Unit 18 Procedural Programming

Unit 18 Procedural Programming

 What is programming language?
2. What are the types of programming language?
3. Differentiate: computer, program and programmer.
4. Explain computer system.
5. What are the common elements in programming language?

A programming language is a computer language programmers use to develop applications, scripts, or other set of instructions for a computer to execute. Below is a listing of several different programming languages and scripting languages currently listed in our database. ALGOL

Ada
AIML
Assembly
BASIC
Batchfile
BCPL
C
C#
C++
COBOL
CPL
D
DarkBASIC
dBASE
FORTRAN
FoxPro
HDML
HTML
Java
JavaScript
JCL
LISP
Live Script
LOGO
Pascal
Perl
PHP
Pick
Prolog
Ruby
SGML
Smalltalk
SQL
Tcl
True BASIC
VHDL
Visual Basic
Visual FoxPro
WML
WHTML
XML
http://www.computerhope.com/jargon/p/proglang.htm

 programming language is an artificial language designed to communicate instructions to a machine, particularly a computer. Programming languages can be used to create programs that control the behavior of a machine and/or to express algorithms precisely. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Programming_language

Web languages
Used for creating and editing pages on the web. Can do anything from putting plain text on a webpage, to accessing and retrieving data from a database. Vary greatly in terms of power and complexity. HTML

Hyper Text Markup Language. The core language of the world wide web that is used to define the structure and layout of web pages by using various tags and attributes. Although a fundamental language of the web, HTML is static - content created with it does not change. HTML is used to specify the content a webpage will contain, not how the page functions. Learn HTML at our HTML tutorials section. XML

Extensible Markup Language. A language developed by the W3C which works like HTML, but unlike HTML, allows for custom tags that are defined by programmers. XML allows for the transmission of data between applications and organizations through the use of its custom tags. Javascript

A language developed by Netscape used to provide dynamic and interactive content on webpages. With Javascript it is possible to communicate with HTML, create animations, create calculators, validate forms, and more. Javascript is often confused with Java, but they are two different languages. Learn Javascript at our Javascript tutorials section. VBScript

Visual Basic Scripting Edition. A language developed by Microsoft that works only in Microsoft's Internet Explorer web browser and web browsers based on the Internet Explorer engine such as FlashPeak's Slim Browser. VBScript Can be used to print dates, make calculations, interact with the user, and more. VBScript is based on Visual Basic, but it is much simpler. Learn VBScript at our VBScript tutorials section. PHP

Hypertext Preprocessor (it's a recursive acronym). A powerful language used for many tasks such as data encryption, database access, and form validation. PHP was originally created in 1994 By Rasmus Lerdorf. Learn PHP at our PHP tutorials section. Java

A powerful and flexible language created by Sun MicroSystems that can be used to create applets (a program that is executed from within another program) that run inside webpages as well as software applications. Things you can do with Java include interacting with the user, creating graphical programs, reading from files, and more. Java is often confused with Javascript, but they are two different languages. Learn Java at our Java tutorials section. Software languages

Used for creating executable programs. Can create anything from simple console programs that print some text to the screen to entire operating systems. Vary greatly in terms of power and complexity. C

An advanced programming language used for software application development. Originally developed by Dennis Ritchie at Bell Labs in the 1970's and designed to be a systems programming language but since then has proven itself to be able to be used for various software applications such as business programs, engineering programs, and even games. The UNIX operating system is written in C. C++

Descendant of the C language. The difference between the two languages is that C++ is object-oriented. C++ was developed by Bjarne Stroustrup at Bell Labs and is a very popular language for graphical applications. Visual Basic

A language developed by Microsoft based on the BASIC language . Visual Basic is used for creating Windows applications. The VBScript language (also developed by Microsoft) is based on Visual Basic. Java

A powerful and flexible language created by Sun MicroSystems that can be used to create applets (a program that is executed from within another program) that run inside webpages as well as software applications. Things you can do with Java include interacting with the user, creating graphical programs, reading from files, and more. Java is often confused with Javascript, but they are two different languages. Learn Java at our Java tutorials section. The different generations of languages

There are currently five generations of computer programming languages. In each generation, the languages syntax has become easier to understand and more human-readable. First generation languages (abbreviated as 1GL)

Represent the very early, primitive computer languages that consisted entirely of 1's and 0's - the actual language that the computer understands (machine language). Second generation languages (2GL)

Represent a step up from from the first generation languages. Allow for the use of symbolic names instead of just numbers. Second generation languages are known as assembly languages. Code written in an assembly language is converted into machine language (1GL). Third generation languages (3GL)

With the languages introduced by the third generation of computer programming, words and commands (instead of just symbols and numbers) were being used. These languages therefore, had syntax that was much easier to understand. Third generation languages are known as "high level languages" and include C, C++, Java, and Javascript, among others. Fourth generation languages (4GL)

