Unit 10 Human Computer Interaction

Unit 10 Human Computer Interaction


Introduction:-
Human computer interaction is an interdisciplinary field in which scientists related to computer field, engineers, psychologists and professionals related to designing field play important roles. At start their was question that humans are using machine for centuries but took too long for becoming human computer interaction as important field for design the interaction devices. Answer to this question is that machines used by human in past has limited functioning. An example of machine that were used by human in past is hammer which is useful for driving nail and furthermore there is no use of hammer. Whereas for computer we need interaction devices that are designed by studying the rules of interaction and take careful study of human computer interaction rules so that we can implement these rules of human computer interaction. These interaction rules of human computer interaction help to increase productivity of interaction devices. The goal of Human Computer Interaction is to solve issues of design and technology use, its purpose is also to make systems that are computer based easy to use and easy to learnable in different organization. Easiness and effectiveness are two point that are to make systems successful that will interact with user properly, including different software systems, different offices and factory machines, and websites and mobile phone apps. Human Computer Interaction considers main issues that affect the interaction system on everyday life as in the workplace at home, in schools, in colleges, in universities and in different organizations. In the mid of 1980, term Human Computer Interaction was accepted for describing this new field as a means of study. This term focus on interest broader than just designing of the interface for interaction with the computer and it concerns with all the parts that plays an important for designing interaction design between users and computers. There is no agreed terms for human computer interaction until the most recent terms that are provided for human computer interaction is "Human Computer Interaction is a field that concerns with the designing, evaluating and implementing of interactive interaction design in computer systems for the use of human and with study of phenomena that are surrounding them”. First of all, we explain the purpose of Human Computer Interaction. Human Computer Interaction is the learning of how human interact with the computer. It consists of three parts human, computer and interaction. Human part involves the understanding of user’s activities, needs, preferences, habits. Computer part involves the tools and experiences. Interaction part involves design of all systems, artifacts that provides all user needs, preferences and designing for future. Human computer interaction is a field that emerges in the 1980, initially cognitive science and human factors were introduced by Human Computer Interaction and they become special area in computer science at that time. Human Computer Interaction field is expanding very fast and steadily for the last three decades (1970-2000), this field is attracting professionals toward itself by introducing new concepts that is making this field more important to learn and is become necessary for developing systems for interaction with computer. To a great extent, Human Computer Interaction now gathers many self-governing fields of research and practice and now become a human centered informatics. People are interacting with the computer from start but it took much time to accept Human Computer Interaction as important field for designing and to become a field of research. Related journals, conferences, and professional associations appeared in the 1970s and 1980s. Human computer interaction is now become important course in research universities, at start it was in important in computer science, until now it does not form a single discipline. Fields with researchers who identify with Human Computer Interaction include human factors and cognitive science, information systems, ergonomics, organizational psychology, industrial engineering, and computer engineering. Before 1970, person who interact with the computer were scientists and computer experts. After 1970, personal computers were introduced in the market. Personal computers include software (text editors and games) and personal computing platform (programming languages and operating systems) made everyone potential user of computer. It is impossible and difficult to ignore rules of human computer interaction because it causes a lot of problem related to productivity, money and efficiency. There is also example of ignoring the rules of human computer interaction causes a difficult interaction device in nuclear plant and nuclear accident occur due to difficulty in operating the interaction device and accident occur due to misunderstanding of operator related to hidden light resources. Many other accident related to aircraft cause because of use of bad interaction rule used to interact with plane which cause a lot of pilots got problem in learning new interface which cause a lot of difficulty in understanding it because previous interaction technology does not follow the human computer interaction rules and afterward new interface design also do not follow human computer interaction rules which cause difficulty in learning and leads to accident. Another example of bad use of human computer interaction is use of QWERTY keyboard layout, which at start was introduced in market people get expert in typing in this keyboard layout but this layout was not designed according to the rules of human computer interaction after sometime when new layout DOVRAK keyboard layout was introduced in the market and was designed according to the rules of human computer interaction. But new layout of DOVRAK key board layout was not liked by user because they get use to QWERTY layout and they don’t want any change in the layout. So manufacturer produced QWERTY layout keyboards. DOVRAK layout was proving more efficient for humans. We can divide Human Computer Interaction development into three waves. First wave (early 1980s), based on interfaces, usability is considered, human factors. It works on engineering and psychological interface discipline. It uses cost analysis methodology. Second wave (end of 1980s), based on Work focus, context, good user-experience, human actors, participator design and group work. It works on sociology discipline. It uses Ethnography, participatory design and contextual design methodology. Third wave (early 2000), based on Experience focus, life, personal history, ethical implications, artistic, cultural, emotional and history. It works on Sociology, communication and culture disciplines. It uses Network theory, aesthetics, cultural theory, emergence methodology. Summary:-

