Unit 16 Understanding specific needs in health and social care

Unit 16 Understanding specific needs in health and social care

Understanding Specific Needs in Health and Social Care

In this essay I will analyse the concepts of health, disability, illness and behaviour in relation to users of health and social care services. I will take a look into how perceptions of specific needs have changed of time. I will also include the impact of legislation, social policy society and culture on the ways that services are made available to individuals with specific needs. This will include me analysing the needs of individuals with specific needs, explain the current system for supporting individuals with specific needs. I will also evaluate the services available in a chosen locality for individuals with specific needs. According to The equality Act 2010 a disability is define as having a physical or mental impairment that has a ‘substantial’ and ‘long-term’ negative effect on your ability to do normal daily activities.( www.directgov.co.uk). There are many different types of disabilities so as a social care worker we would have to cater to that persons individual needs. A person’s disability can also affect other areas of a person’s life, like their health. Health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity this. (http://www.who.int) when we are not in good health it can lead to illness which is the Disease of body or mind; poor health; sickness (http://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com). Being in poor health can lead to challenging behaviours this is when culturally abnormal behaviour of such an intensity, frequency or duration that the physical safety of the person or others is likely to be placed in serious jeopardy, or behaviour which is likely to seriously limit use of, or result in the person being denied access to, ordinary community facilities on their quality of life is evaluated too.( http://www.challengingbehaviour.org.uk/) When these things occur there are certain things that we as social care workers need to do to help make an individual’s circumstances easier and to protect the people whom assist these individuals. When dealing with challenging behaviour we have to take into consideration many things When a person is diagnosed with disability they should be provided with the right services that meet their needs but not everyone is entitled to the same things. To find out if an individual is eligible they would need to have an assessment done. Under the NHS Community care Act 1990 states it is a duty for local authorities to assess people for social care and support. This is to ensure that people who need community care services or other types of support get the services they are entitled to. Patients have their needs and circumstances assessed and the results determine whether or not care or social services will be provided. (www.legislation.gov.uk) A Care manager, Social worker or another professional who is able to do the assessment would go in and conduct the assessment. When doing the assessment the professional will need to determine the level of risk a person is to themselves and to other people. If done is called a risk assessment. A risk assessment is a systematic method of looking at work activities, considering what could go wrong, and deciding on suitable control measures to prevent loss, damage or injury in the workplace. The Assessment should include the controls required to eliminate, reduce or minimise the risks. (http://www.healthyworkinglives.com). These risk assessment are done to help safe guard vulnerable people and the people whom work with them they are done to minimise all sorts of risks. These risk assessments are put in place so that they protect service user and professionals from harm. They used to analyse any risk that can occur to the service user while they are in their home, and social activities while out and about. They also examine any assistance the service user may need while in their environment. \for example if they need assistance with toileting, they can be provided with a commode. Or if they need assistance with getting in and out of bed if they are bed bound they can be given a hoist to use to assist them. These things are assessed by an occupational therapist who will examine the service user’s needs. We as social care workers need to safe guard vulnerable people. When it comes to safe guarding there are laws that protect individual people under the Children’s Act 1989 it states It shall be the general duty of every local authority in addition to the other duties imposed on them by this Part to safeguard and promote the welfare of children within their area who are in need; and, so far as is consistent with that duty, to promote the upbringing of such children by their families - by providing a range and level of services appropriate to those children's needs.( www.legislation.gov.uk). Safeguarding means protecting people’s health, wellbeing and human rights, and enabling them to live free from harm, abuse and neglect. It is fundamental to creating high-quality health and social care. (http://www.cqc.org.uk/public/what-are-standards/safeguarding-people) It’s important to have these things in place to ensure the safety of the individual and the professional who work with them. Risk assessments provide detail information as what things need to be put into place to assist individual’s needs. This risk assessment this is to see what precautions you need to take and what you can do to prevent these things from happening in the first place. Workers and service users have the right to be protected in there working environment form harm caused failure to take reasonable control measures. Your employer has a legal duty to make sure that they assess all the risk in the workplace and the plan should be implemented. When a risk assessment has been conducted a care plan can be reviewed once this is done. Having risk assessments in place makes it easier to make changes if their needs to be a change in a person care this is to ensure there are no mistakes and all aspects of a person care is covered and documented. For example if a person has been assigned a carer to help assist them in their care. A carer can come to a service user’s home and may not know what to do. If the service cannot talk all they need to do is take a look at the information in the risk assessment to see what the service can and cannot do. When reviewing the care plan you would need to meet the needs of the service user, for example from the assessment it has been noted they need a stair lift to get the service user up and down the stairs and you put in that stair lift it would meet the needs of the service user. Regular checks made by a carer or a family member will ensure the safety of the service users. Ensuring security of the service user you can do this by adding key safes to their houses only the people who know the code will have access to the hose this will also maximise the person wellbeing. When a risk assessment is done it could also pin point what things within the work place may need updating, for example if it was shown in the risk assessment that the fire door was open and in their polices it states it is meant to be closed. There should be a review in measures for it to continue to be closed.

