Unit 5 Emerging Technologies

Unit 5 Emerging Technologies

Wireless power or wireless energy transmission is the transmission of electrical energy from a power source to an electrical load without man-made conductors. Wireless transmission is useful in cases where interconnecting wires are inconvenient, hazardous, or impossible. The ability to power an electronic device without the use of wires provides a convenient solution for the users of portable devices and also gives designers the ability to develop more creative answers to problems. This technology’s benefits can be seen in the many portable devices, from cell phones to electric cars, that normally operate on battery power.


July 31, 2012 - The market for wireless power systems – encompassing mobile devices, consumer electronics, industrial applications, infrastructure devices, and electric vehicles – will triple over the next eight years, growing from $4.9 billion in revenue in 2012 to $15.1 billion in 2020, predicts a new report from Pike Research. Evidence is building that wireless power technology can be an environmentally friendly technology and that, before the end of the decade, it could contribute to a significant reduction in carbon emissions and embedded energy used to produce, ship, and dispose of conventional charging equipment. As wireless technology matures and the industry consolidates, wireless power is beginning to see greater acceptance across a range of applications, and will become an increasingly common form of charging in the coming years, stated the Wireless Power report. North America is currently listed as the largest market for wireless power today by a wide margin, but the report predicted the Asia Pacific region will surpass it mid-decade. According to the report, the clean technology market intelligence firm forecasts wireless power revenue in Asia Pacific will reach $6 billion in 2020, representing 40% of the worldwide market. By application, the largest sector for wireless power in 2020 will still be mobile devices, with 36% of total revenue.

eCoupled will one day integrate into the walls and surfaces of your home. If you’re watching the big game, the TV won’t need to be plugged in. Power will be delivered wirelessly via the eCoupled-enabled wall. In the kitchen, a multipurpose countertop will allow you to mix, chop, blend and boil all on the same powered surface. There will be no cords to plug in, or outlets to worry about. An eCoupled-enabled home is just plain safe. commute

Soon your vehicle, train, or bus ride will have eCoupled on board. While you’re going places, eCoupled will power and charge your mobile device, laptop, or MP3 player. eCoupled is intelligent power. So devices utilizing it only draw power on an as-needed basis. eCoupled is remarkably efficient. work

eCoupled intelligent wireless power streamlines the workplace by never requiring you to plug in for power. eCoupled is so smart that, when no devices are detected, it automatically stops the supply of electricity to the charging area. Most traditional power sources continue to supply electricity whether devices are plugged in or not. With eCoupled, it’s easy being green. travel

With eCoupled in our lives, laptops won’t shutdown halfway over the Atlantic Ocean. Seat trays will be integrated with our wireless charging technology. You won’t need to search for an outlet, or lug around an assortment of chargers and adaptors for your laptop, mobile phone, digital camera and other devices. And during your hotel stay, the furniture in your room will be eCoupled-enabled. Place a device on one and it will power up or recharge. Plus, no matter where you travel, eCoupled speaks the universal language of wireless power For ease of use and the benefit of both designers and consumers, the Wireless Power Consortium (WPC) has developed a standard (see Reference 1) that creates interoperability between the device providing power (power transmitter, charging station) and the device receiving power (power receiver, portable device). Established in 2008, the WPC is a group of Asian, European, and American companies in diverse industries, including electronics manufacturers and original equipment manufacturers (OEMs). The WPC standard defines the type of inductive coupling (coil configuration) and the communications protocol to be used for low-power wireless devices. Any device operating under this standard will be able to pair with any other WPC-compliant device. http://www.ebmag.com/Industry-News/wireless-power-systems-market-to-surpass-$15b-by-2020.html http://www.pikeresearch.com/research/wireless-power


HashCache, a highly efficient method of caching--that is, storing frequently accessed Web content on a local hard drive instead of using precious bandwidth to retrieve the same information repeatedly. HashCache abolishes the index, slashing RAM and electricity requirements by roughly a factor of 10. It starts by transforming the URL of each stored Web "object"--an image, graphic, or block of text on a Web page--into a shorter number, using a bit of math called a hash function. While most other caching systems do this, they also store each hash number in a RAM-hogging table that correlates it with a hard-disk memory address. Hashcache is an add-on to internet protocol that enables cheaper internet access in third world countries where normal bandwidth is not affordable. It is a means of storing or "caching" frequently accessed sites to save a large amount of bandwidth and also increase the speed of access to these sites. HashCache is very affordable and it speeds up internet access to frequently viewed site. Due to the large caching area it can store almost a whole Universities' library to allow for fast access to important information. This frees up valuable bandwidth usage. Despite the Web's protean nature, a surprising amount of its content doesn't change often or by very much. But current caching technologies require not only large hard disks to hold data but also lots of random-access memory (RAM) to store an index that contains the "address" of each piece of content on the disk. RAM is expensive relative to hard-disk capacity, and it works only when supplied with electricity--which, like bandwidth, is often both expensive and scarce in the developing world. Future

A high-performance, efficient cache storage engine which can index large disks is essential not only for static web caching but also for enabling other bandwidth/latency reduction techniques like WAN acceleration and web pre-fetching. Disk price is plummeting by the month and is currently at a dime/GB, but the price of a server which can index a terabyte disk could be anywhere between $1000 to $2000. Such servers will have high power consumption due to large amounts of RAM and the requirement of an operational temperature that further complicates the problem. Further, most of the RAM has to be dedicated to provide only a web cache, which is undesirable considering the low bandwidths in these environments. Cheap laptops and netbooks, on the other hand, are ruggedized for developing world environments. They are made for low power consumption and are designed for use in adverse environmental conditions where power might be irregular. If we can design a cache storage engine which can run efficiently on cheap laptops and index terabytes of disk, then we will be able to address an important problem that arises in providing good web services for developing-regions. Laptops solve the problems pertaining to power, environment, and maintenance, whereas large disks solve the problems pertaining to low bandwidth.

The future direction in this line of work is a larger project aimed at developing a networking stack for poorly provisioned edge networks. The idea is to develop on top of HashCache and provide a full software stack of bandwidth and latency reduction techniques including WAN Acceleration, web pre-fetching, local disk web-search engines and ultimately a generic offline cache of any popular website. Our proposal paper at the CCC Developing Regions Workshop has more details. We are also working towards incorporating new and efficient memory technologies like flash memory to offset problems relating to scale and power. We are currently developing a hybrid memory management technique that takes into account the density and functionality differences of different memory types in a hybrid architecture and comes up with clever strategies to provide applications with large amounts of efficient random access memory. Stay tuned and we will keep you posted with the progress we make towards this developing regions network stack. http://www2.technologyreview.com/article/412193/tr10-hashcache/ www.cs.princeton.edu/~abadam/papers/hashcache.pdf