Unit 19 :Object Oriented programme

Unit 19 :Object Oriented programme


INTRODUCTION

The object oriented information modeling started in the early 1960’s, but at the time it was not very popular. It is only recently that object oriented programming has become popular. It was designed for the purposes of creating simulations and was developed by Kristen Nygaard and Ole-Johan Dahl in Norway. The term “object oriented information modeling” was first used by Xerox PARC in their Smalltalk programming language. The term was used to refer to the process of using the objects as the foundation for computation. The object could be changed, created, or deleted and this was different from the static systems that were commonly used.

Object oriented information modeling is part of creators that make as awesome results in knowledge findings. It is an explicit and systematic process of managing vital knowledge and fits associated processes of creating, gathering, analyzing, organizing and exploitation to create the implication of the program. It was using an object that is data structure consisting of data fields and methods together with their interactions that to design application and computer programs. They are two types in object oriented information that are business items and data items. Business objects represent parts or parts assemblies. Business object attributes include its name and revision.

This object oriented also applying knowledge continuum that firstly using a product data management system to allow data managers and engineers build a product structure. All the information they gain such as component’s drawings and documents are kept up to date as the objects representing each components. Data items are describe by Metadata. As a research been made by increasing of knowledge, Metadata is separate from the data files so when the possibility of the wrong data file being associated still it permits data files to be reused. After that by creating a new drawing number creates a new business object to which a new data file can be attached and at the same time creating a new revision of a drawing creates a unique business object with the same part number but new revision letter to which an updated data file can be attached. They are a some critical factors in ensuring the effectiveness of knowledge strategy in business that are support and involvement top management at all levels, alignment of organizational culture to the reward system and last but not least accessibility to efficient and advanced technology and tools to facilitate knowledge capture, sharing and dissimilation.

FINDINGS AND APPLICATIONS

The object oriented information model has shown in the application that it positively related with knowledge management systems whereas the object oriented information model such as java which is the program or systems that being created based on the object oriented information model has the similar function with the knowledge management systems. For knowledge management systems its support effective learning of organizational learning by providing well-indexed tools for collaborative knowledge management social and knowledge network analysis. Whereby, the java program which is produced by Netscape provide the tools for client to search information and since it has a lot of version there are some of it that also provide fast link to the search able database.

The object oriented information modeling is set of tools and method that enables software engineers to build reliable, user’s friendly, and maintainable, well documented, reusable software systems that fulfills the requirement of its users. The software of object oriented information modeling can be used to solve a lot of problems. It is a software system that as a community of object that cooperate with each other by passing a message to solve a problems. These functions shows that the model is essential to the knowledge management systems since knowledge management based is that it should generates knowledge to others. Furthermore, the object oriented information modeling is more towards the information technology in knowledge management systems since the model is science computer software that being designed to easier the usage. For example, users can easily work with graphical user interfaces, for network communication, for reading and writing files, and more just by using the information technology (IT).

Knowledge organizations systems include a variety of schemes that organize, manage, and retrieve information. They range from authority files to classification schemes and more. Libraries and other information management organizations have developed knowledge organizations systems to organize and retrieve information. In addition to their primary function, which is to provide access to materials for a specific community or audience, knowledge organization systems can perform functions that further enhance the digital library. The result of the application can be concluded that the object oriented information modeling is linked with the knowledge management since, it’s also has the similar ability as the knowledge organization systems.

The contribution of the object oriented information modeling towards knowledge management systems is that it makes the learning or gaining knowledge and information become faster and easier. People can simply just enter the required or needed subject or information they needed in the systems and they will received the entire search subject. The inventor or the engineer that designed the software of java once said that he will make the users able to easily use the software that they can never understand how its operates. This is how it gives contribution since all knowledge is just in your finger tips. People nowadays can access the knowledge everywhere and anytime they want without concern about the time since during this 21th century everyone is busy and with the technology pace that are changing so fast, people can gain knowledge all the time if they have the desire. The object oriented information modeling developed software provides a realization that faster, better, cheaper and effective innovative processes and systems that are fundamental towards knowledge management.

The software also is testability and increased quality automated testing. It also can increase speed of testing and increase quality code re-uses. Code extensibility Catch errors at compile time rather than at runtime. Second, it maintainability: if it designed correctly, any tier of the application can be replaced by another that implements the correct interface and the application will still work can use multiple user interfaces, can swap out data providers, etc. object oriented model provides a clear modular structure for programs which makes it good for defining abstract data types where implementation details are hidden and the unit has a clearly defined interface. It’s also makes it easy to maintain and modify existing code as new objects can be created with small differences to existing ones. Furthermore, it provides a good framework for code libraries where supplied software components can be easily adapted and modified by the programmer. This is particularly useful for developing graphical user interfaces.