While working with service users the government has put many techniques in place to protect vulnerable people these measure include a Disclosure and barring check. This involves a person being checked through the police national computer, protection of vulnerable adults list, and the protection of vulnerable children list. And criminal backgrounds check. This is to ensure you are who you say you are, and to ensure you are able to work with vulnerable people.

A care plan is an agreement between you and your health professional (and/or social services) to help you manage your health day-to-day. It can be a written document or something recorded in your patient notes. (http://www.nhs.uk). Many individuals are able to work with professionals in order to have their care cater to their specific needs. Specific needs are the individual requirements of a person with a disadvantaged background or a mental, emotional, or physical disability or a high risk of developing one. (www.directgov.co.uk). This is done in order to provide the right type of care to an individual, as the times are changing the health and social care sector are changing the way they assist individuals with their care. In previous years individuals weren’t not as involved with their care as they are now. Services were often limited, and individuals had no input into what would go into their care plan. Services were often service lead and not needs lead as they are today. Families and professionals often made decisions on the person’s behalf without asking them. The social care sectors are now making improvements to this with the help of government legislation. These new safeguarding technics and policies and procedures are also help vulnerable individuals from abuse. Abuse is the violation of an individual's human and civil rights by any other person or persons. It can vary from the seemingly trivial act of not treating someone with dignity and respect - to extreme punishment, cruelty or torture. There are several different types of abuse; physical which Physical injuries can occur where there is no satisfactory explanation, definite knowledge, or a reasonable suspicion that injury was inflicted with intent, caused through lack of care by the person having custody, charge or care of that person. Emotional abuse can include intimidation, humiliation, shouting, swearing, emotional blackmail and denial of basic human rights. Using racist language, preventing someone from enjoying activities or meeting friends. Neglect is when a person can suffer because their physical or psychological needs are being neglected by a carer. This could include failure to keep someone warm, clean and well-nourished or neglecting to give prescribed medication. Financial abuse can take the form of fraud, theft or using of the vulnerable adults property without their permission. This could involve large sums of money or just small amounts from a pension or allowance each week. Sexual abuse is the involvement of vulnerable adults in sexual activities, which they do not fully comprehend, to which they are unable to give consent, either verbally or by their behaviour, to which they object or which may cause them harm. Institutional abuse is different from other categories because it is about who abuses and how that abuse comes to pass, rather than about types of harm. Abuse occurs in a relationship, family, service or institution and it can be perpetrated by an individual or more collectively, by a regime. Most care is built around the service user as person centred care is often used. Person centre therapy was created by a Psychologist known as Carl Rogers in the 1950s. It is also known as Client centred therapy. This sort of therapy is based around the person and they have complete control over the therapy. The counsellor is not direct; there are no questions, assessments, or opinions. The counsellor has to provide a non-judgemental and safe environment for the client to be in. The counsellor must have geniuses towards the client often known as congruence; they must also provide unconditional positive regard which is a deep caring for the client. The counsellor must also be empathetic which entails feeling what the client is feeling and have a deep understanding for the client’s feelings. With this approach, it put the service user at the centre of the care. All the decisions and activities are based around the service user; this is to make sure that they are involved in all aspects of their care. And for the care to focus on the specific needs and wishes of the service user. This enables the service user with help from professionals, service providers, family and friends to plan their own lives and make them feel more empowered and independent. The person centre approach is a good approach to use in health and social care practice. As it allows the service user to make informed choices over their own care. It allows them to speak up for themselves and provide self-advocacy. For those service users who cannot speak advocates can help speak on their behalf with family and friends to create a care plan that is needs led, not service led. We as social care workers also have a duty of care that we need to adhere to under the Codes of Practice for Social care Workers, these codes are set out to show the level of conduct that is expect of us and to inform service users and the public the level of conduct that is expected. As social care workers we promote and protect the rights of service users and carers. We must uphold public trust and confidence in social care services. We must strive and establish trust and confidence in service users and carers. We must promote the independence of service user while trying to protect them from harm. We must respect the rights of service users while we must ensure they are not a danger to themselves and other people. We must accountable for the quality of our work and make sure we know it is our responsibility to update our skills. (http://www.hpc-uk.org/). Codes of practice for Social Care Employers must ensure they know their responsibility of regulating their employees. The purposes of these regulations are to protect the rights of the service users and carers. As a social care employer they must ensure that all employees are suitable to enter the workforce and that they understand their role and responsibility. Employers must have in place policies and procedures that are in accordance with GSCC .Employers must provide training and development opportunities to all employees to help develop and improve their skills and knowledge. Employers must put in place policies and procedures that deal with discrimination and dangerous behaviour. . (http://www.hpc-uk.org/).these things are done to help protect the service users and social care workers.