In this we explain the importance of human computer interaction it is basically techniques how human can interact with the computer. Human computer interaction becomes more important to learn before designing interaction device. It is necessary to use human computer interaction rules to save money. By spending money in producing wrong devices. These rules of human computer interaction also help in increasing productivity. These designing techniques are evolving further to improve interaction devices outcome. The basic need for learning history of human computer interaction is to implement better rules of human computer interaction on interaction devices and knowing the drawbacks of rules that are evolved and not to use that rules of human computer interaction. Human Computer Interaction is a field of research and is an important for designing model that can interact with computer in a proper way. In order to learn full history of human computer interaction we divide all evolved feature in the form of wave. These waves further explain all the feature and factor we used from the start of history human computer interaction. These wave divide feature and factors in the form of their full explanation there implementation examples and a drawback of using these features used in interaction device and explains why these feature and factors are evolved. Field of Human Computer Interaction at start in first wave take start with the human factor after sometime it get evolved and human factor got change into human actor in second wave. After that experience focus and personal history evolved Human Computer Interaction field which known as third wave. In short, Human Computer Interaction is technique which is when used properly and correctly it will result in better design for interaction with the computer. These human computer interaction rules that are explained in these three waves explain a lot about history of human computer interaction. In order to understand overall history of human computer interaction we have to go through all waves of human computer interaction. It became necessary part to use Human Computer Interaction rules if we don’t use Human Computer Interaction rules it will result in bad interface. That’s why learning Human Computer Interaction now become necessary to design interface.

Literature review:-
Main purpose of studying or why people are too interested in learning human computer interaction because they want to increase their work efficiency of their staff in different organization and so that they can earn more cash. There is another main aspect or factor which is safety, if computer interaction design is not made proper then it can cause effect on safety factor of computer interaction design. The history of human computer interaction is equal old to history of computer because first computer that was developed at start also used the techniques of human computer interaction. At start in past human computer interaction main focus was on productivity at that time there was no focus on original human computer interaction. In 1911 fredick taylor was first person who did a great work on this field by recording the movement of automobile assembly line of workers. By doing that he increase the working efficiency at his work, what he do basically by recording movement of worker reduce the movement patterns that were causing time wastage so he removed that patterns so that he can save time. After that frank and lilian gilbert further worked on combining the scientific management with the industrial engineering. After that ww2 was introduced this further increased the use of human computer interaction. At start there was use of vacuum tube which further changed with the technology of transistor circuits that was only for use of computer experts or was only used in industries and there were very few working opportunities for persons which were not expert in computer field. But further these technologies were replaced by processors which change the overall working conditions of computer and computer become faster than we thought. Later another revolution came in field of computer which changes the overall users of computer that make computer no longer limited to specific user and enable all people to use the computer by making its working easy and by making it easier to learn. Because of changing the focus of computer user from specialist to public it become easier to use and need for developing more computers increased because this increases the overall users. The most influential part was the use of mouse which is also used today with the today’s computers. At start when computer which were general purpose machines combined with computer interface design of industrially used computer result in the design that was needed for general users that are not expert. After this manufacturers started giving focus to the non-functional aspects that was the need of common user and this was the reason were human computer interaction was born. After that manufacturer started to produce new revolutionary design which changed the use of computer. After that invention of mouse by Xerox organization, after that Macintosh was introduced by apple in the market which face of interaction design by providing amazing graphical user interface. After Macintosh concept of windows was used that changed the overall interface design and concept of windows further used in latest windows model that we are using these days. These all inventions are because of using the principle of human computer interaction which helps us to evolve the concept of designing the interaction models for computer. Human computer interaction field is very important field for designing the interaction devices. If we built