Unit 14 Website design

Unit 14 Website design

Understand person-centred approaches in adult social care settings
1.1 The main principle underlying any person-centred approach to care or support is that the individual plays a central role. Person-centred values are rights, individuality, respect, dignity, partnership, independence, privacy and choice. 1.2 For many decades the medical model of disability was the dominant influence on attitudes in society towards disability, but applying person-centred approach in all aspects of health and social care work particularly in relation to vulnerable individual’s means that vulnerable individuals are no longer hidden away and separated from society. Equal rights have led to improved access to education, employment and all aspects of life. Person-centred approaches are about sharing power and focus on who the person is, who the important people are in their lives and what they can do together to achieve a better life for the future. 1.3 The care plan presents a key opportunity for developing a person-centred approach. This can be achieved by involving the individual at every step to ensure it reflects their individuality. The person-centred care plan will include individuals views about their needs and circumstances, interests, likes, dislikes, priorities, strengths, ideas about how they want their life to be, ideas about how to have their needs met and support network- people who are important to and contribute to their life.

2.1 Individuals who require care or support are often described only by the labels that accompany them. Working in a person-centred way means placing the individual at the centre of thinking and activities. Finding out about an individual’s life, their experiences, culture and values will help to understand what is important to them, their likes and dislikes. It may also provide important information to help understand how past experiences have influenced their current behaviour. 2.2 When the situation is complex or sensitive it will require support worker to be even more alert, not only to verbal but also non-verbal communication. Individuals in these situations are often experiencing a range of emotions which they may communicate through behaviour mare than in speech. Communication can be more difficult due to a heightened emotional state. For example, when service user is distressed then need to listen what service user wants in that situation and respect the wish, work in partnership, also give privacy and choice as well as independence and dignity. 2.3 A care plan defines the “path” between where an individual is currently and where they want to be. Often care plans contain only basic information on needs and circumstances, options to meet needs, the individual’s views, and planned support. However, person-centred approach is more detailed care plan and can be achieved by involving the individual at every step to ensure it reflects their individuality. Support worker may find there is more evidence in some areas then in others. Areas with more evidence can be considered as demonstrating a person-centred approach, but areas with no evidence can be viewed as requiring development and improvement. 2.4 Change of any kind will impact on an individual’s ability to function, and support worker will need to be able to adapt approach to accommodate those changes. An individual’s preferences may also change frequently as a result of their mood, situation, interests, new information or experiences. Support worker can never assume that just because they liked something yesterday they will it today. Always should ask and check their preferences before acting.

3.1 Having capacity of an individual to express consent means being able to undertake the stages of decision-making. This means the individual is able to understand the information they are being given that is relevant to the decision, retain that information long enough to make decision, analyse that information, communicate their decision to others. 3.2 To establish consent for an activity or action support worker need to explain what the activity or action is using language familiar to the individual, describe what it involves, explain any potential or actual risks involved in carrying/ or not carrying out the action, explain the benefits, encourage to ask questions, give time to process the information, listen and observe response and confirm consent again immediately prior to commencing the activity or action. 3.3 In some circumstances individuals are unable to give consent. The Mental Capacity Act 2005 outlines the circumstances in which another person can make a decision or take action on behalf of the individual who lacks capacity. It is useful to ask a family member about the individual’s preferences and wishes.

4.1 Active participation is a way of working that recognises an individual’s right to participate in the activities and relationships of everyday life as independently as possible. The principle in this approach is that the individual is viewed as an active participant or partner rather than as passive receiver of support. Active participation can be applied in many ways. Putting active participation into practice means being able to recognise and reduce the potentional barriers to implementation. It also means ensuring that everyone involved is committed to working with individual to achieve the best possible outcomes. 4.2 A holistic approach means taking into account each area of the individual’s life and considering these when providing care or support. It means looking at the implications of a physical disability and thinking about how this impacts on their emotional state, their ability to work or participate in leisure opportunities and their relationships with others. 4.3 Encouraging active participation challenges the individual to believe they can be active rather than passive, family and friends to view the individual as an equal partner in care or support, health and social care organisations to provide flexible and personalised care or support, society to view people with disabilities as able to contribute and not dependent. 4.4 To provide and encourage the implementation of active participation will need to take time to ensure those involved understand the individual’s personality, history, health, cognitive status and social abilities; view the individual as capable of being an active partner; work in partnership with the individual and the other important people in their life; set longer timescales; be creative, flexible, committed, patient, tenacious; think about risk assessments as a means by which to make things possible; consider resistance as opportunities for creative solutions to change attitudes.

