Unit 32 Quality systems in IT
Q1. Is quality is a Philosophy? Explain
A. The concept of quality is at the very centre of many ideas and practices of effective management and leadership, and programs like Total Quality Management and Six Sigma have been at the sole reason for the success of many companies. Companies and Management professionals now know that quality needs to be built into every level of a company, and it needs to be a part of everything the organization does. From answering the phone to assembling products and serving the end customer, quality is vital for the success of organizations. Quality is now a large part of modern management philosophy. Before globalization took over the world and technological advances became vital for survival, competitive pressures were much lower, and companies were usually satisfied with focusing their efforts on ensuring quality in the production process only. Now however, quality is often thought to start and end with the customer, it exists in every activity of a company and all points leading to and from the customer must aim for high-quality service and interaction. Therefore Quality is definitely a philosophy and any company which wants to succeed has to ensure that every single activity is of the highest quality. However quality philosophy should not stop at just companies and businesses. It should be adopted in each and every one of us. We should integrate quality in all our activities so that we can perform and deliver at the highest level. This will definitely help us succeed in everything that we do.
Q2. List the different Gurus of Quality.
A. The different gurus of quality are as follows.
1. W. Edwards Deming
2. Joseph M. Juran
3. Walter A. Shewart
4. Armand V. Feigenbaum
5. Philip B. Crosby
6. Kaoru Ishikawa
7. Genichi Taguchi
8. Shigeo Shingo
9. Eliyahu M. Goldratt
Q3. List out the contributions of each quality gurus.
A. The various contribution of the quality gurus are as given below. 1. W. Edwards Deming
Deming developed his complete philosophy of management, which he summarised into his fourteen points and the seven deadly diseases of management. He also studied and advanced the state of quality. This was based on work done by Shewhart with his explanations of variation, use of control charts, and his theories on knowledge, psychology and variation. Deming greatly helped to focus and stress on the responsibility of quality on management and popularized the PDCA cycle which was originally created by Shewhart, which led to it being referred to as the “Deming Cycle”.
2. Joseph M. Juran
Joseph M. Juran developed and refined the trio quality management i.e. quality planning, quality improvement, and quality control. His theory revolves around the flowing statement. Quality management plans quality improvements which will raise the level of performance. This must then be controlled or sustained at that level in order to start the cycle again. 3. Walter A. Shewart
Shewhart developed the Plan, Do, Check, Act (PDCA) cycle which is also known as “Plan-Do-Study-Act”, as well as theories of process control and the Shewhart transformation process. He also introduced statistical techniques in quality management with control charts and Statistical Process Control methods. 4. Armand V. Feigenbaum
Feigenbaum’s primary contribution to quality was the development of the idea of total quality control based on three steps to quality consisting of quality leadership, modern quality technology, and an organizational commitment to quality. 5. Philip B. Crosby
Philip B. Crosby developed the idea of “quality is free” which proclaims that implementing quality improvement pays for itself through the savings from the improvement, increased revenue from greater customer satisfaction, and the improved competitive advantage that it results in. He promoted the concept of “zero defects” to define the goal of a quality program as the elimination of all defects and not the reduction of defects to an acceptable quality level. 6. Kaoru Ishikawa
Ishikawa’s primary contribution to quality was the development of the Ishikawa diagram which is also known as the fishbone diagram or the cause-effect diagram. He was known for promoting the seven basic tools of quality and the philosophy of total quality. 7. Genichi Taguchi
Taguchi developed the “Taguchi methodology” of robust design, which instead of trying to control manufacturing variation focused on making the design less sensitive to variation in the manufacturing process. This idea of” designing in quality” has become an important part of Six Sigma today. 8. Shigeo Shingo
Shigeo Shingo played a huge part in the introduction of quality standards. He developed several lean concepts such as Single Minute Exchange of Die (SMED) or reduced set-up times instead of increased batch sizes, as well as Poka-Yoke (mistake proofing) to eliminate the opportunities for mistakes. He also worked with Taiichi Ohno to refine Just-In-Time (JIT) manufacturing and convert it into an integrated manufacturing strategy, which is widely used to define the lean manufacturing used in the Toyota production system. 9. Eliyahu M. Goldratt
Dr. Goldratt developed and introduced the Theory of Constraints which focuses on a single element in a process chain as having the greatest leverage for improvement (i.e., “1% can have a 99% impact”). This is similar to the Pareto principle which states that 20% of the factors have an 80% effect on the process. 10. Taiichi Ohno
Ohno developed the seven wastes (muda), which are used in lean manufacturing to describe non-value-added activity. He worked with Shigeo Shingo to develop various manufacturing improvements that evolved into the Toyota Production System.