a device that does not fulfill the needs of the user such as easy to use and easy to understand then user will not use it. Because if user want to perform action but the device that he or she using to perform that tasking is not doing its function properly then it will cause problem for user and he or she will not be happy to use that device which does not works properly. For last 30 year human computer interaction become important field for all the manufacturers of computer and interaction devices. Because manufacturer wants to gain shares for their companies by providing their devices good design that is much effective than other devices available in market by doing this they will gain market shares. Example is Google’s search engine which gain market share by providing better result for their search as compare to yahoo whom does not changed their search engine and does not make it more effective. Example of social website at start there was orkut but after the creation of facebook they lose their share and new facebook gain shares because of all availability of usability and better network. Another last example is of Apple organization computer production and other interaction devices they made their devices better just by following the rules of human computer interaction and by doing this they gain market shares. Mostly people think that human computer interaction provides only easier use of computer but it also provide the feature of productivity. For example taking the IBM pc which uses the command line interface in which user has to enter commands to perform specific task and response to the user very late and perform the functions very late. But when apple place their computer in market they provide user graphical user interface which allow user to point anything that he want to use using pointing device mouse which make computer use easy for all type of users. People feel comfortable and motivated using such technologies and that why their efficiency is increase day by day. Another reason for using human computer interaction rules is that it is lowering cost for manufacturing interaction devices. It is also lowering the supporting expense. If we built a device that is very difficult to learn we need to waste a lot of expense for providing learning facilities and that will cost much to produce that device. It will also increase the effort to produce such kind of devices. That’s why use human computer interaction rules to produce interactive devices cheap and we have to use less effort. Human computer interaction tells the manufacturer about the interest of user of that device and their requirement and interest related to interactive devices. Another main reason for using human computer interaction rules is to not spent too much effort on interactive devices manufacturing that can save our resources and that can save our time from implementing not required features by the user and make manufacturer to focus on our main functioning of the interaction device. At last it is very important to learn human computer interaction rules before manufacturing interaction devices and it will make the device more efficient by following those rules. The waves of Human Computer Interaction are further divided as first wave (1980s), second wave (1990s) and third wave (2000s). The term usability explains that human computer interaction gives us the interactive system by designing system efficient, effective, error-tolerant and is easily learnable by the user. The usability term improved all the artifact of interaction by increasing their usability by making them more useful. These guiding notions are constructed by shared technology terminology, a set of techniques, tools and methods. Hence usability term is used for particular set of ideas at start in human computer interaction related to relationship between user, designers, artifacts and the context in which designing takes place. To understand why usability develops that focuses, we need to go back to old history of human computer interaction the early 1980s.At that time there was complete confidence in how cognitive psychology contributes to Human Computer Interaction field. At that time computers were difficult to learn and use because that we have to strictly follow the computer model rules for interaction and to accomplish the task. In order to improve the position of user we used the credible and structured approach of cognitive science in human computer interactions as a knight in shining armor. A lot of information processing techniques were adopted to improve designing principles and analytic tools, guidelines, and methods for the field. In Norman’s designing theory focuses on action of people’s goals and how they can met, whereas Card et al.’s designing theory enables quantitative prediction related to user performance that could be used to evaluate the performance of interfaces and their suitability for the task that are given to them. Such kind of predictive modeling theory became keystone of usability technique and allowing usability driven human computer interaction models “predicting our designs and testing our systems that ensure that a system is behaving as we expect and also meets requirement of user”. We can see Information processing as the theoretical foundation of Human Computer Interaction’s ‘firstwave’. First wave Human Computer Interaction deals a lot with rigid guidelines, the testing of the guidelines. It allow the users command and form based interaction. But it was difficult to use and difficult to learn. The start point of Human Computer Interaction was given by Doug Engelbart’s who was a famous demonstrator also called as “THE MOTHER OF DEMOS”. He gave the concept of mouse and make it possible to select the files, folders and many other things that user want to open. Later in 1981, there was another invention of Xerox Star which was an important breakthrough in the field of Human Computer Interaction. Xerox star is considered as predecessor of pc and wimp interface. As the first it was for commercial office interface that introduced windows, icons and pointing device mouse for commercial setting. Xerox star then become the base for all the development in interaction models of computer. Design of Xerox star was based on small set of principles and that principles were not easy to