Each service user is an individual, and has a right to be treated as one. Not every service user likes the same things, we as social care workers need to take this into consideration when providing care. We live in a cultural diverse society we need to incorporate that into our car and not discriminate. Discrimination is to prejudge or miss –treat a person based on their race, age, gender, sexuality, religion, ethnicity, and disability. Under the equality 2010 there are new laws in place to stop discrimination from happening on these and other grounds. This act of parliament has now replaced various other acts in relation to this. We as social care workers need to cater to the needs of the service user; we can do this by promoting anti-discriminatory practice and take into consideration the use of holistic care. Holistic care considers the psychological, environmental and spiritual needs of a patient, as well as the physical so that people are treated as whole human beings and the impact of the illness.() Each service user has different needs some have specific needs. For example some service need extra care services like dial a ride, or special dietary needs like people from certain faiths don’t eat pork or their meat has to be killed in a certain way. Some service users may need support with psychological needs maybe they need to see a counsellor. The social care sector is very diverse and we need to cater to all, we need to provide care in regards to ethnicity for example some groups of people who would like to be around the same people from their ethnic background because they feel comfortable. When providing care we would need to take into consideration a person values, beliefs, and cultures. There are various different organisations that work together to help provide care to service users with specific needs. Social services and local authorities cannot always provide all the care that the service users’ needs so they look for help in other organisations. Charities offer support to service users who are in need of care. Like Age Concern who provide services for the elderly. Mind who provides mental health services for service users who have mental health problems. As service users are able to make informed choices about their care the government is now allowing them to make to choice in who they want to provide it, through direct payments. Direct payments are payments made by social services to service user so that they can make direct payments towards care service for people who are looking after them. Direct payments aim to give service user more flexibility in how their services are provided by giving them money instead of social care services, they will have greater choice and control over their life, and are able to make their own decisions about how your care is delivered. This allows potential service users to choose which care agency they wish to use without the interference of social services. When working in a health and social care environment compliance in following the legislation is very important, if things are not followed bad things can happen. For example if the incorrect manual handling techniques are used this would severely affect the person’s health as they could damage their backs which then means they would be unable to work. Morally the employers would have to send the employee home. It would also mean that the company would be short staffed as the employee is away from work which may cause the company to lose money. The employee might even sue the organisation due loss of income which may lead into a legal lawsuit which could cost the organisation a lot of money. Other employee may not want to continue to work in the organisation because of health and safety failures. The person could have other health problems in relation to the effects of being off work like depression.

Working in Health and social care there needs to policies and procedure in place as dilemmas can happen for example euthanasia, the law states that no one is allowed to help another person to die. Whereas the person involved is in pain and does not want to live. They feel that they are a burden on their family and friends. We as professionals must ensure the safety of all our service users. As professional we have to respect the choice that are service users make, but in this situation it can also cause them harm. Within polices it states that we need to ensure that we protect are service users from harm this can also include harming themselves. Yet we also have to remember to respect the rights of our service users. This becomes a dilemma as you would want to respect the service user’s rights but also you need to protect them from harm. There are Infection Control policies in my work place to prevent cross contamination people professionals and service must wash their hands in the correct manner. They must always wash their hands after using the toilet this prevents bacteria from the toilet from being carried from toilet to a person. If this bacteria is carried over this person could get really sick, also it could be carried over to various other people which can cause serious harm. People should use the hand gel that has been placed in hospitals which can prevent them from catching diseases and sickness from each other. Professionals should also make sure that they wear gloves and aprons when dealing with bodily fluids as this prevents them from catching diseases from service users. Professionals need to ensure that they always wash their hands before handling food and use gloves, so that they do not contaminate the food as this will cause cross infection. We should dispose of all contaminated linens in the correct manner as this will limit the risk of cross contamination. We must ensure all sharp equipment must dispose of or put away correctly. All clinical waste must be dispose of in the correct places. We have policies in place to protect service user’s information. When dealing with confidentiality in my work place we, have to make sure all files are kept securely and locked; we must not disclose client’s information to anyone outside of work. All clients’ address information must be shredded in the office when no longer needed. To help improve this at my workplace, I suggest that all files should be computerised to make it easier to locate records and make them more secure. Any personal information regarding the service would be on a need to no basis. We do this due to data protection Under the Data Protection Act 1998; it states all computer based data should be processed fairly and lawfully. It should be collected for specified and explicit purpose only. And should be protected against accidental or, malicious disclosure or access. (Holden, P& Munnelly 2004). We value service users and respect the choices that they make we have regulations in place that we adhere to ensure this by using valuing people is a government strategy that has been laid out in white paper in 2001 it touches on inclusion, civil rights, choice, and independence. It was put in place to help improve services in housing, education, employment, social services and health for people with learning difficulties and their families. We have many clients that have disabilities and do not have a voice this helps us keep to the guidelines in how we help improve services towards them. This government is changing in regards to the type of care we have to provide to service users under our care. The new laws, regulations and policies help empower services user to make informed choices about their care. It helps them feel more valued, included in decisions they were once excluded. Organisations need to catch up on certain strategies as the country we live continues to become more diverse, than it was many years ago. Service users have more of a voice; we should help them speak out.