Unit 5 Food and Beverage Operations Management

Unit 5 Food and Beverage Operations Management

Food and Beverage

Programme: BTEC Higher National Diploma (HND) in Hospitality Management Unit Number and Tittle: Food and Beverage Operations Management (Unit 5) Unit Level: L/601/1971 (Level 4)
Module Tutor: Dr. Sam Hazra
College ID: GT21132
Submission date: 25th March

MARCH 2013

1. LO1. Understand different food and beverage production and service systems……………….3 2. 1.1Characteristics of food production…………………………………………………………………………………………3 3. 1.2 Factors affecting recipes and menus for specific systems………………………………….4 4. 1.3 Compare the costs and staffing implications for different systems…………...……………5 5. 1.4 Justify the suitability of systems for particular food and beverage outlets……………..….6 6. LO2. Understand the financial controls used in food and beverage operations…………..……7 7. 2.1 Financial statements in food and beverage operations …….………………………………7 8. 2.2 Use of cost and pricing processes…………………………………………………………..8 9. 2.3. Purchasing process analysis…………………………………………………………….….8 10. LO3. Be able to device menus for hospitality events………………………………………....9 11. 3.1. Food and beverage for hospitality event……………………………………………….…9 12. 3.2 Justify the selection and suitability of recipes for menus………………………………..11 13. LO4. Able to provide food and beverage services for hospitality events……………….…..11 14. 4.1. Plan a food and beverage service for a hospitality event within an agreed budget……..11

15. 4.2. Implement the planned service maintaining standarts of quality and health, safety and security…………………………………………………………………………………………..12 16. 4.3. Evaluate factors to determine the success of the service, making recommendations for improvement……………………………………………………………………………………..13 17.References…………………………………………………………………………………....15

Today, hospitality industry is among the sectors that have a greater opportunity to grow and expand due to the changing consumer needs. However, no matter the opportunity it has, there are also challenges accompanied to it in that it has to keep on changing its products and services as well. It is arguably so that meeting the changing consumer needs is not an easy task at all. It is a situation that challenges the entire functions of the hospitality industry, think of its human resources, finance department, marketing and advertising, legal function and even its board of directors. The mention of these departmental functions is not in vain since it will help this study develop a comprehensive management control plan later on. Moreover, this study will aim to discuss the current trends within the UK food and beverage sector and analyse the contemporary management control techniques deployed in a chosen branded hospitality company.

LO1 Understand different food and beverage production and service systems 
1.1 discuss the characteristics of food production and food and beverage service systems

1.2 discuss factors affecting recipes and menus for specific systems

1.3 compare the cost and staffing implications for different systems 

1.4 justify the suitability of systems for particular food and beverage outlets

1.1Characteristics of food production
They are wide range of foods which we consume on a daily basis, and even larger number of many different cultures from around the world with their own kind of flavors, spices and technics used. Combined with the food they are rich choice of beverage served in many different types of restaurants. The different types of customers go to different types of places according their needs, where the food is prepared in so many different types, that is hard to count them. They could be categorized in five different methods: -Traditional - every different portion is well-arranged in plate from professional chef, and usually served by waiter. The food is produce with quite big types of ingredients from fresh fruit and vegetables, spices, to chilled meat, cheese and many different frozen or canned types of components. -Cook-Freeze - begin with cooking and preparing a bigger than single portion quantities and then blast freezing them to very low temperatures. When it is needed blast thawing process defrost the food. Than it could be further kept in chiller or reheated to a proper temperature so could be served on customer. -Sous-Vide - the products are prepared and blanched in specific temperature and for recommended time. Than all the food is portioned than placed in plastic bag which is vacuumed packed. Now the different bags of food are labeled, chilled and refrigerated, for later cooking. -Centralized Distribution - often used from the business which requires offsite food production like schools, hospitals, busy hotels or restaurants and others. There is a dish specification for every meal which is produced. The food is prepared than blast chilled using the same method like in Cook Freeze, but away in Central Production Unit. -Cook Chill - very similar to cook-freeze, but the meals after prepared, cooked and portioned in kitchen, being blast chilled, but not blast frizzed. The ready meals are reheated and served.