use and the system that was develop on using these principles were difficult to use. Hence the Xerox star was start of developing interactive system that totally evolved the whole face of human computer interaction. After that all new interactive models were developed on the basis of Xerox star interactive system model. At start, there was focus on users and their dimensions for designing the interaction model. To accomplish that focus we use human factors and ergonomics as guiding forces. The main concept was developing of desktop. The main purpose of developing desktop was to provide user a place where user can perform all task and were all the things of user interest is placed. Ergonomic and human user approaches influenced first wave of human computer interaction. These approaches were later criticized that that user real life aspects should be influential part but it was ignored at that time. The criticism related to human users and their real life aspects as influential part was overcome in Second wave. At the end of 1980s questions were raised that all the theories and all approaches that were originated from cognitive psychology they were not found that influential and nor useful at the time of designing interface for interaction of human and computer. Suchman and Winograd & Flores revealed the limitations of information processing that was the key approaches of Human Computer Interaction in his book Seminal books. Due to the theoretical crisis in the human computer interface field a lot more theories and approaches were proposed in early 1990 such as ethnography, participatory design, ethnomethodology, activity theory , external cognition, ecological psychology and phenomenology. The first focus was to change the focus area of second wave of Human Computer Interaction from focus area of first wave of Human Computer Interaction in which main focus is on single user using single application. The main focus was on group working with collection of application. Second wave focus was change into well-defined communities such as teams collaborating. Second wave used systematic testing, rigid guidelines, and Predicative models work in favor of working together with user using prototyping and contextual inquiry. This wave makes graphical user interface possible. It also helps in maturation of LAN (Local Area Network) and Internet. The start point for second wave was the research paper by Bannon “To human actor from human factor”. In this we change our focus from the desktop to the workspace. Become more specific to context in second wave of human computer interaction. Now our main focus is Humans not Users. The discussion related to boundaries between the workspace and the non-workspace started and their emphasis was designing for the workspace. Third wave later broke these boundaries. In this we see the emergence of science design paradigm. There is rationality due to a lot of focus on methods. Proper rationality seeking was needed behind everything that was already done. Because of involvement of users in the design, participatory design becomes famous so that context could be defined. In the end of 1990s computer and digital technologies were present everywhere and there becomes a boundaries between public, private and as well between work and leisure, they started to blur. Technology become much more than being a work tool for a user. In the mid of 2000s, it became thought that now there is no need of human computer interaction field in west where technology was evolving very fast. To make human computer interaction more useful there was need to broaden the concept of human computer interaction. There was need for developing systems for those other than who don’t want it for work. For this purpose we have to broaden our concept to increase the use of human computer interaction so that they can develop for people who does not want system for work purpose so to tackle our new challenge we need new techniques. In the early 2000s, to find the way of tackling the new challenge human computer interaction become interested in complexity, culture, motivation, emotion, experiences and engagement that further become human computer interaction Third wave. Third wave of human computer interaction theory relate to more cultural analysis, philosophy and history than psychological theories. Third wave of human computer interaction has reacted using critical design, reflective design and value centered design against the second wave of human computer interaction technique of strong commitment to users by providing the favor of playful, exploratory and also design oriented where we need to manipulate strong ideal for much work in human computer interaction, it is questionable whether it can continue to function. Third wave of human computer interaction involve the concept of broadening the concept of human computer interaction by replacing concepts and applying thinking of human computer interaction and other multifaceted notion guidelines. There are a lot of challenges in third wave of human computer interaction. The most important role is of user or we can say role of Actors which is main concept of third wave of human computer interaction. The role that human can play in the designing process is more ever provided before. In Third wave of human computer interaction designing as an art initiative was emerge. But this facility also make people to think that it may lead to designing becoming too art oriented. The main focus of Third wave of human computer interaction revolves to culture and ethnography. No rational approaches are adopted in Third wave of human computer interaction. Now domain is expanded to more area that can cover now homes, leisure places, offices and also homes. Implementing the aspect of emotion in Third wave of human computer interaction causes major chunk for research. Third wave of human computer interaction involves cognitive to the emotional level or pragmatic focus on experience. Third wave of human computer interaction uses the methodology in which it moves away from commitment to user to exploratory where there is no commitment whether take or leave it concept is used in which designer get more inspiration from use using cultural probes. Not least, there are some exceptions in this. 

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