Q4. What is cost of quality? Explain with one example.
A. Cost of Quality (COQ) is the financial measure of the quality performance of an organisation. It is also a measure of the lack of quality and can be termed as cost of bad quality. It's the cost of NOT creating a quality product or service. COQ is used to understand, analyse and improve quality performance. Cost of Quality consists of three elements.
i) Prevention Costs
The costs of all activities specifically designed to prevent poor quality in products or services. Eg
New product review
Supplier capability surveys
Process capability evaluations
Quality improvement team meetings
Quality improvement projects
Quality education and training
ii) Appraisal Costs
The costs associated with measuring, evaluating or auditing products or services to assure conformance to quality standards and performance requirements. These include the costs of:
Incoming and source inspection/test of purchased material
In-process and final inspection/test
Product, process or service audits
Calibration of measuring and test equipment
Associated supplies and materials
iii) Failure Costs
The costs that result from products or services not conforming to requirements or to the needs of customer/user. Failure costs are divided into internal and external failure categories. Internal Failure Costs
Failure costs occurring prior to delivery or shipment of the product, or the furnishing of a service, to the customer. Eg
External Failure Costs
Failure costs occurring after delivery or shipment of the product — and during or after furnishing of a service — to the customer. Eg
Processing customer complaints
Example: If a car that’s been sold is brought back by the customer stating that a mechanical component is not working then this increases the failure cost as the car needs to be repaired free of charge under warranty. The quality of the mechanical component was not initially checked during construction of the car and as a result it failed. Therefore the repair and testing that goes in when the car is brought back by the customer increase the failure costs which in turn increase the total quality costs.
Q5. Explain 7 tools of quality?
A. The 7 tools of quality are as follows.
1. Ishikawa diagram.
Ishikawa diagrams (also called fishbone diagrams or cause-and-effect diagrams) are diagrams developed by Kaoru Ishikawa that show the causes of a specific event. Ishikawa diagram are used in product design and quality defect prevention. They are also used to identify potential factors causing an overall effect. Each cause or reason for imperfection is a source of variation. Causes are usually grouped into major categories such as people, methods, machines, materials, measurements and environment to identify these sources of variation.
2. Check Sheet
The check sheet is a form or a document which is used to collect data in real time at the location where the data is generated. The data it captures can be either quantitative or qualitative. When the information is quantitative, the check sheet is sometimes called a tally sheet. There are 5 uses of a checklist. They are To check the shape of the probability distribution of a process. To quantify defects by type
To quantify defects by location
To quantify defects by cause (machine, worker)
To keep track of the completion of steps in a multistep procedure (in other words, as a checklist)
3. Control Chart.
The control chart was developed by Walter A. Shewhart and is used to determine if a manufacturing or business process is in a state of statistical control. The control chart consists of Upper and Lower limits and for a process to be in a controlled state all the outputs or a sample of the outputs have to be within these limits.
A histogram is a graphical representation of the distribution of data. It is a representation of tabulated frequencies, shown as adjacent rectangles with an area equal to the frequency of the observations in the interval. Histogram is a chart with rectangular columns. If the histogram is normal, the graph takes the shape of a bell curve.
5. Pareto chart.
Pareto charts are used extensively for identifying a set of priorities depending on the frequency of occurrence. Any number of issues/variables related to a specific concern can be charted and the number of occurrences can be recorded. This way the parameters that have the highest impact on the specific concern can be identified. This ensures that issues with a higher priority can be worked on first in order to get the condition under control.
6. Scatter diagrams
When there are only two variables, scatter diagrams are the best way to present them. Scatter diagrams present and highlight the relationship between these two variables and illustrate the results on a Cartesian plane. Further analysis, such as trend analysis can then be performed on the values. In scatter diagrams, one variable is denoted by the one axis and another variable is denoted by the other axis.
This is one of the basic quality tools that can be used to analyse a sequence of events. Flowchart maps out a sequence of events that take place sequentially or in parallel. It can also be used to understand a complex process in order to find the relationships and dependencies between events. A brief idea about the critical path of the process and the events involved in the critical path can also be obtained by studying flow charts. They can also be used for any field and to illustrate events involving processes of any complexity. References.
http://www.6sigmastudy.com/6sigmadoc/BlackBelt/1.%20Introduction/3.%20Quality%20Gurus%20%26%20their%20contribution%20to%20Quality.pdf http://www.scribd.com/doc/49579485/Contributions-of-Management-Gurus-to-Total-Quality-Management http://asq.org/learn-about-quality/cost-of-quality/overview/overview.html