1.2 Factors affecting recipes and menus for specific systems There is level of dependency on either the service or food production, as higher is the food quality preparation as higher level is the service type usually. All of the different service types could be concluded in 8 systems: * Table/Plate Service - The meals are placed on individual plates, and delivered to the customer; * Counter/Buffet Service - All the food is prepared in advance, placed in containers and served from a table, hot or cold display cabinet. Most of the time the customer help themselves with the serving, however they could be a assistance personal; * A la carte - a meal consists from a main course and several different priced dishes, from a menu, which every customer choose according their needs. They can order different extras on meat, starch, vegetables, or whatever he or she desires and pays for them separately; * Table d’hote - An opposite to a la Carte is this way of serving where the meal includes few already prepared dishes, at fixed price for the whole meal for every consumer. The different dishes are prepared and come combined in set of menu which could be disadvantages if customer doesn’t like a dish from it;

* Silver /Russian Service – is food and beverages service of top qualities and standards. It is called Silver, because of the cutlery is mostly made from silver, and all the service are higher quality, usual every waiter/waitress serves only one, maximum two guests. The food is placed on hot silver platters/containers, taken from the personnel to the consumers and served to them with finesse and courtesy according their will;

* Family/English Service - very popular due to its use in our daily lives. The already prepared food is placed in bowls/dishes, transported from a waiter to restaurant where it is placed in center of the table. Than everybody just help themselves by serving the food into the empty dishes, already placed in advance together with the cutlery; * Guerdion/Flambe Service - Food is prepared or partly cooked, but not ready to serve. Than a server puts food on equipped portable trolley and transferred it next to the customer’s table. The waiter finishes the cooking process in front of customers for their entertainment; * Specialist Food Service - the food is prepared of a specialist, who needs to have at least high school diploma. Knowledge about basic food handling, nutrition, sanitation procedures and many other preparation techniques are essential. A food specialist will prepare the food to exact customer specifications and reduce possibility of complains to a minimum; * Self-service - the customers collect drinks from a vending machine or a counter; * The Cafeteria - the consumer order his beverages from a counter and then enjoyed them in premises designed in many different styles; * Bar or Counter Service - evenly used in public houses, pubs, hotel and restaurants which have licensed bar. Customer purchase and pay the drinks to bartender and carries it themselves; * Room Service - used in hotels, motels;

* The buffet - offers a flexibility of servings solutions because the drinks could be either pre-portioned and display on a table or served by waiter to consumers; * Take-away – this method is just what it says;

* Waiter service – waiter or waitress serves the beverages to customer sitting on their tables.

1.3 Compare the costs and staffing implications for different systems

Human related issues effect the different systems.There are 3 types:

Unit 16: Managing Communications, Information & Knowledge (MCKI) *Material cost- this is the cost of all food and beverages products as well with the needed equipment for their preparation like cutlery, dishes, cookers, fridge and freezers, fryers and so on. *Labour cost- all the cost made to personnel like wages, government taxes, bonuses, staff meals and travel if covered, maternity leave, pensions and so on. *Overhead cost- these are all kind of costs different than Material and Labour. That includes all kinds of bills like gas electric, repairs, renewing equipment, insurances and others. Below is a comparison between the Buffet and Specialist service cost and staffing implications: The Buffet:

*Skills- the skills of staff are on lower level then on specialist *Knowledge- the staff will have to keep in mind that on the event there different type of guests, some with serious disease. Personnel to ask what kind of menu customers require normal or diabetic one. Training- staff will receive a standard training of health and safety, also all details that there group of people on risk, but major no special training will require because of usage of a self service *Number of People- 3 low skilled assistance chefs will require in order looking after hot and cold buffet temperature, availability, hygiene, giving help to the Food specialist. The costs implements

-Material cost- is lower than the Specialist, because of the lower quality service -Labour cost- as well cost less than Specialist, due to their lower skill and knowledge level -Overhead cost- overhead cost is higher than Specialist because of the use of wide range of storage equipment like hot and cold cabinet, which requires power, maintenance as well with renovation.

The Specialist Service:
-Skills- the specialist has variety of skills and its well more prepared than the staff from Buffet -Knowledge- to became a Food Specialist, trainee develop a lot of knowledge often and high school degree -Training- not special training require because of high skilled staff, health and safety briefing together with risk assessment of serving diabetics and children. -Number of people- 1 Food Specialist to be assist of at least two assistance chefs for convenient results. The costs implements

-Material cost- higher than Buffet, because of uses of many different high quality food and beverages to achieve maximum satisfaction -Labour cost- much higher, because of skills, knowledge and so on. -Overhead cost- lowers than Buffet, because not that often heavy use of equipment and fewer maintenance expenses. 1.4 Justify the suitability of systems for particular food and beverage outlets 1. Table/Plate Service- can be used in restaurants because of its good presentation, quality and portion control. 2. Counter/Buffet Service- can be used in busy restaurants because of its productivity, the price is usually low, fewer staff with less skill requires. 3. A la Carte Service- can be used in hotel or restaurants because menu rarely change, food is priced individually and could earn bigger profit on individual dishes sell. 4. Table D’hote Service- can be used in hotel or restaurants because make the customer choice easier and minimize afford of food production in kitchen. 5. Silver/Russian Service- can be used on very top level restaurants or private venues because of its highest service standards. 6. Family/English Service- can be used in pubs because of its informality, less demands on the kitchen and doesn’t require a highly skilled staff. 7. Guerdion/Flambe Service- can be used in higher class restaurant because of its entertainment side, highly personalized service involving the clients. 8. Specialist Food Service- can be used in higher class restaurants or a venue where food service of different techniques requires or there is need of really special requirements for the food and beverages.