The syntax used in 4GL is very close to human language, an improvement from the pervious generation of languages. 4GL languages are typically used to access databases and include SQL and ColdFusion, among others. Fifth generation languages (5GL)

Fifth generation languages are currently being used for neural networks. A nueral network is a form of artifical intelligence that attempts to imitate how the human mind works. Procedure-oriented programming

A type of programming where a structured method of creating programs is used. With procedure-oriented programming, a problem is broken up into parts and each part is then broken up into further parts. All these parts are known as procedures . They are separate but work together when needed. A main program centrally controls them all. Some procedure-oriented languages are COBOL, FORTRAN, and C. Object oriented programming

A type of programming where data types representing data structures are defined by the programmer as well as their properties and the things that can be done with them. With object-oriented programming, programmers can also create relationships between data structures and create new data types based on existing ones by having one data type inherit characteristics from another one. In object-oriented programming, data types defined by the programmer are called classes (templates for a real world object to be used in a program). For example, a programmer can create a data type that represents a car - a car class. This class can contain the properties of a car (color, model, year, etc.) and functions that specify what the car does (drive, reverse, stop, etc.) Some object-oriented languages are C++, Java, and PHP.

http://www.landofcode.com/programming-intro/computer-programming-languages.php Set of instructions in a logical sequence interpreted and executed by a computer enabling the computer to perform a required function; also called software. Programs are the "thought processes" of computers, without which they cannot operate. Programs are written in various languages, to conform with the operating system of particular computers. Columbia Encyclopedia:

computer program
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Home > Library > Miscellaneous > Columbia Encyclopedia computer program, a series of instructions that a computer can interpret and execute; programs are also called software to distinguish them from hardware, the physical equipment used in data processing. These programming instructions cause the computer to perform arithmetic and logical operations or comparisons (and then take some additional action based on the comparison) or to input or output data in a desired sequence. In conventional computing the operations are executed sequentially; in parallel processing the operations are allocated among multiple processors, which execute them concurrently and share the results. Programs are often written as a series of subroutines, which can be used in more than one program or at more than one point in the same program. Systems programs are those that control the operation of the computer. Chief among these is the operating system-also called the control program, executive, or supervisor-which schedules the execution of other programs, allocates system resources, and controls input and output operations. Processing programs are those whose execution is controlled by the operating system. Language translators decode source programs, written in a programming language, and produce object programs, which are in machine language and can be understood by the computer. These include assemblers, which translate symbolic languages that have a one-to-one relationship with machine language; compilers, which translate an algorithmic- or procedural-language program into a machine-language program to be executed at a later time; and interpreters, which translate source-language statements into object-language statements for immediate execution. Other processing programs are service or utility programs, such as those that "dump" computer memory to external storage for safekeeping and those that enable the programmer to "trace" program execution, and application programs, which perform business and scientific functions, such as payroll processing, accounts payable and receivable posting, word processing, and simulation of environmental conditions. Bibliography

See F. Maddix and G. Morgan, Systems Software: An Introduction to Language Processors and Operating Systems (1989).

Read more: http://www.answers.com/topic/computer-program#ixzz2Bjb8L4df http://www.answers.com/topic/computer-program
A programmer, computer programmer, developer, or coder is a person who writes computer software. The term computer programmer can refer to a specialist in one area of computer programming or to a generalist who writes code for many kinds of software. One who practices or professes a formal approach to programming may also be known as a programmer analyst. A programmer's primary computer language (C, C++, Java, Lisp, Pythonetc.) is often prefixed to the above titles, and those who work in a Web environment often prefix their titles with Web. The term programmer can be used to refer to a software developer, Web Developer, Mobile Applications Developer, Embedded Firmware Developer, software engineer, computer scientist, or software analyst. However, members of these professions typically[citation needed] possess other software engineering skills, beyond programming; for this reason, the term programmer is sometimes considered an insulting or derogatory oversimplification of these other professions[citation needed]. This has sparked much debate amongst developers, analysts, computer scientists, programmers, and outsiders who continue to be puzzled at the subtle differences in the definitions of these occupations.[1][2][3][4][5] British countess and mathematician Ada Lovelace is popularly credited as history's first programmer, as she was the first to express an algorithmintended for implementation on a computer, Charles Babbage's analytical engine, in October 1842, intended for the calculation of Bernoulli numbers.[6]Her work never ran because Babbage's machine was never completed to a functioning standard in her time; the first programmer to successfully run a program on a functioning modern electronically based computer was pioneer computer scientist Konrad Zuse, who achieved this feat in 1941. TheENIAC programming team, consisting of Kay McNulty, Betty Jennings, Betty Snyder, Marlyn Wescoff, Fran Bilas and Ruth Lichterman were the first regularly working programmers.[7][8] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Programmer

A system of interconnected computers that share a central storage system and various peripheral devices such as a printers, scanners, or routers. Each computer connected to the system can operate independently, but has the ability to communicate with other external devices and computers.

Read more: http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/computer-system.html#ixzz2BjblVZzN


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