Unit 2 - Computer System Assignment 1

 Unit 2 - Computer System Assignment 1

Computer: We are living in the age of modern science. We can see the creation and invention of science all around us. From morning till we go to bed at night we use the invention of science. Computer is one of the greatest and valuable invention of modern science. The word “Computer” came from the Latin word “computatrum”. Basically, computer is an electronic device which has the capability of receiving command and turning the command into result. Computer has also the capability to manipulate, save and retrieve data or information. A computer is an electronic device, operating under the control of instructions (software) stored in its own memory unit, that can accept data (input), manipulate data (process), and produce information (output) from the processing. Generally, the term is used to describe a collection of devices that function together as a system. Computers can perform four general operations, which comprise the information processing cycle. Input


Computer System:
Central processing unit (CPU), motherboard, input devices, output devices, power supply, backing storage devices and other peripheral devices are the main components of a Computer. To run a computer all these components should run altogether. By working together, these components makes up a system that can transfer commands to central processing unit; identify the actions needed to carry out the commands and complete the commands with ease. That is Computer System. Basically, a computer works by the help of five major functional categories of devices. Those are: Processing unit, internal memory, Input, Output and Storage.

Internal Memory: An Internal memory of a computer is kind of a temporary storage system which is used by the computer system while starting up the computer to run programs and softwares. Internal memories have small chips which are either connected to the motherboards or have specific slots to connect them. The sizes of some internal memories like virtual memory, boot memory and processor cache can be some megabytes. Size of one internal memory which is RAM can be up to 32GB. Input: Computer cannot run or work by itself. It needs to be operated by human. We need to insert data, information or give command so that it can be processed. That’s why we need some devices which are called Input devices. Example: keyboard, mouse, headphones etc.

Processing Unit: When you insert commands via input devices internal memories carry the data here to be processed. The processing unit is called the CPU (central processing unit). It’s the heart of a computer where all the data is processed for an output result. By the processing unit all the work, data analysis, program running and other stuffs are done in a sharp way. The whole processing unit is divided into two working parts. Those are Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU) and Control Unit (CU).

Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU): Arithmetic logic unit process all the arithmetic calculation like addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, formulas and logic comparisons. Besides, ALU can directly access to the input devices, output devices and random access memory (RAM) to process or control programs and upon completion ALU processes the work to storage device to save the documents. ALU runs upon codes which is called machine code. The codes define ALU to run programs or to perform an operation and save it on hard drive.

Control Unit: Control unit controls all the operation by giving proper timing and generating signals. It also decides how much data can be transferred from input to processor and processor to output and other peripheral devices. Control unit also connects the whole system to flow information from running programs. Control unit gives direction to Arithmetic Logic Unit to complete the arithmetic solution perfectly. It also participates in the activities of the peripheral devices and other storage devices which are connected to the computer. Output: Output is the functional area where all the processed work of computer and all the result of given command are shown. After computer system completes their work the thing we have asked for are given through the devices which we call output devices. For example: Monitor, Printer, Projectors, Headphones etc. Storage: Storage is the functional area where all the data, information, documents and programs are saved permanently and can be retrieved later. There are lots of storage devices. For example: Internal Hard disk, Pendrive, Floppy disk etc. Here is a block diagram how data flow around a personal computer system:

Presently there are three types of computer system. Those are: Analog computer, Digital computer and Hybrid computer.

Analog computer: Analog computers are very old type of computer systems. Analog computers work totally in a different way than other type of computer systems. All the works and operations are performed laterally in an analog computer. It solves problem by using physical phenomena like hydraulic, mechanical and electrical quantities. The output result in an analog computer is represented as voltages. Analog computers are used for solving complicated mathematical formulas. To solve equations it takes a quite long time and also the result it gives are not totally accurate. In some world class universities analog computers are still used for study purposes and some of analog computers can be seen in science museum.

An Analog computer

Digital Computer: Digital computers are one of the computing systems which work on the principle of binary mathematics. Digital computers provide perfectly analysed and calculated result of maths and logical operations. Digital computers are used in every working field of modern generation. Logic circuits help digital computers in various works such as calculation, program sorting and running etc. A reliable oscillator helps in the proper synchronization of various logic circuits that are responsible for processing data in the digital computers. There are many different types of digital computers which are described below:

Personal computers: Personal computer which is known as PC is a type of digital computer which you can guess from its name what it is used for. The principal characteristics of personal computers are that they are single-user systems and are based on microprocessors. Personal computers are most used computers in the world.