LO2. Understand the financial controls used in food and beverage operations. 
2.1 discuss the use of financial statements in food and beverage operations

2.2 demonstrate the use of cost and pricing processes

2.3 analyse the purchasing process

The financial statements are a type of reports which shows the figures of finance processes in business. Its main purpose is to: *Record financial transactions- like flow of money in sales, paying wages, paying suppliers and so on. *Helping the managers to control the business- with financial report is possible to supervise more efficiently the cash flow in different departments. It can give short or long time view on sales, cost and profits and allows investigating any issue. They are many different types of financial statements and below are a few major types like: *Dish costing sheet- that type of statement is very often used in kitchen to determine the total cost and the single portion cost for particular meal. *Cost statement- it determines the cost of direct and indirect expenses and basically formed a breakdown of all costs *Operating Statement- could be for chosen period of time like week, month, season and so on. It delivers clear view of the moment condition and how figures change over period of time. This could be related to almost any financial operations from buying food and beverages raw materials to calculating wages and power expenses. *Sales records- that could be any records made to be used like materials to create a new customers strategy or to analyzed what is happening in past periods of time about: customers preferences of a product or service, is it that customer regular or not, what is his address, occupation, date of birth and so on. All of this information is needed to use the maximum of the already regular customers and to build up a foundation to attract more in.

2.2 Use of cost and pricing processes
-Fixed cost- the cost of product or service doesn’t change if during the time related to them products or services change their price -Variable cost- the cost of product or service changes with the rise or fall of cost of related products who played a role in forming the final price on the first one. -Direct Cost- this is the cost of direct service or product -Indirect Cost- all of the expenses related to run the business expects the direct cost. Indirect cost can be rent, power bills, tax and others. -VAT- the Value Added Tax is percentage tax paid to the government -Discount- that is momentum reduction of the total price because of factors like: season change, higher or lower customer interest over a product or service, attempt to take over a competition or just to give an extra to loyal customer. -Gross Profit- this is the profit before deducting all internal and external costs. -Net Profit- the business revenue after paying internal and external costs. 2.3. Purchasing process analysis

This process is vital to supply raw product, equipment or service to maintain smooth operational process on different departments. * Requisition of equipment and supplies – always begins with marketing research and includes the following criterias: -Cost- compares different prices in different suppliers

-Suitability- to define is this product meets the standards of the business -Delivery time- who long it will take to deliver, things like loading/unloading areas, health and safety should be consider -Fast Response- in case of problem dew to any kind of issue like road works, traffic jams, new driver and so on need to have quick respond on delivery company which needs to keep the client informed about any difficulties. -Once research has finished and the product is chosen, it need to be purchased. -Very important is to obtain a receipt because this is an important document showing what’s been order, on what price, when, delivery date and time and so on. -When all paperwork, payments and any additional information cleared the goods are delivered. -Once the goods are properly stored in different facilities they are ready to be used.

* Purchase specification - - it shows different information of the purchased items: -Receiving- On arrival the recipient should make sure a couple of things before accept delivery and complete delivery note:

-need to check is that the requested goods
-are the same quantities like on the receipt
-is there any defects on transportation, loading/unloading, if delivering fresh or frozen products to make sure about storage on right temperatures during all delivery times and others. If the right procedure is not followed for example deep frozen product been delivered with normal van, the client has the right to cancel purchase in order of health and safety issue. -When the goods are accepted the client takes any responsibility for them and have to be ready for their correct storage, a delivery note copy has been signed like evidence of done delivery. All paper work received need to keep for further reference. -Invoicing- the invoice is document which shows the necessary product information, the information related to purchasing from supplier. -Storage equipment and supplies-proper storing the goods and equipment is very important because the real risk of health and safety issues accompanied with big loses. Because of temperature ‘danger zone’(between 6 and 68 Cesium) and the possibility of getting into it, once the goods are out of fridge lorry for example, they should immediately be taken in by staff in proper storage areas.

LO3. Be able to device menus for hospitality events
3.1. Food and beverage for hospitality event


1. ATLANTIC PRAWN COCTAIL /served with brown bread and butter/



3. FRUIT JUICE / orange, apple/


3.2 Justify the selection and suitability of recipes for menus *Salads - all of them suitable for children, diabetics.
*Starters- all of them suitable for children.
*Main dishes- all of them suitable for children and diabetics, Broccoli Beef, Lemon-Herb Chicken and Honey BBQ Chicken are not suitable for vegetarians. *Deserts- all of them are suitable for children and vegetarians.

