficacy have not yet been well established. To date, mostly studies of feasibility have been conducted, and almost no long-term follow up studies have been performed. Many procedures will also have to be redesigned to optimize the use of robotic arms and increase efficiency. However, time will most likely remedy these disadvantages. One of the potential disadvantages identified is a lack of compatible instruments and equipment. Lack of certain instruments increases reliance on tableside assistants to perform part of the surgery. This, however, is a transient disadvantage because new technologies have and will develop to address these shortcomings (Kim VB, Chapman WH, Albrecht RJ, et al. Early experience with telemanipulative robot-assisted laparoscopic cholecystectomy using Da Vinci. Surg Laparosc Endosc Percutan Tech. 2002;12:34–40. [PubMed] [Ref list]) 

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