Personal Computer
Although personal computers are designed to use in home environment it can used in every environment. People are using it in business environment like office, banks, hospitals and colleges. It can be used in gaming environment also by configuring it. Personal computers are mainly used for communication. By connecting to internet people can chat, email or talk with each other anytime. Laptop computers: Laptop computers are one type of personal computer which is portable and also rechargeable. Usually, all the components used to build a personal computer are also used to build laptop computer. Laptop computers can be carried anywhere you want and can be used anytime you want. It’s a little bit costly than personal computers.

A laptop computer
Laptops are used for communication and for business work. Young generations are using laptop computer for gaming also.

PDA-Personal Digital Assistant: PDA or Personal digital assistants is known as palmtop computer. PDA has small touch screen with QWERTY keyboard. It is also known as personal data assistant. PDA is mainly used for data entry work, making notes and reminders, address book, surfing on internet and sending emails. PDAs have hand writing recognition capabilities.

Personal Digital Assistant (PDA)

PDA’s are mostly used for business purposes. Those PDA’s which supports internet and have Wi-Fi capability are used for communication. Mainframe Computer: Generally, mainframe computers are built with the combination of couple of very powerful processor, very large amount of internal memories and massive storage capacity. Mainframe computers are very large computers which cannot be controlled like Digital computer or Laptop computers. Mainframe computers are controlled from one or more than one terminals. In the terminals there will be keyboards and touchpads to provide direction but there will be no processing devices as all the work will be done by the Mainframe. Mainframe computers process work and complete work at a very high speed. It occupies a very large storage space.

A Mainframe Computer
Mainframe computers are used for business and networking purposes. They are mainly used by the large organisations. It is used for critical data processing, industrial multi project designs, and statistics for consumers. Mainframe computer is also used for financial transaction records in Banks, Insurance and multi-national companies.

Super Computer: Supercomputers have many discriminating features. Unlike traditional computers, supercomputers are built with more than one central processing unit (CPU). The use of several CPUs to achieve high computational rates is necessitated by the physical limits of circuit technology. A computer named NASA Columbia can successfully complete 42 and a half trillion operations per second. The fastest supercomputer in the world is built by the oldest computer company of the world IBM. IBM Sequoia 2012, which have a speed trend of 16.32 PFLOPS. It is currently using for USA military nuclear weapon security test and protection.

Few Super Computers
Super computers are used in scientific research, national defence security, processing information on quantum mechanics and weather forecasting and reporting. Mini Computer: Mini computers are mid ranged computers. The power, structure and work-flow of a mini computer lie between mainframe computers and microcomputers. Mini computers were introduced to the world in the middle 1960. But mini computers were sold much lesser than mainframe computers. People doesn’t use mini computers now, in fact no companies manufactures mini computers. Once the price of mini computers were 15000$-20000$.

A minicomputer (DEC) PDP-9
It was used for process control in manufacturing sector, data management in hospitals office, in railway communication for line checking and buffering.

Gaming console: Gaming consoles are customized computer systems which are only for entertainment and for playing games. Gaming consoles were invented in the middle of 1972. The latest popular gaming consoles are XBOX 360, SONY PS3, NINTENDO WII, and KINECT for XBOX.

A Gaming console (Sony PS3)

Hybrid Computer: Hybrid computers are the form of computers which had been designed to display the features and characteristics of both computers which are the analog and the digital computers. When the hybrid computers are used in the form of digital computers then they are deigned to act as the controller for the operations carried out in the system. When analog is taken into account then in that case the computer acts as a solution provider for different problems that exit and thus by depicting both the feature, it is found to be a beneficial computer. A hybrid computer for structure factor calculations in X-ray crystallography is described. The computer can calculate three-dimensional structure factors of up to 24 atoms in a single run and can generate the scatter functions of well over 100 atoms. A comparison among Analog computer, Digital computer and Hybrid computer is given below: Analog Computer

Digital Computer
Hybrid Computer
Take linear combinations of voltage amplitude from inputs and provide outputs which are nearly accurate.

Take inputs and give outputs in digital format.
Take inputs and serves as a controller to provide logical operation and solve differential equations. Main components of an analog computer are housing, operational amplifier, power supply, potentiometers, relay contacts, resistors, capacitors, patch chords and output devices.

Main components of a digital computer are CPU, internal memories, power supply, backing storage, inputs and outputs. It is the combination of Analog computers and Digital computers. Faster than Hybrid computers but slower than Digital computers. Digital computers are the fastest computer.

Slower among the all computers.
Provides nearly accurate result but not the perfect one.
Gives 100% accurate outputs.
Breaks formula and provides perfect output.
Cannot be used for any purposes other than mathematic solutions. Can be used in any fields for any solution.
Mainly used in medical fields and also used for solving large and complicated equations.

Invention of computer made our life easier in every field. We cannot think a day without it. Just imagine in this current moment can you replace anything to the computer? Bibliography

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