LO4. Able to provide food and beverage services for hospitality events 
4.1. Plan a food and beverage service for a hospitality event within an agreed budget The total amount for service plus hiring hot and cold cabinet is £200, the rest of £840 budget is spent like follows for the food and beverages:

- NICOISE| £25|
-BEER| £25|
-WHISKEY| £40|

4.2. Implement the planned service maintaining standarts of quality and health, safety and security. *Health and safety- the most important is to obtain and follow the regulations and procedure so there is minimum risk of an accident. The pub personnel should be already advised and probably have the knowledge how and what to do in case of emergency, but one short briefing will not harm. I should make sure that all staff went through this briefing. Below are some of main things which need to be taken in mind:

-Fire alarm- In appropriate time the fire alarm need to be tested and check is there any obstacles blocking access to fire alarm panels.
-Fire exits- They need to checked for accessibility and guiding signs, all of staff and guests should now where they are.
-Fire points- The fire point is safe place, where in case of fire all people should group and check are everybody out of the building.
-Fire extinguishers- Fire extinguishers are different type according of the source they using to kill fire, sometimes their improper use might be dangerous for example water extinguishers shouldn’t be used if an live electricity equipment burning. If there is need of using one of them the person should know how to do that so. Also their location, working conditions and expiry dates should be checked.

-Spillage and accident kit- This equipment is usually placed in or near the kitchen, the wright contains of the kit to be checked. *Security issues- The security of the event is very important because there will be all kind of people and small children, the security person of the pub need to be informed for details in advance.

-Binge Drinking- Binge drinking won’t be tolerated, before the party I would make short announcement to guests to drink responsible and to know their limits. If an over drinking issue begin to create I would try to resolve, before goes any further.

-Violent Behavior- No violent act will be tolerated. However if a conflict begin to rise, myself and the much more experienced pub personnel will try to help resolve problem. If this is impossible I call the police *In case of emergency- In any case of emergency, any issue or near miss I would advise guests and staff to let me know as quick as possible, because then I would be able to react according situation and look help from the right person. For example if sauce pan take fire in the kitchen and the fire alarm rise, it is better not to panic and call the fire brigade straight away but to check what is the problem, then try to kill fire with emergency kit. Because usually that kind of situations are not that big issue, but if not resolved on time could became one.

4.3. Evaluate factors to determine the success of the service, making recommendations for improvement. *Planning and organization of management- In the very beginning even before hiring the staff and ordering food and beverages I would create a small guideline to act like a plan and to help me not to forgotten anything important. All the orders should be done at least one day in advance. Figures about the guest number, all the details around the party will be discussed with the mangers of the pub in advance as well with any other issue which can create. The research of the market will be the best way to find wanted goods and services on best price, so before I start organizing the party this the first thing to get done. I’ll recommend the serving staff to come at least half an hour before the event starts. The health and safety should be discussed and all procedure like fire alarm checks should be done. I would advise the security man to let mi know in advance if he seen oncoming issue, so I can make my effort to resolved discreetly so the rest can have a really good party. *Customer satisfaction- Achieving customer satisfaction is the main point of the event, for this the effort done for preparation, organization and distributing products and services really need to achieve their goals. Even the most prestigious and well organized event need to be supervised at all time, because the issue creates fast, this is why I’ll make sure staff reacting in clever way and smoothly follows its job. If any complain occur I’ll advise the personnel to keep me informed, so I can take measures. *Quality assurance, setting standards- Setting standards and achieving a quality assurance are some of the main things which will help to achieve customer satisfaction. Because of the availability of Food specialist I would be much more confident regarding these points. Also the pub personnel and management will be advised to report me, if any kind of improper action through the hired staff are seen, for example the assistant chef heavily drinks in kitchen when goes to take more food from there. I would make regular walks to keep eye on how the standards are followed. *Cost, time and effectiveness- The total cost of the event is covered in agreed budget, they are wide choice of selections for everyone and even a bit too much of a meals. However all the technics and standards used will create conditions for big effectiveness. The need to keep attention of staff is vital, but also factors like stress and tiredness shouldn’t be ignored. Breaks time and following time plan from the beginning to end of event is vital, and the staff should be advised to cover each another when on break. I will make sure the event finish by the planned time.

Davis,B.(2012). Food and Beverage Management, 5th Edition, London, Routledge Jones, P. (2002). Introduction to hospitality operations. 2nd Edition, London, Continuum
www.bha.org.uk accessed on 07.03.2013
www.caterer.com accessed on 08.03.2013
www.hcima.org.uk accessed on 10.03.1013