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ISSUES AND RECOMMENDATIONS

When asked about the key concerns about knowledge management, the managers expressed concern primarily over the cultural, managerial and informational issues. In terms of the culture, the managers were concerned over the implications for change management, the ability to convince people to volunteer their knowledge, and the ability to convince business units to share their knowledge with other units. The managerial concerns related to the business value of knowledge management and the need for metrics upon which to demonstrate the value. There was also concern about determining who would be responsible for managing the knowledge and above all of bringing together the many players involved in developing KMS, including technical staff, corporate librarians, documentation staff, archivists, database administrators, and the professionals with the knowledge. Concern was also expressed over how to implement KMS effectively.

The concerns related to information were primarily associated with a desire to avoid overloading already users with more information. The concern was as much about the new information that would now be available as it was about eliminating old data or knowledge that was no longer valid. Then, several managers expressed some concerns over technological issues. These issues were related to technical infrastructure and the security of data on the Internet. More specifically, the need for configuring an effective technical infrastructure and architectural requirements in the face of highly dynamic technology was reported.

Some languages such as Java will create access levels for the variables or methods. The access level will only allow certain classes or objects to access it. However, there are a couple of powerful advantages to encapsulating variables or methods. The first is information hiding and the second is modularity. Modularity allows the code within an object to exist without being attached to other objects and information hiding can allow the object to hide information that is not affected by other objects.

Even though there is some problems arise with the model, but it gives certain benefit to people. It is much easier to modify and maintain than a non-Object Oriented Program. So although a lot of work is spent before the program is written, less work is needed to maintain it over time. Other than that, the organization may reduce training time for the new employees and can reducing redundant work. Besides that, the objects created for Object Oriented Programs can easily be reused in other programs and do not need to re-implement again. With object oriented, every object can handle data, get and transfer message to other objects. It is where the objects will act as independent units in their own right and they will be responsible for carrying out a certain process. Many programmers feel that object oriented information modeling is easier for beginners to learn than others methods. It is because it is easier to learn, analyzed and maintained without a large amount of difficulty.

CONCLUSION

Knowledge Management System (KMS) refers to a system for managing knowledge in organizations for supporting creation, capture, storage and dissemination of information. It can comprise a part of a KM initiative. The idea of a KMS is to enable employees to have ready access to the organization's documented base of facts, sources of information, and solutions. KMS systems deal with information so they are a class of information system and may build on, or utilize other information sources. The purpose of KMS is to have an explicit KM objective of some type such as collaboration, sharing good practice or the like. One of the examples of KMS is the object oriented information modeling. Object oriented is a computer science term which used to describe a computer application that is composed of multiple objects which are connected to each other. As global competitive pressures continue to increase, organizations that effectively manage their knowledge assets and continuously improve their knowledge transfer processes will gain substantial competitive advantage. KMS practices, enabled by effective technologies, can add to both the top and bottom lines through reduced cycle times, greater efficiency and greater use of superior solutions across the enterprise. The contribution of the object oriented information modeling towards knowledge management systems is that it makes the learning or gaining knowledge and information become faster and easier. Although individual KMS are as different as each individual organization, they share many basic features. First, a KMS enables integration among systems such as groupware, e-mail, document management and directory services. Then, the KMS includes tools that allow managers to measure and verify usage to get a clear picture of how the system is being used, locate performance bottlenecks and, most importantly, use the data to improve organizational knowledge transfer processes.

REFERENCES

Frost, A. (2010). Knowledge Management System. Retrieved June. 6, 2012, from the World Wide Web: http://www.knowledge-management-tools.net/knowledge-management-systems.html

Engels, G. & Groenewegen, L. (2000). Object-Oriented Modeling: A Roadmap. Department of Computer Science.

Finkelstein, A. (2000). The Future of Software Engineering. ACM Press.

Gazis, B. Generic object-oriented information models for reconfigurable communication subsystems in beyond 3G mobile systems. Department of Informatics and Telecommunications.

Tamara, W. (2005). Object Oriented Information Models and Product Data Management. Retrieved June. 6, 2012, from the World Wide Web: http://tamarawilhite.hubpages.com/hub/The-object-oriented-information-model-and-its-components

Pillay, A. (2007). Object Oriented Programming using Java. School of Computer Science. (5)1-221.

(2006). Object Oriented Programming Issues. Retrieved June. 6, 2012, from the World Wide Web: http://www.exforsys.com/tutorials/oops/object-oriented-programming-issues.html 

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