5.1 Making an informed choice means knowing what will be gained as well as potential lost with each option. It is important to understand the individual’s needs and abilities, developing respectful relationships, provide relevant information, awareness of actual or likely danger, explain how each choice may benefit or lose, use non-judgmental communication, give the individual time to consider, check they understand each choice. 5.2 There are number of ways how to support an individual to question or challenge decisions concerning them that are made by others. These include helping the individual decide what they want to do, how they want raise their concerns and who they want to involve, supporting the individual to identify how the individual’s views not considered and others who can support the individual’s view, arranging an informal meeting to raise the concerns, involving an independent advocate if this is the best option. It is support worker’s role to promote an individual’s rights and choices also to support them to make choices or challenge them. 5.3 Everyone has had past experiences of risk and this tends to influence our attitude towards it. Some people are risk takers, but other people are more conservative. There is always the danger that support workers make assumptions about individual’s ability to understand or believe the individual is not capable of making decisions. If support worker’s past experience has taught that there is a great deal to be gained by taking a risk as something to welcome. If, however, taking a risk has resulted in negative experiences and memories then it is likely to be viewed as something to be wary of and avoided if at all possible.

6.1 Identity, self-image and self-esteem are all closely linked, with one dependent on the other. If an individual has little sense of who they are as an individual then they are likely to struggle with a sense of low worth and value and this creates a negative self-image and low self-esteem. Our identity, self-image and self-esteem one influenced by different factors like family, upbringing, share history, how they been treated, primary care givers, friends, inherited characteristics, educational and life experiences, culture, religion, nationality, media, images, feedback from other people. 6.2 Wellbeing is often described as a state of feeling that you are doing well and feeling good. Understanding who we are, our value and worth to ourselves, to people we respect and care about, and to society as a whole, are important aspects of our sense of wellbeing. Factors that influence wellbeing include practical aspects of life (education and skills, employment, income, physical and mental health, access to services and amenities, quality of living environment), personal and social relationships, values and attitudes (ideas about self and personality, hopes, fears and aspirations, behaviour, meaning of life, levels of satisfaction and dissatisfaction with life, levels of trust and confidence in life and relationships). 6.3 If an individual feels worthless then that will affect how they interact with others. It is important to support an individual to promote their sense of identity, self-image and self-esteem. To do that support worker can be patient, value uniqueness, accept, involve, listen, be non-judgemental, show understanding, be firm and fair, encourage, be consistent, have a positive attitude, meet basic needs, nurture a sense of belonging, nurture individuality. 6.4 An individual’s wellbeing will be promoted if they are surrounded by people with positive attitudes. However, the physical living environment and the systems that operate within this are also important to promoting wellbeing. The physical environment can contribute to wellbeing by being accessible, welcoming, well maintained, comfortable, designed to accommodate individuality, safe and secure, well equipped to meet individual’s needs. Systems and structures within an environment can contribute to wellbeing by using person-centred approaches to care or support, risk assessments which focus on enabling activities, creative and flexible approaches, good evidence-based practice to develop services, staff supervision and training to develop positive attitudes to care or support, monitoring and review processes to make changes and improvements.

7.1 Risk is a part of everyday life which enables individuals to develop their skill, self-confidence and self-esteem. There are different uses of risk assessment in adult social care. They are use person-centred approach in communicating risk information, empowering individuals to make informed decisions, views and opinions, attitude to risk, individuals as active participants in decision making, wishes and aspirations, healthy lifestyle decisions. 7.2 Often the emphasis when considering risk taking and risk assessment is on maintaining individual rights. However, it is important to recognise that the exercise of individual rights must be accompanied by the individual taking responsibility for the outcomes of their decisions. Workers must therefore ensure that individuals have the capacity to fully understand the potential consequences of taking a risk that their choice is an informed one. 7.3 As attitudes to risk vary it is important that organisations establish a consistent approach to risk taking. It is important that everyone involved receives appropriate training, uses risk assessment tools fairly and consistently, individuals are fully involved, risk assessments are reviewed, and individuals are given support. 7.4 It is essential that risk assessments are reviewed and as an individual’s needs and abilities change. A risk assessment may initially have been carried out to enable an individual to undertake activities which will develop their skills and confidence. As their skills and confidence grow the risk assessment will need to be reviewed. Failure to do this will undo all progress that has been made as well as infringing the individual’s rights. 7.5 Sometimes an individual may decide to take a risk against recommendations. If they have the capacity to make that informed decision then an organisation may ask them to sign a disclaimer, so that the individual takes full responsibility for that decision and releases the organisation of their duty of care in that circumstance.