UNIT-2 Finance in the hospitality industry



UNIT 2: FINANCE IN THE HOSPITALITY INDUSTRY

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Unit 2:
Unit code: QCF level: Credit value:
Finance in the Hospitality Industry
R/601/1789 4 15

Aim

This unit will enable learners to develop practical understanding of the accounting techniques used to control costs and profits, and to support managers in making effective short-term decisions.

Unit abstract


Learners will gain understanding of the sources of funding and income generation for business and services industries. They will also understand business in terms of the elements of cost and how to analyse business performance by the application of ratios. Learners will have opportunities to investigate control systems, income generation and methods of measuring and analysing performance. On completion of the unit, learners will be able to evaluate business accounts and apply the concept of marginal costing. Learners must ensure that their evidence relates to the hospitality industry.


Learning outcomes

Understand sources of funding and income generation for business and services industries Understand business in terms of the elements of cost Be able to evaluate business accounts Be able to analyse business performance by the application of ratios Be able to apply the concept of marginal costing.



Unit content

1. Understand sources of funding and income generation for business and services industries Funding: sources eg retained profits, loans, banks, investors, small business schemes, franchise, hire purchase, sponsorship, lease schemes, creditors, debt factoring Income generation: methods eg sales, commission, sub-letting, sponsorship, grants, tracking mechanisms



2. Understand business in terms of the elements of cost Elements of cost: sales; materials; consumables; labour; overheads; capital; gross and net profits; discount costing Selling prices: product and service costing; formula to achieve a specific gross profit percentage; differential gross/net profit margins; marginal costing; effect of competition; freelance; commission; peak/off-peak trading Control of stock and cash: methods eg storage, purchasing, cash, security, reconciliation, stock-taking Taxation: income tax; Value Added Tax (VAT); corporation tax; schedules; rates; personal/capital allowances; post-tax profits, implications

3. Be able to evaluate business accounts Trial balance: source; structure eg summary of accounts from sales, purchase and nominal ledgers Final accounts: types eg sole trader, partnerships, limited company, trading account, profit and loss account, balance sheet, adjustments for depreciation, accruals, prepayments, bad debt provision; format eg vertical, double-entry, appropriation account; assets/liabilities eg capital, fixed, current, notes to accounts Profit and cash budgets: purpose; types eg profit, cash flow, operating, master; variance analysis to include sales (volume and average spend), cost variances (raw material, labour, overhead), profit variances (gross and net)

4. Be able to analyse business performance by the application of ratios Sales profitability ratios: gross and net profit; Return On Capital Employed (ROCE) Liquidity ratios: current; acid test Efficiency ratios: debtors and creditors payment periods; stock turnover Financial ratios: interest earned; gearing

5. Be able to apply the concept of marginal costing Costs categorisation and contribution: fixed and variable costs; contribution calculation eg product/customers, cost/profit/volume relationship Application: break-even; profit/loss potentials; setting selling price and discounting

Learning outcomes and assessment criteria

Learning outcomes
On successful completion of this unit a learner will: 


Assessment criteria for pass


The learner can:


 LO1 Understand sources of funding and income generation for business and services industries

1.1 review sources of funding available to business and services industries
  1.2 evaluate the contribution made by a range of methods of generating income within a given business and services operation

·         LO2 Understand business in terms of the elements of cost

2.1 discuss elements of cost, gross profit percentages and selling prices for products and services
2.2 evaluate methods of controlling stock and cash in a business and services environment

·         LO3 Be able to evaluate business accounts

 3.1 assess the source and structure of the trial balance
 3.2 evaluate business accounts, adjustments and notes
 3.3 discuss the process and purpose of budgetary control
  3.4 analyse variances from budgeted and actual figures, offering suggestions for appropriate future management action
·         LO4 Be able to analyse business performance by the application of ratio
4.1 calculate and analyse all ratios to offer a consistent interpretation of historical business performance
            4.2 recommend appropriate future management strategies for a given business and services operation
·         LO5 Be able to apply the concept of marginal costing
             5.1 categorise costs as fixed, variable and semi-variable for a given scenario
             5.2 calculate contribution per product/customer and explain the cost/profit/volume relationship for a given scenario
              5.3 justify short-term management decisions based on profit/loss potentials and risk (break-even) calculations for a given business and services operation


 Guidance

Links
This unit may be linked to other units, including:



 Unit 7: The Developing Manager
 Unit 8: Marketing in Hospitality
 Unit 19: External Business Environment
 Unit 21: Small Business Enterprise.

It should be made clear to learners that all units have financial components. This unit links to the following Management NVQ units:



A1: Manage your own resources
B6: Provide leadership in your area of responsibility
B8: Ensure compliance with legal, regulatory, ethical and social requirements
B10: Manage risk
E1: Manage a budget
E2: Manage finance for your area of responsibility
E3: Obtain additional finance for the organisation
F1: Manage projects
 F3: Manage business processes
F12: Improve organisational performance.

Essential requirements

Adequate access to computer and appropriate financial software is essential. When giving presentations, learners must also have access to the latest technological equipment and software. Tutors must develop suitable banks of case study materials based on real situations for demonstration and practice by learners. These must be in the context of the hospitality industry and include examples from different aspects of the industry, such as the front office, food and beverage costs, service costs etc


Employer engagement and vocational contexts

A visiting speaker, with some financial responsibility in the hospitality industry, will enhance delivery of the unit.

BH027242 – Edexcel BTEC Levels 4 and 5 Higher Nationals specification in Hospitality Management – Issue 2 – May 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011



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